Media of Israel
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The media of Israel refers to print, broadcast and online media available in the State of Israel. The country boasts dozens of newspapers, magazines, and radio stations, which play an important role by the press in political, social and cultural life and cater it to a modern, developed and literate society.
There are over 10 different languages in the Israeli media, with Hebrew as the predominant one. Press in Arabic caters to the Arab citizens of Israel, with readers from areas including those governed by the Palestinian National Authority. During the eighties and nineties, the Israeli press underwent a process of significant change as the media gradually came to be controlled by a limited number of organizations, whereas the papers published by political parties began to disappear. Today, three large, privately owned conglomerates based in Tel Aviv dominate the mass media in Israel.
Censorship in Israel is relatively low compared to other countries, but may be exercised only when it is certain that publication of the item in question would harm public safety. When an item is censored, the newspaper may appeal the censor's ruling to a "committee of three," composed of a member of the public (who serves as the chairman), a representative of the army and a representative of the press. The decisions of the committee are binding, and over the years it has in many cases overruled the decision of the censor.
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The history of the press began in 1863, before Israeli independence and during the Ottoman Empire, with Ha-Levanon and Havazzelet being the first weekly Hebrew newspapers established. In 1952, the International Publishing Company J-M Ltd was established as the state's first book publisher. Censorship was regularly enforced in years after independence, throughout the Yom Kippur War and the 1970s. In 1986, the government allowed for the establishment of private and commercial media outlets to run in competition with state media.
Freedom of the press
The Israeli government generally respects freedom of the press, which is protected by the Basic Laws of Israel and independent judiciary. Hate speech, and publishing praise of violence or issues of national security is prohibited. While Israeli journalists operate with little restriction, the government has placed more restrictions on Palestinian journalists working in the region, as Reporters Without Borders alleges that the authorities entered Palestinian offices and homes looking for "illegal material".[broken citation] The media does carry criticism of government policy.
Freedom House publishes an annual Freedom of the Press report. The 2013 report described Israel has having "the freest press in the region" but downgraded its status from "Free" to "Partly Free" in response to "the indictment of journalist Uri Blau for possession of state secrets, the first time this law had been used against the press in several decades, as well as instances of politicized interference with the content of the Israel Broadcasting Authority radio programs and concerns surrounding the license renewal of television's Channel 10."
Reporters Without Borders
Since 2002, Reporters Without Borders publishes an annual report on worldwide press freedom, called the Press Freedom Index. The results for Israel and the Palestinian National Authority from 2002 to the present are shown below, with lower numbers indicating better treatment of reporters:
|Year||Israel (Israeli territory)||Israel (extraterritorial)||Palestinian Authority||No. of national entities rated||Report URL|
List of media outlets
Israel has a large number of dailies, weeklies and periodicals, all privately owned.
- Al-Ittihad – Arabic-language daily communist newspaper.
- B'Sheva – Hebrew-language weekly religious newspaper.
- Calcalist – Hebrew-language daily financial newspaper.
- Globes – Hebrew-language daily financial newspaper (with online English edition).
- Haaretz – Israel's oldest daily newspaper with Hebrew and English editions.
- Hamodia – daily Orthodox newspaper with Hebrew and English editions.
- Israel HaYom – Hebrew-language free daily newspaper (with online English edition).
- Israel Post – Hebrew-language free daily newspaper.
- The Jerusalem Post – Israel's oldest English-language newspaper.
- Kul al-Arab – Arabic-language weekly newspaper.
- Maariv – Hebrew-language daily newspaper.
- Makor Rishon – Hebrew-language daily newspaper.
- TheMarker – Hebrew-language financial media.
- Vesti – Russian-language daily newspaper.
- Yated Ne'eman – daily Haredi newspaper with Hebrew and English editions.
- Yedioth Ahronoth – Hebrew-language daily newspaper, the largest in Israel by circulation.
- Channel 2 – Hebrew-language television channel, the most popular in Israel.
- Channel 9 – Russian-language television channel.
- Channel 10 – Hebrew-language television channel.
- Galei Tzahal – Hebrew-language general interest radio station.
- Galgalatz – Hebrew-language radio station broadcasting music, traffic reports and news.
- i24news – international news television channel in English, French and Arabic.
- Israel Broadcasting Authority – public broadcaster.
- Channel 1 – Hebrew-language television channel.
- Channel 33 – Arabic-language television channel.
- IBA News – organization producing news in 14 languages.
- Israeli Educational Television – Hebrew-language television channel for children.
- Radio Israel – radio service.
- Reka – multilingual division of Radio Israel.
- Knesset Channel – Hebrew-language political television channel.
- Arutz Sheva – radio station and website in Hebrew, English and Russian.
- Debkafile – intelligence website in Hebrew and English.
- Jerusalem Online – written and video news website in English.
- Kikar HaShabbat – Hebrew-language Haredi website.
- The Times of Israel – news website in English, Arabic, French and Chinese.
- TLV1 – English-language internet radio station.
- Walla! – Hebrew-language web portal.
- Ynet – Hebrew-language news website.
- Ynetnews – English-language news website.
- Beit Sokolov
- Censorship in Israel
- Cinema of Israel
- Editors Committee (Israel)
- Government Press Office (Israel)
- HaAyin HaShevi'it
- Historical Jewish Press
- Israeli Military Censor
- Jewish Telegraphic Agency
- Media coverage of the Arab–Israeli conflict
- Nakdi Report
- Politics of Israel
- Sokolov Award
- Telecommunications in Israel
- Television in Israel
- "Recorded Programs". Israel Broadcasting Authority. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Limor, Yehiel. "The Printed Media: Israel's Newspapers". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Israel". Press reference. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- Israel Press Freedom, Freedom House.[dead link]
- Israel 2007 report, Reporters Without Borders.[dead link]
- "Israel - Freedom of the Press 2013". Freedom House. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- 2002 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders[dead link]
- 2003 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders[dead link]
- 2004 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders[dead link]
- 2005 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders[dead link]
- 2006 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders[dead link]
- 2007 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders[dead link]
- Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders[dead link]
- 2009 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders.[dead link]
- 2014 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders.
- Prof. Sam Lehman-Wilzig; Amit Schejter (1994). "Israel". In Yahya Kamalipour; Hamid Mowlana. Mass Media in the Middle East. Greenwood. pp. 111–114. ISBN 978-0-313-28535-6. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Media of Israel.|
- Israel – Media Landscape by European Journalism Centre
- Israel, Freedom of the Press report
- Media, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- The Media in Israel at the Jewish Virtual Library
- Tel Aviv Journalists Association (Hebrew)
- Israel: News and Media at DMOZ