Medical research related to low-carbohydrate diets
Low-carbohydrate diets became a major weight loss and health maintenance trend during the late 1990s and early 2000s. While their popularity has waned recently from its peak, they remain popular. This diet trend has stirred major controversies in the medical and nutritional sciences communities and, as yet, there is not a general consensus on their efficacy or safety. As of 2008 the majority of the medical community remains generally opposed to these diets for long term health although there has been a recent softening of this opposition by some organizations.
This article summarizes a sampling of the studies and other research that exist related to low carbohydrate diets, including the efficacy of such diets on weight loss and their effects on other health aspects such as ketosis. It is not a comprehensive list of all relevant research.
For general information about low-carbohydrate diets see the main article.
- 1 Synopsis
- 2 Specific research
- 2.1 Journal of the American Medical Association: 1926
- 2.2 Journal of Biological Chemistry: 1929
- 2.3 The Lancet: 1956
- 2.4 Annals of Internal Medicine: 1965
- 2.5 Journal of the American Dietetic Association: 1980
- 2.6 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: 1997
- 2.7 Journal of the American College of Nutrition: 2000
- 2.8 American Journal of Kidney Diseases: 2002
- 2.9 Journal of the American College of Nutrition: 2002
- 2.10 New England Journal of Medicine: 2003
- 2.11 Journal of the American Medical Association: 2003
- 2.12 Journal of Child Neurology: 2003
- 2.13 Journal of the American Academy of Neurology: 2003
- 2.14 Harvard University: 2003
- 2.15 Annals of Internal Medicine: 2004
- 2.16 Nutrition Journal: 2004
- 2.17 Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention: 2004
- 2.18 Lancet: 2004
- 2.19 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: 2004
- 2.20 American Journal of Epidemiology: 2005
- 2.21 Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism: 2005
- 2.22 New England Journal of Medicine: 2006
- 2.23 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006
- 2.24 International Journal of Cancer, 2006
- 2.25 Nutrition and Metabolism, 2006
- 2.26 European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006
- 2.27 Journal of the American Medical Association, 2007
- 2.28 Journal of Internal Medicine, 2007
- 2.29 Epilepsia, 2008
- 2.30 New England Journal of Medicine, 2008
- 2.31 PNAS, 2009
- 2.32 Archives of Internal Medicine, 2009
- 2.33 American Society for Nutrition, 2010
- 2.34 Journal of the American Medical Association, 2012
- 2.35 British Medical Journal, 2012
- 2.36 Nutrition Journal, 2013
- 3 Meta-analytic summaries
- 4 References
Because of the substantial controversy regarding low-carbohydrate diets, and even disagreements in interpreting the results of specific studies, it is difficult to objectively summarize the research in a way that reflects scientific consensus.
Although there has been some research done throughout the twentieth century, most directly relevant scientific studies have occurred in the 1990s and early 2000s and, as such, are relatively new and the results are still debated in the medical community. Supporters and opponents of low-carbohydrate diets frequently cite many articles (some times the same articles) as supporting their positions. One of the fundamental criticisms of those who advocate the low-carbohydrate diets has been the lack of long-term studies evaluating their health risks. This has begun to change as longer term studies are emerging.
The following is not a complete list of all relevant research but a selected list of articles demonstrating some of the breadth of scientific knowledge available on this subject.
Journal of the American Medical Association: 1926
Lieb et al., 1926 conducted a case study of Dr. Vilhjalmur Stefansson, an anthropologist and explorer who lived with the Inuit eating a diet consisting almost entirely of meat, fish, and fat. A research team studied Stefansson's health looking for signs that his "unusual" diet had adversely affected his health. The team was unable to find any health problems in Stefansson and noted that the Inuit themselves also were quite healthy. Note that Dr. Stefansson's diet, like that of the Inuit, included substantial amounts of raw liver, an essential source of vitamin C for this diet.
Journal of Biological Chemistry: 1929
Tolstoi, 1929 performed a one-year study of two men who consumed a diet of exclusively meat. One of the subjects demonstrated a dramatic increase in cholesterol levels while the other actually lowered his cholesterol levels by the end of the study. All other health indicators were normal for both subjects.
Note that because of the magnitude of the reported increase (and decrease following the test period) in the cholesterol levels, the measurement methodology has to be questioned by modern standards (i.e. the numbers may not directly correlate to modern cholesterol measurement techniques).
The Lancet: 1956
Kekwick and Pawan, 1956 conducted a study of subjects consuming 1000-calorie diets. The subjects were divided into three groups. One group got 90% of their calories from protein, another group got 90% of their calories from fat, and the last group got 90% of their calories from carbohydrates. Those on the high fat diet lost the most, the high protein dieters lost somewhat less, and the high carbohydrate dieters actually gained weight on average.
Kekwick and Pawan noted irregularities in their study (patients not fully complying with the parameters of the study). The validity of their conclusions has been questioned, and follow-up studies over a longer duration concluded that these temporary differences were due chiefly to changes in water balance
Annals of Internal Medicine: 1965
A study conducted in 1965 at the Naval Hospital Oakland (Oakland, California) used a diet of 1000 calories per day, high in fat and limiting carbohydrates to 10 grams (40 calories) daily. Over a ten-day period, subjects on this diet lost more body fat than did a group who fasted completely.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association: 1980
Larosa, 1980 followed 24 patients for 12 weeks, 8 weeks on a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet, studying their weight loss and cholesterol changes. The authors concluded the following.
