|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Pregnancy cat.||B (US)
Appears safe in pregnancy
|Legal status||℞ Prescription only|
|Protein binding||5 to 10%|
|Metabolism||Some hepatic metabolism|
|Half-life||1 to 3 hours|
|Excretion||Renal and biliary, mostly unchanged|
|Mol. mass||325.426 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Mecillinam (INN) or amdinocillin (USAN), trade name Coactin, is an extended-spectrum penicillin antibiotic that binds specifically to penicillin binding protein 2 (PBP2), and is only considered to be active against Gram-negative bacteria. It is used primarily in the treatment of urinary tract infections, and has also been used to treat typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Because mecillinam has very low oral bioavailability, an orally active prodrug was developed: pivmecillinam. Neither drug is available in the United States.
With the codename FL 1060, mecillinam was developed by the Danish pharmaceutical company Leo Pharmaceutical Products (now LEO Pharma). It was first described in the scientific literature in a 1972 paper.
Mecillinam is active against most pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some species of Proteus. Several studies have also found it to be as effective as other antibiotics for treating Staphylococcus saprophyticus infection, though it is Gram-positive, possibly because mecillinam reaches very high concentrations in urine.
Worldwide resistance to mecillinam in bacteria causing urinary tract infection has remained very low since its introduction; a 2003 study conducted in 16 European countries and Canada found resistance to range from 1.2% (Escherichia coli) to 5.2% (Proteus mirabilis). Another large study conducted in Europe and Brazil obtained similar results — 95.9% of E. coli strains, for instance, were sensitive to mecillinam.
- Nicolle LE (August 2000). = long&pmid = 10969050 "Pivmecillinam in the treatment of urinary tract infections". J Antimicrob Chemother 46 (Suppl A): 35–39. doi:10.1093/jac/46.suppl_1.35. PMID 10969050.
- Neu HC (1985). "Amdinocillin: a novel penicillin. Antibacterial activity, pharmacology and clinical use". Pharmacotherapy 5 (1): 1–10. PMID 3885172.
- Clarke PD, Geddes AM, McGhie D, Wall JC (July 1976). "Mecillinam: a new antibiotic for enteric fever". Br Med J 2 (6026): 14–5. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.6026.14. PMC 1687648. PMID 820402.
- Geddes AM, Clarke PD (July 1977). "The treatment of enteric fever with mecillinam". J Antimicrob Chemother. 3 Suppl B: 101–2. doi:10.1093/jac/3.suppl_b.101. PMID 408321.
- Pham P, Bartlett JG (August 28, 2008). "Amdinocillin (Mecillinam)". Point-of-Care Information Technology ABX Guide. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved on August 31, 2008. Freely available with registration.
- Lund F, Tybring L (April 1972). "6β-amidinopenicillanic acids—a new group of antibiotics". Nature New Biol 236 (66): 135–7. doi:10.1038/236135c0. PMID 4402006.
- Tybring L, Melchior NH (September 1975). "Mecillinam (FL 1060), a 6β-Amidinopenicillanic Acid Derivative: Bactericidal Action and Synergy In Vitro". Antimicrob Agents Chemother 8 (3): 271–6. doi:10.1128/aac.8.3.271. PMC 429305. PMID 170856.
- Kahlmeter G (January 2003). "An international survey of the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens from uncomplicated urinary tract infections: the ECO·SENS Project". J Antimicrob Chemother 51 (1): 69–76. doi:10.1093/jac/dkg028. PMID 12493789.
- Naber KG, Schito G, Botto H, Palou J, Mazzei T (May 2008). "Surveillance Study in Europe and Brazil on Clinical Aspects and Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemiology in Females with Cystitis (ARESC): Implications for Empiric Therapy". Eur Urol 54 (5): 1164–75. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2008.05.010. PMID 18511178.