Medal "For Courage" (Russia)
|Medal For Courage (Medal for Valour)|
Medal For Courage
|Awarded by Russian Federation
|Eligibility||Citizens of the Russian Federation|
|Awarded for||Courage displayed: in combat|
|Established||October 17, 1938|
|Next (higher)||Medal of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland" 2nd Class|
|Next (lower)||Medal of Suvorov|
Ribbon of the Medal For Courage
The Medal for Courage or Medal for Valour (Russian: Медаль «За отвагу») is a state decoration of the Russian Federation that was retained from the Soviet awards system following the dissolution of the USSR.
The Medal for Courage was created by the decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on October 17, 1938. It was awarded to soldiers of the Soviet Army, Navy, border and internal troops and other citizens of the USSR, as well as to persons who are not citizens of the USSR, for personal courage and bravery displayed in battles against the enemies of the socialist fatherland, while protecting the state border of the USSR, during the performance of military duties in circumstances involving a risk to life.
The first three Medals for Courage were awarded only three days later to three border guards for acts of bravery during the Battle of Lake Khasan. More than 4,2 million were awarded during the Great Patriotic War. From its creation in 1938 to the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, 4,569,893 medals were awarded, many posthumously.
By Presidential Decree № 442 of March 2, 1994, the medal for Courage was retained by the Russian Federation after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, with the same basic design save for the caption "USSR" (Russian: CCCP) on the lower obverse. Its award criteria were amended on three occasions by three separate Presidential Decrees, № 19 of January 6, 1999, № 444 of April 17, 2003 and № 1099 of September 7, 2010.
By Decree of the President of Russia of November 13, 1993, the first recipients of the Russian Federation Medal for Courage were soldiers of the 3rd Separate Special Purpose Brigade of the GRU, for performing special combat missions in the Republic of Tajikistan.
The Medal for Courage is awarded to military personnel, as well as to civilian employees of the Interior Ministry of the Russian Federation, of the State Fire Service of the Russian Ministry for Civil Defence, Emergency Situations and Disaster Relief and other citizens for personal courage and bravery displayed in combat in defence of the Fatherland and of the public interests of the Russian Federation; when performing special assignments to ensure the public safety of the Russian Federation; while protecting the state border of the Russian Federation; in the performance of military, official or civil duties while protecting the constitutional rights of citizens and in other circumstances involving a risk to life.
The Russian Federation Order of Precedence dictates the Medal for Courage is to be worn on the left breast with other medals immediately after the Medal of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland" 2nd Class.
The Medal for Courage is a 34mm in diameter circular silver medal with a raised rim on both the obverse and reverse. On the obverse, in the upper part are three aircraft flying from right to left. Below the aircraft is the impressed and red enamelled inscription in two lines "FOR COURAGE" (Russian: «ЗА ОТВАГУ») and below the inscription is a (T-35) tank with its forward left corner closest to the front. The Soviet variant had the additional impressed and red enamelled inscription "USSR" (Russian «CCCP») below the tank just above and following the curvature of the medal's obverse lower rim, the current medal has no such inscription. The medal's reverse is plain except for an embossed letter "N" followed by an horizontal line in the lower half reserved for the award serial number, and a maker's mark below it.
The medal is secured to a standard Russian pentagonal mount by a ring through the medal suspension loop. The mount is covered in a silk moiré 24mm wide grey ribbon with a blue 2mm edge stripe on each side. The original Soviet award (1938 to 1943) hung from a small square mount covered with a red ribbon.
1938 - 1943
1943 - 1991
1994 to date
Recipients of the current Medal for Courage (partial list)
The individuals listed below were all awarded the current Russian Federation Medal for Courage:
- Senior Sergeant Roza Shanina
- Lt. Col. SA Adamchuk
- Private Arkhipov, D.
- Captain Arkhipov EP
- Ensign Berlin V.
- Private Budaragin D.
- Lieutenant Beloglazov AM
- Sergeant Voroshilov SL
- Private Vitko E.
- Private Volokhov S.
- Private Gusarov, VA
- Sergeant Gundorov VM
- Private Godea AN
- Lt. Gromov AP
- Private Dobryakov S.
- Major Demkin S.
- Major Evdokimov, GG
- Private Efanov O.
- Private Emelyanov VL
- Private Zhuravlev, Y.
- Private Zhuravlev VF
- Private Zuenko V.
- Private Ivankin VA
- Ensign Kozlov DG
- Corporal A. Kamenev
- Ensign Komlev AN
- Private Kuzyukov D.
- Major SA Kurochkin
- Private Kalinin, O.
- Junior sergeant Kachaev RV
- Private Kazankin PV
- Private Klopov SP
- Private Kokorin MV
- Senior Lieutenant A. Karpenko
- Sergeant Lefter AK
- Senior Lieutenant Lebedev, PP
- Warrant Officer II Lyaporov
- Ensign Mylarschikov GG
- Private Muhamedeev SA
- Junior sergeant Mezhenin SA
- Private Mochalov SA
- Junior sergeant Mustafin AR
- Private Neverov, S.
- Private Ogurtsov IN
- Corporal Panurov SN
- Corporal AE Plotnikov
- Private Primakov, VA
- "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of October 17, 1938" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. 1938-10-17. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- "Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of March 2, 1994 No 442" (in Russian). Commission under the President of the Russian Federation on state awards. 1999-12-15. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- "Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of January 6, 1999 No 19" (in Russian). Commission under the President of the Russian Federation on state awards. 1999-12-15. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- "Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of September 7, 2010 No 1099" (in Russian). Russian Gazette. 2010-09-07. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- "Statute of the Medal "For Courage"" (in Russian). Commission under the President of the Russian Federation on state awards. 2010-09-07. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- "Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of December 16, 2011 No 1631" (in Russian). Kremlin News – Site of the President of the Russian Federation. 2011-12-16. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- "List of decorated members of the Union of Spetsnaz Veterans" (in Russian). Web site of the Union of Spetsnaz Veterans. 2005. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- Great Soviet Encyclopedia
- Kolesnikov G.A. & Rozhkov A.M., Orders and medals of the USSR, Moscow, Mil. lib., 1983.