- The high-protein, low-carbohydrate dieting resulted in substantial weight loss ... Significant increases occurred in LDL-cholesterol, uric acid, and free fatty acid levels. HDL-cholesterol levels failed to rise despite significant weight loss ...
Despite weight loss the study found serious negative metabolic changes.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: 1997
Holt et al., 1997 performed a study of glucose and insulin responses for test subjects to a variety of foods, both high- and low-carbohydrate. The conclusions state the following.
- Our study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the postprandial insulin response was not necessarily proportional to the blood glucose response and that nutrients other than carbohydrate influence the overall level of insulinemia ... The results of this study confirm and also challenge some of our basic assumptions about the relation between food intake and insulinemia. Within each food group, there was a wide range of insulin responses, despite similarities in nutrient composition ... As observed in previous studies, consumption of protein or fat with carbohydrate increases insulin secretion compared with the insulinogenic effect of these nutrients alone (22, 30-32) ... However, some protein and fat-rich foods (eggs, beef, fish, lentils, cheese, cake, and doughnuts) induced as much insulin secretion as did some carbohydrate-rich foods (eg, beef was equal to brown rice and fish was equal to grain bread).
This study challenges the general assertion that only carbohydrates significantly impact insulin production.
The authors describe their work as "preliminary" and so the results should be judged with caution.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition: 2000
- The Atkins and Protein Power diets are very high in total and saturated fat compared to current dietary guidelines. Long-term use of these diets for weight maintenance are likely to significantly increase serum cholesterol concentrations and risk for CHD.
- While high fat diets may promote short-term weight loss, the potential hazards for worsening risk for progression of atherosclerosis or atherosclerotic events override the short-term benefits.
Note that this was not a study of human trials, only a theoretical computer analysis.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases: 2002
Reddy et al., 2002 studied ten subjects consuming a low-carbohydrate high-protein (LCHP) diet over six weeks. The patients were found to have substantially increased calcium loss compared to their conventional diet among other negative health indicators. The authors conclude the following.
- Consumption of an LCHP diet for 6 weeks delivers a marked acid load to the kidney, increases the risk for stone formation, decreases estimated calcium balance, and may increase the risk for bone loss.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition: 2002
Bowman et al., 2002 completed a survey study of 10,014 adults correlating carbohydrate intake to body mass index in addition to other measurements in the diet. The subjects surveyed had not necessarily been dieting per se. The authors concluded the following.
- ...diets high in carbohydrate were both energy restrictive and nutritious and may be adopted for successful weight management."
The study found people on a high carbohydrate diet are more likely to be a healthy weight (have Body Mass Index values below 25.)
New England Journal of Medicine: 2003
Samaha et al., 2003 completed a study of 132 obese subjects comparing the efficacy of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets. The conclusions of the article state the following.
- Severely obese subjects with a high prevalence of diabetes or the metabolic syndrome lost more weight during six months on a carbohydrate-restricted diet than on a calorie- and fat-restricted diet, with a relative improvement in insulin sensitivity and triglyceride levels, even after adjustment for the amount of weight lost. This finding should be interpreted with caution, given the small magnitude of overall and between-group differences in weight loss in these markedly obese subjects and the short duration of the study. Future studies evaluating long-term cardiovascular outcomes are needed before a carbohydrate-restricted diet can be endorsed.
- The low-carbohydrate diet produced a greater weight loss (absolute difference, approximately 4 percent) than did the conventional diet for the first six months, but the differences were not significant at one year. The low-carbohydrate diet was associated with a greater improvement in some risk factors for coronary heart disease. Adherence was poor and attrition was high in both groups. Longer and larger studies are required to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diets.
Foster's study claims to be the first truly randomized, controlled study of the efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diets.
Journal of the American Medical Association: 2003
Bravata et al., 2003 conducted a literature search study of low-carbohydrate diet studies conducted between 1966 and 2003. The paper stated the following conclusion.
- There is insufficient evidence to make recommendations for or against the use of low-carbohydrate diets, particularly among participants older than age 50 years, for use longer than 90 days, or for diets of 20 g/d or less of carbohydrates. Among the published studies, participant weight loss while using low-carbohydrate diets was principally associated with decreased caloric intake and increased diet duration but not with reduced carbohydrate content.
The study determined that carbohydrate reduction did not significantly contribute more to weight loss than simply reducing calories. The article does state that
- Low-carbohydrate diets had no significant adverse effect on serum lipid, fasting serum glucose, and fasting serum insulin levels, or blood pressure.
Journal of Child Neurology: 2003
- Of the remaining group who adhered to the diet, 18 of 30 children (60%) [the rest did not complete the study], improvement was recorded in several parameters and in accordance with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Significant improvement (> 12 units of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale) was recorded in two patients (pre-Scale: 35.00 ± 1.41[mean ± SD]), average improvement (> 8–12 units) in eight patients (pre-Scale: 41.88 ± 3.14[mean ± SD]), and minor improvement (2–8 units) in eight patients (pre-Scale: 45.25 ± 2.76 [mean ± SD]).
The authors state clearly that the study was limited and the results are preliminary.
Journal of the American Academy of Neurology: 2003
- The ketogenic diet is effective for treating seizures in children with epilepsy. The Atkins diet can also induce a ketotic state, but has fewer protein and caloric restrictions, and has been used safely by millions of people worldwide for weight reduction. Six patients, aged 7 to 52 years, were started on the Atkins diet for the treatment of intractable focal and multifocal epilepsy. Five patients maintained moderate to large ketosis for periods of 6 weeks to 24 months; three patients had seizure reduction and were able to reduce antiepileptic medications. This provides preliminary evidence that the Atkins diet may have a role as therapy for patients with medically resistant epilepsy.
In a 2004 Lancet article, Dr. Kossoff also stated that
- The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate protein, low carbohydrate diet that has been used for the treatment of intractable childhood epilepsy since the 1920s ... Although less commonly used in later decades because of the increased availability of anticonvulsants, the ketogenic diet has re-emerged as a therapeutic option.
Harvard University: 2003
Greene et al. studied participants consuming one of three diet regimens over 12 weeks: a low-fat diet, a low-carbohydrate diet with the same number of calories, and a low-carbohydrate diet with 300 extra calories per day. The researchers found that the low fat group lost 17 pounds on average, the low carbohydrate group eating the same number of calories lost 23 pounds, and the low-carbohydrate group eating more calories lost 20 pounds. In commenting on their results Greene stated
- There does indeed seem to be something about a low-carb diet that says you can eat more calories and lose a similar amount of weight ...
Annals of Internal Medicine: 2004
Two significant studies can be found in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 2004. Yancy et al., 2004 completed a study of 120 overweight, high-lipid-count subjects comparing the efficacy of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets. The conclusions of the article state the following.
- Compared with a low-fat diet, a low-carbohydrate diet program had better participant retention and greater weight loss. During active weight loss, serum triglyceride levels decreased more and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased more with the low-carbohydrate diet than with the low-fat diet.
Stern et al., 2004 conducted a one-year study of 132 obese adults. The conclusions state the following.
- Participants on a low-carbohydrate diet had more favorable overall outcomes at 1 year than did those on a conventional diet. Weight loss was similar between groups, but effects on atherogenic dyslipidemia and glycemic control were still more favorable with a low-carbohydrate diet after adjustment for differences in weight loss.
Nutrition Journal: 2004
Feinman and Fine, 2004 present an argument refuting the "calorie is a calorie" principle cited by some as an argument against the weight-loss benefits of low-carbohydrate diets. The "calorie is a calorie" argument, loosely speaking, states that the laws of thermodynamics imply that calories ingested from any source are burned at the same rate in the body (meaning that, for the purposes of weight loss, all sources of calories are the same).
The paper refutes this (the argument is omitted here) stating the following in the conclusion.
- Thus, ironically the dictum that a "calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamics, as a matter of principle.
The authors' point is that while some have argued that there is no point in comparing the effectiveness of diets based on the sources of calories (proteins, fats, or carbohydrates), the second law of thermodynamics, specifically entropy, results in more calories from protein being burned during digestion than from ingesting either carbohydrates or fats.
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention: 2004
Romieu et al. 2004 completed a survey-based study of a selected group of 475 women against a control group of 1391 correlating diet and breast cancer rates. The study concluded the following.
- In this population, a high percentage of calories from carbohydrate, but not from fat, was associated with increased breast cancer risk.
Astrup et al., 2004 completed a Rapid Review of published research regarding low-carbohydrate diets. The authors concluded the following.
- A systematic review of low-carbohydrate diets found that the weight loss achieved is associated with the duration of the diet and restriction of energy intake, but not with restriction of carbohydrates.
- There is an urgent need for longer and larger studies in obese and moderately overweight individuals ... The studies should be sufficiently long (up to 2 years) to enable careful monitoring of cardiovascular risk factors during the weight-stability phase, and should also include obese individuals with impaired glucose-tolerance to examine the potential of low-carbohydrate diets to prevent type 2 diabetes.
- Patients who want to try these diets should be told that, although safety cannot be guaranteed, they seem to be safe for short-term use (up to 6 months) as long as weight loss occurs.
Although the authors question the merits of low-carbohydrate diets they nevertheless recommend longer-term studies to judge them more effectively.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: 2004
Mozaffarian et al. studied 235 postmenopausal women with coronary heart disease for 3 years. They monitored intake of fat and carbohydrate as well as progression of the narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis). The authors conclude the following.
- In postmenopausal women with relatively low total fat intake, a greater saturated fat intake is associated with less progression of coronary atherosclerosis, whereas carbohydrate intake is associated with a greater progression.
An editorial in the same journal observed that these and other results seem to entirely contradict the prevailing theory that saturated fat causes heart disease.
American Journal of Epidemiology: 2005
Ma et al., 2005 completed a one-year study of 572 healthy adults monitoring their diet and physical activity. The study concluded the following.
- In conclusion, results from our study suggest that daily dietary glycemic index is independently and positively associated with BMI [Body Mass Index]. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that with increased glycemic index, more insulin is produced and more fat is stored, suggesting that type of carbohydrate may be related to body weight. Our data did not support the current public trend of lowering total carbohydrate intake for weight loss or of lowering glycemic load for weight loss, as suggested by other researchers.
This study refutes the suggestion that total carbohydrate consumption directly correlates with weight loss but does support the notion that the glycemic index of foods consumed correlates with weight loss. The study does not specifically distinguish between nutritive and non-nutritive carbohydrate consumption nor is it clear that any of the diets was ketogenic (a key factor for most low-carbohydrate diets).
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism: 2005
- The LCKD [low carbohydrate, ketogenic diet] improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes such that diabetes medications were discontinued or reduced in most participants. Because the LCKD can be very effective at lowering blood glucose, patients on diabetes medication who use this diet should be under close medical supervision or capable of adjusting their medication.
The article lends support to the argument that low carbohydrate diets can be at least a partial remedy for some forms of diabetes (and may lend support to the argument that some forms of diabetes may in fact be caused by high carbohydrate diets).
New England Journal of Medicine: 2006
Halton et al., 2006 completed a study analyzing the long-term (20 years) health effects of low-carbohydrate diets. The study was limited to women and followed 82,802 subjects. Based on questionnaires, the study determined the correlation between the carbohydrate intake and coronary heart disease risk.
The conclusion in the article states the following.
- Our findings suggest that diets lower in carbohydrate and higher in protein and fat are not associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease in women. When vegetable sources of fat and protein are chosen, these diets may moderately reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006
Johnston et al., 2006 completed a study of 20 subjects over a 6-week period comparing ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets (i.e. very low carbohydrate) and non-ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets (i.e. moderate carbohydrate). The authors of the paper concluded the following.
- KLC and NLC diets were equally effective in reducing body weight and insulin resistance, but the KLC diet was associated with several adverse metabolic and emotional effects. The use of ketogenic diets for weight loss is not warranted.
This study suggests that the benefits of ketogenic diets are comparable to non-ketogenic low carbohydrate diets but that ketosis may present potentially harmful side effects. However, the duration of the trial was minimal and the authors admit that their study "was limited by the small sample size [20 subjects]."
International Journal of Cancer, 2006
Bravi et al., 2006 completed a study of 2301 subjects, 767 with renal cell carcinoma (cancer of the kidneys), analyzing the effects of various types of foods on the risk of developing the cancer. The authors of the paper concluded the following.
- A significant direct trend in risk was found for bread (OR = 1.94 for the highest versus the lowest intake quintile), and a modest excess of risk was observed for pasta and rice (OR = 1.29), and milk and yoghurt (OR = 1.27). Poultry (OR = 0.74), processed meat (OR = 0.64) and vegetables (OR = 0.65) were inversely associated with RCC [renal cell carcinoma] risk.
This, in effect, says that bread consumption was strongly correlated with increased risk of this carcinoma whereas the consumption of meats and vegetables decreased the risk.
Nutrition and Metabolism, 2006
Nielsen et al., 2006 completed a study of type 2 diabetics randomly assigned to low-carbohydrate diets and conventional high-carbohydrate diets monitored over 22 months. All test subjects consumed the same amount of calories. Over the first 6 months the low-carbohydrate group was found to have significantly greater weight loss and glycemic control, after which many of the control (high-carbohydrate) group changed diets. The low-carbohydrate group was found to mostly maintain their weight loss and glycemic control through the 22 months of the study. The authors conclude
- Weight reduction is primarily caused by decreased caloric intake although decreased energy efficiency has also been found. A high-starch, high-carbohydrate diet excessively stimulates appetite and disturbs energy balance in patients with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. A reduction of carbohydrates normalises the balance, reduces insulin concentrations and favours utilization of stored fat as fuel as well as significantly reducing insulin resistance. Weight loss in overweight persons is improved by a higher proportion of protein, presumably due to protein's effect on satiety and/or metabolic efficiency. A reduction in carbohydrates for patients with type 2 diabetes effectively reduces both fasting and postprandial glucose as well as HbA1c. These effects can be independent of weight loss.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006
Long-term study with participants of 22 944 healthy adults with aspect of cardiovascular and cancer mortality, concluded following:
- Prolonged consumption of diets low in carbohydrates and high in protein is associated with an increase in total mortality.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 2007
- In this study, premenopausal overweight and obese women assigned to follow the Atkins diet, which had the lowest carbohydrate intake, lost more weight and experienced more favorable overall metabolic effects at 12 months than women assigned to follow the Zone, Ornish, or LEARN diets. While questions remain about long-term effects and mechanisms, a low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet may be considered a feasible alternative recommendation for weight loss.
Journal of Internal Medicine, 2007
Long-term study with participants of 42 237 women titled "Low carbohydrate–high protein diet and mortality in a cohort of Swedish women" concluded following:
- A diet characterized by low carbohydrate and high protein intake was associated with increased total and particularly cardiovascular mortality amongst women. Vigilance with respect to long-term adherence to such weight control regimes is advisable.
Kossoff et al., 2008 studied adult epileptic patients (as opposed to children used in other studies) following a modified Atkins diet for up to 6 months. The authors concluded the following.
- After 3 months, 47% of patients had a >50% seizure reduction, and after 6 months, 33% were similarly improved.
- When the modified Atkins diet led to seizure reduction, it was relatively quick, usually within 2 weeks.
New England Journal of Medicine, 2008
Shai et al., 2008 studied 322 moderately obese adults over a 2-year period assigning each to one of three diets: a low-fat, restricted-calorie diet (based on the 2000 AHA recommendations); a "Mediterranean", restricted-calorie diet; or a low-carbohydrate, non-restricted-calorie diet in which the participants were counseled to choose vegetarian sources of fat and protein and to avoid trans fat (based on the Atkins Diet, however ketosis was detected only 8.3% from participants). Adherence among the participants was high (84.6%). The low-carbohydrate group showed both the greatest weight loss and the most improvement in lipids (cholesterol). The Mediterranean group showed the greatest improvement in glycemic control (related to diabetes). They conclude
- The more favorable effects on lipids (with the low-carbohydrate diet) and on glycemic control (with the Mediterranean diet) suggest that personal preferences and metabolic considerations might inform individualized tailoring of dietary interventions.
Interestingly, this study was significant enough that the American Heart Association issued an immediate response to clarify its position (essentially saying that the low-fat diet used in the study is no longer recommended by the AHA and that the AHA's 2006 guidelines emphasize more fiber, vegetables, and "lean" meats).
Additionally, a four-year follow-up study among 259 of the original 322 participants was performed. During the period after the study, participants had regained 2.7 kg, 1.4 kg, and 4.1 kg of weight lost on the low-fat, Mediterranean, and low-carbohydrate diet, respectively. The total weight lost for the six-year period was 0.6 kg, 3.1 kg, and 1.7 kg for the respective diets. However, the weight loss between the low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean diet was not statistically significant (P=0.22). Also, the low-carbohydrate diet was the only one to significantly improve the LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio (a reduction of 0.16, P=0.04).
Research upon apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice suggest that diets low in carbohydrates and high in protein and fats might reduce vascular regenerative capacity and so increase atherogenesis and, through this, cardiovascular risk, even though this diet does not necessarily effect serum levels of lipids. The researchers noted "Although caution is warranted in extrapolating from such animal studies, these data at least raise concern that low carbohydrate high-protein diets could have adverse vascular effects not adequately reflected in serum risk markers."
Archives of Internal Medicine, 2009
Study titled "Long-term Effects of a Very Low-Carbohydrate Diet and a Low-Fat Diet on Mood and Cognitive Function" concluded following:
- Over 1 year, there was a favorable effect of an energy-restricted LF [low-fat] diet compared with an isocaloric LC [low-carbohydrate] diet on mood state and affect in overweight and obese individuals. Both diets had similar effects on working memory and speed of processing.
American Society for Nutrition, 2010
Long-term study titled "Mediterranean and carbohydrate-restricted diets and mortality among elderly men: a cohort study in Sweden" concluded following:
- Adherence to a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern reduced mortality, whereas adherence to a CR [carbohydrate-restricted] dietary pattern appeared to increase mortality in elderly Swedish men, especially when only adequate dietary reporters were considered.
Study measured all-cause mortality and specifically cardiovascular mortality.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 2012
A four-year long study titled "Effects of Dietary Composition on Energy Expenditure During Weight-Loss Maintenance" was done at Boston Children's Hospital examining the effects of three dieting regimens on resting energy expenditure and total energy expenditure and other hormonal and metabolic markers. The study closely followed 21 overweight and obese males and females ages 10–40 years, and compared a very low carbohydrate diet (the Atkins diet) with a low fat, high carbohydrate diet, and a low glycemic index diet. Reduction of the resting metabolic rate as a result of dieting, a known factor in the failure of dieting, was the least in the very low carbohydrate diet. In addition, measured total energy expenditure in the patients was the highest in the very low carbohydrate diet, suggesting that a very low carbohydrate diet would be the most likely to produce a sustained weight loss. A possible negative side effect was that C-Reactive Protein levels, a marker for possible future cardiovascular disease, trended higher in the very low carbohydrate diet.
British Medical Journal, 2012
A long term study involving 43,396 Swedish women followed up for an average of 15.7 years and analyzed the long term consequences of low carbohydrate-high protein diet. The study suggests that low carbohydrate-high protein diets, used on a regular basis and without consideration of the nature of carbohydrates or the source of proteins, are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
The relevance and bias of this study has been questioned, with particular concern about its methodology, application to a LCHF diet (the conclusion was that a low-carb high-protein diet increased risks) and the degree to which the risks were increased (0.04%).
Nutrition Journal, 2013
62,582 men and women with up to 17.8 years of follow-up (median 9.7), including 3,059 prospective cancer cases, were analyzed in a prospective cohort study in Sweden. The conclusion was:
- the results of this population-based, cohort study do not support an important role for a diet moderately low in carbohydrates and moderately high in protein, regardless of the quantity and quality of fat consumed, in determining the overall, long-term risk of cancer, although a possible increased risk of respiratory cancer was observed and a tendency of an increased general cancer risk over shorter time.
Meta-analysis is a method to succinctly summarize and combine the results from multiple individual studies. The following meta-analyses of low carbohydrate diets are limited to randomized controlled trials that directly compare low carbohydrate diets to other diets. Some of the studies listed above are randomized controlled trials and are included in these meta-analyses.
A recent meta-analysis that included randomized controlled trials (from January 1, 1980 to February 28, 2005) published after the Cochrane review found that "low-carbohydrate, non-energy-restricted diets appear to be at least as effective as low-fat, energy-restricted diets in inducing weight loss for up to 1 year. However, potential favorable changes in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values should be weighed against potential unfavorable changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values when low-carbohydrate diets to induce weight loss are considered."
A more recent meta-study of randomized controlled studies (from January 2000 to March 2007) that compared low-carbohydrate diets to low-fat/low-calorie diets found that measurements of weight, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly better in groups that followed low-carbohydrate diets. The authors also found a higher rate of attrition in groups with low-fat diets. They conclude that "Evidence from this systematic review demonstrates that low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets are more effective at 6 months and are as effective, if not more, as low-fat diets in reducing weight and cardiovascular disease risk up to 1 year." They also call for more long-term studies.
A 2012 systematic review studying the effects of low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors showed the LCD to be associated with significant decreases in body weight, body mass index, abdominal circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting blood sugar, blood insulin and plasma C-reactive protein, as well as an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and creatinine did not change significantly. The study found the LCD was shown to have favorable effects on body weight and major cardiovascular risk factors (but concluding the effects on long-term health are unknown). The study didn't compare health benefits of LCD to low-fat diets.
A meta-analysis published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2013 compared low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, vegan, vegetarian, low-glycemic index, high-fiber, and high-protein diets with control diets. The researchers concluded that low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, low-glycemic index, and high-protein diets are effective in improving markers of risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
- Low Carb - US - May 2004, The InfoShop.com by Global Markets, 2004.
- ZERNIKE, KATE; BURROS, MARIAN: Low-Carb Boom Isn't Just for Dieters Anymore, New York Times, February 19, 2004.
- History of the Dr. Atkins Diet Plan, Atkins Diet Advisor. Retrieved 10 March 2008.
- WARNER, MELANIE: Is the Low-Carb Boom Over?, New York Times, 5 December 2004.
- Low-Carb Diet Effective for Teens Trying to Lose Weight, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, 6 May 2007.
- Bernstein, Richard: Why the Low Carb Diet is Best, Diabetes Health, 24 April 2007.
- Warshaw, Hope: , Diabetes Health, 24 April 2007.
- Cohen, Elizabeth: Heart Association to warn against low-carb diets, CNN, 20 March 2001.
- Weighing In on Low-Carb Diets, The American Cancer Society. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
- Karra, Cindy: Shape Up America! Reveals The Truth About Dieters, Shape Up America! (by former U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop), 29 December 2003.
- ADA Issues New Clinical Practice Recommendations, Bio-Medicine, 28 December 2007, Alexandria, VA.
- Exclusive Interview: Dr. Annika Dahlqvist Gets Swedish Government To Promote Livin’ La Vida Low-Carb! (Episode 107), The Livin La Vida Low-Carb Show, 28 January 2008[dead link]
- Fogoros, Richard N.: Low Fats, or Low Carbs?, About.com: Heart Disease, February 2006.
- Warner, Jennifer: Jury Still Out on Low-Carbohydrate Diets, WebMD.com, April 8, 2003.
- Mendosa, David: The Carb Controversy, HealthCentral.com: Diabetes, 1 March 2006.
- Low-Carb Experts Drs. Michael and Mary Dan Eades Offer Rebuttal to Recent 'Report' Suggesting Low Carb Diets Are Unhealthy According to LowCarbiz, Business Wire, 26 November 2003.
- AtkinsExposed: References 1 - 1160, AtkinsExposed.org. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
- Research Supporting a Low-Carb Diet, Wilstar. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
- BURROS, MARIAN: EATING WELL; The Post-Atkins Low Carb Diet, The New York Times, 21 January 2004.
- Low Carbohydrate - How Do Low Carb Diets Work?, WeightLossResources.co.uk. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
- Iris Shai, R.D., Ph.D. (July 2008). "Weight Loss with a Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet.". New England Journal of Medicine 359 (3): 229–41. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0708681. PMID 18635428.
- Lieb, Clarence W. (1926). The Effects of an Exclusive Long-Continued Meat Diet.
- Edward Tolstoi (1929). "The Effect of an Exclusive Meat Diet on the Chemical Constituents of the Blood". Journal of Biological Chemistry 83 (3): 753–8.
- Kekwick A, Pawan GL (July 1956). "Calorie intake in relation to body-weight changes in the obese". Lancet 271 (6935): 155–61. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(56)91691-9. PMID 13347103.
- "A Critique of Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Weight Reduction Regimens: A Review of Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 224 (10): 1415–1419. 4 June 1973. doi:10.1001/jama.1973.03220240055018.
- Benoit FL, Martin RL, Watten RH (October 1965). "Changes in body composition during weight reduction in obesity: Balance studies comparing effects of fasting and a ketogenic diet". Annals of Internal Medicine 63 (4): 604–12. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-63-4-604. PMID 5838326.
- Larosa JC; Fry, AG; Muesing, R; Rosing, DR (1980). "Effects of high-protein, low-carbohydrate dieting on plasma lipoproteins and body weight". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 77 (3): 264–70. PMID 7410754.[dead link]
- SH Holt, JC Miller and P Petocz (1997). "An insulin index of foods: the insulin demand generated by 1000-kJ portions of common foods". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66 (5): 1264–1276. PMID 9356547.
- James W. Anderson, FACN, Elizabeth C. Konz, and David J. A. Jenkins (2000). "Health Advantages and Disadvantages of Weight-Reducing Diets: A Computer Analysis and Critical Review". Journal of the American College of Nutrition 19 (5): 578–90. doi:10.1080/07315724.2000.10718955. PMID 11022871.
- Shalini T. Reddy, Chia-Ying Wang, Khashayar Sakhaee, Linda Brinkley, Charles Y.C. Pak (2002). "Effect of low-carbohydrate high-protein diets on acid-base balance, stone-forming propensity, and calcium metabolism". American Journal of Kidney Diseases 40 (2): 265–74. doi:10.1053/ajkd.2002.34504. PMID 12148098.
- Shanthy A. Bowman, PhD and Joseph T. Spence, PhD (2002). "A Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate vs. High-Carbohydrate Diets: Energy Restriction, Nutrient Quality and Correlation to Body Mass Index". Journal of the American College of Nutrition 21 (3): 268–74. doi:10.1080/07315724.2002.10719220. PMID 12074255.
- Frederick F. Samaha, M.D., Nayyar Iqbal, M.D., Prakash Seshadri, M.D., Kathryn L. Chicano, C.R.N.P., Denise A. Daily, R.D., Joyce McGrory, C.R.N.P., Terrence Williams, B.S., Monica Williams, B.S., Edward J. Gracely, Ph. D., and Linda Stern, M.D. (2003). "A Low-Carbohydrate as Compared with a Low-Fat Diet in Severe Obesity". New England Journal of Medicine 348 (21): 2074–81. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022637. PMID 12761364.
- Gary D. Foster, Ph. D., Holly R. Wyatt, M.D., James O. Hill, Ph. D., Brian G. McGuckin, Ed. M., Carrie Brill, B.S., B. Selma Mohammed, M.D., Ph. D., Philippe O. Szapary, M.D., Daniel J. Rader, M.D., Joel S. Edman, D.Sc., and Samuel Klein, M.D. (2003). "A Randomized Trial of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet for Obesity". New England Journal of Medicine 348 (21): 2082–90. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022207. PMID 12761365.
- Dena M. Bravata, MD, MS; Lisa Sanders, MD; Jane Huang, MD; Harlan M. Krumholz, MD, SM; Ingram Olkin, PhD; Christopher D. Gardner, PhD; Dawn M. Bravata, MD (2003). "Efficacy and Safety of Low-Carbohydrate Diets". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 289 (14): 1837–50. doi:10.1001/jama.289.14.1837. PMID 12684364.
- Evangeliou A, Vlachonikolis I, Mihailidou H, Spilioti M, Skarpalezou A, Makaronas N, Prokopiou A, Christodoulou P, Liapi-Adamidou G, Helidonis E, Sbyrakis S, Smeitink J. (2003). "Application of a ketogenic diet in children with autistic behavior: pilot study.". Journal of Child Neurology 18 (2): 113–8. doi:10.1177/08830738030180020501. PMID 12693778.
- Kossoff EH, Krauss GL, McGrogan JR, Freeman JM. (2003). "Efficacy of the Atkins diet as therapy for intractable epilepsy.". Journal of the American Academy of Neurology 61 (12): 1789–1791. doi:10.1212/01.WNL.0000098889.35155.72. PMID 14694049.
- Kossoff EH (July 2004). "More fat and fewer seizures: dietary therapies for epilepsy". Lancet Neurol 3 (7): 415–20. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(04)00807-5. PMID 15207798.
- Low-carb more effective than low-fat, Harvard Science, 23 October 2003.
- Study surprise: Low-carb dieters eat more, lose weight, CNN, 16 October 2003.
- William S. Yancy, Jr., MD, MHS; Maren K. Olsen, PhD; John R. Guyton, MD; Ronna P. Bakst, RD; and Eric C. Westman, MD, MHS (2004). "A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a Low-Fat Diet To Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia". Annals of Internal Medicine 140 (10): 769–777. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-140-10-200405180-00006. PMID 15148063.
- Linda Stern, MD; Nayyar Iqbal, MD; Prakash Seshadri, MD; Kathryn L. Chicano, CRNP; Denise A. Daily, RD; Joyce McGrory, CRNP; Monica Williams, BS; Edward J. Gracely, PhD; and Frederick F. Samaha, MD (2004). "The Effects of Low-Carbohydrate versus Conventional Weight Loss Diets in Severely Obese Adults: One-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Trial". Annals of Internal Medicine 140 (10): 778–85. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-140-10-200405180-00007. PMID 15148064.
- Richard D Feinman and Eugene J Fine (2004). ""A calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamics". Nutrition Journal 3 (1): 9. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-3-9. PMC 506782. PMID 15282028.
- Isabelle Romieu, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Luisa Maria Sanchez-Zamorano, Walter Willett, and Mauricio Hernandez-Avila: Carbohydrates and the Risk of Breast Cancer among Mexican Women, Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol. 13, 1283-1289, August 2004.
- Arne Astrup, Thomas Meinert Larsen, Angela Harper (2004). "Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss?" (PDF). Lancet 364 (9437): 897–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16986-9. PMID 15351198.
- Dariush Mozaffarian, Eric B Rimm and David M Herrington (2004). "Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80 (5): 1175–84. PMC 1270002. PMID 15531663.
- Robert H Knopp and Barbara M Retzlaff (2004). "Saturated fat prevents coronary artery disease? An American paradox". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80 (5): 1102–3. PMID 15531654.
- Yunsheng Ma , Barbara Olendzki1, David Chiriboga, James R. Hebert, Youfu Li, Wenjun Li, MaryJane Campbell, Katherine Gendreau and Ira S. Ockene (2005). "Association between Dietary Carbohydrates and Body Weight". Annals of Internal Medicine 161 (4): 359–67. doi:10.1093/aje/kwi051. PMC 1199523. PMID 15692080.
- William S Yancy, Jr, Marjorie Foy, Allison M Chalecki, Mary C Vernon, and Eric C Westman (2005). "A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to treat type 2 diabetes". Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 2 (1): 34. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-2-34. PMC 1325029. PMID 16318637.
- Thomas L. Halton, Sc. D., Walter C. Willett, M.D., Dr. P.H., Simin Liu, M.D., Sc. D., JoAnn E. Manson, M.D., Dr. P.H., Christine M. Albert, M.D., M.P.H., Kathryn Rexrode, M.D., and Frank B. Hu, M.D., Ph. D. (2006). "Low-Carbohydrate-Diet Score and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women". New England Journal of Medicine 355 (19): 1991–2002. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055317. PMID 17093250.
- Carol S Johnston, Sherrie L Tjonn, Pamela D Swan, Andrea White, Heather Hutchins and Barry Sears (May 2006). "Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83 (5): 1055–61. PMID 16685046.
- Francesca Bravi, Cristina Bosetti, Lorenza Scotti, Renato Talamini, Maurizio Montella, Valerio Ramazzotti, Eva Negri, Silvia Franceschi, and Carlo La Vecchia (October 2006). "Food Groups and Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study from Italy". International Journal of Cancer 120 (3): 681–5. doi:10.1002/ijc.22225. PMID 17058282.
- Jørgen Vesti Nielsen and Eva Joensson (June 2006). "Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. Stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 22 months follow-up". Nutrition and Metabolism 3 (1): 22. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-3-22. PMC 1526736. PMID 16774674.
- Christopher D. Gardner, PhD (March 2007). "Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN Diets for Change in Weight and Related Risk Factors Among Overweight Premenopausal Women". Journal of the American Medical Association 297 (9): 969–77. doi:10.1001/jama.297.9.969. PMID 17341711.
- Eric Kossoff, MD; Rowley, H; Sinha, SR; Vining, EP (February 2008). "A prospective study of the modified atkins diet for intractable epilepsy in adults". Epilepsia 49 (2): 316–9. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2007.01256.x. PMID 17919301.
- American Heart Association comments on weight loss study comparing low carbohydrate/high protein, Mediterranean style and low fat diets, AHA Newsroom, 17 July 2008.
- Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Rachel Golan; Iris Shai (October 2012). "Four-year follow-up after two-year dietary intervention". The New England Journal of Medicine 367 (14): 1373–4. doi:10.1056/NEJMc1204792. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Foo, SY, Heller, ER, Wykrzykowska, J, Sullivan, CJ, Manning-Tobin, JJ, Moore, KJ, Gerszten, RE, Rosenzweig, A. (2009). "Vascular effects of a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106 (36): 15418–15423. doi:10.1073/pnas.0907995106. PMC 2741266. PMID 19706393.
- Ebbeling, Cara; Swain, Janis F.; Feldman, Henry A.; Wong, William W.; Hachey, David L.; Garcia-Lago, Erica; Ludwig, David S. (27 June 2012). "Effects of Dietary Composition on Energy Expenditure During Weight-Loss Maintenance". Journal of the American Medical Association 307 (24). Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- Lagiou P, Sandin S, Lof M, Trichopoulos D, Adami HO, Weiderpass E. (June 26, 2012). "Low carbohydrate-high protein diet and incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Swedish women: prospective cohort study". British Medical Journal 344: e4026 Extra
|at=(help). doi:10.1136/bmj.e4026. PMC 3383863. PMID 22735105.
- Harcombe Z (June 26, 2012). "Re: Low carbohydrate-high protein diet and incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Swedish women: prospective cohort study". British Medical Journal 344.
- Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al (2003). "A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity". N. Engl. J. Med. 348 (21): 2074–81. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022637. PMID 12761364.
- Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, et al (2005). "Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial". JAMA 293 (1): 43–53. doi:10.1001/jama.293.1.43. PMID 15632335.
- Nordmann AJ, Nordmann A, Briel M, et al (2006). "Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Arch. Intern. Med. 166 (3): 285–93. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.3.285. PMID 16476868.
- Hession M, Rolland C, Kulkarni U, Wise A, Broom J (2008-08-12). "Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities". Obesity Reviews (Blackwell Publishing) 10 (1): 36–50. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00518.x. ISSN 1467-789X. PMID 18700873.
- Santos, F. L., Esteves, S. S., da Costa Pereira, A., Yancy, W. S. and Nunes, J. P. L. (2008-08-12). "Systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials of the effects of low carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors". Obesity Reviews. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01021.x.
- Ajala O., English P., Pinkney J. (2013). "Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 97 (3): 505–516. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.042457.