Medicinal molds are fungi used for biotechnology or drug discovery.
BMS manufactures paclitaxel using Penicillium raistrickii and plant cell fermentation (PCF). Fungi can synthesize other microtubule targeting anticancer compounds including vinblastine, vincristine, podophyllotoxin, griseofulvin, aurantiamine, oxaline, and neoxaline. 11,11'-Dideoxyverticillin A, an isolate of a marine Penicillium, was used to create dozens of semi-synthetic anticancer compounds.
Alexander Fleming led the way to the beta-lactam antibiotics with the Penicillium mold and penicillin. Cephalosporin, fusafungine, fumagillin, alamethicin, fusidic acid, brefeldin A, verrucarin A, itaconic acid, nigrosporin B, and citric acid can be synthesized by molds.
Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors
Akira Endo led the way to the statin medications isolating the pravastatin precursor mevastatin from Penicillium. Lovastatin, the first commercial statin, was found in the Aspergillus mold. The red yeast rice mold, Monascus purpureus, creates lovastatin, mevastatin, and the simvastatin precursor monacolin J. Zaragozic acids were isolated from ascomycota fungi.
Ciclosporin, was discovered in Tolypocladium inflatum. Bredinin was discovered in Eupenicillium brefeldianum. Mycophenolic acid was discovered in Penicillium stoloniferum. Thermophilic molds were the source of the fingolimod precursor myriocin. Aspergillus can synthesize endocrocin.
Endophytic fungi are potential sources of vinblastine, vincristine, huperzine A, hypericin, vincamine, gentiopicrin, chlorogenic acid, diosgenin, and ginkgolide B. Endophytic fungi are potential sources of podophyllotoxin and camptothecin, precursors to etoposide, teniposide, topotecan, and irinotecan. Aspergillus and Penicillium are potential sources of ergot alkaloid precursors to cafergot, dihydroergotamine, methysergide, methylergometrine, hydergine, nicergoline, lisuride, bromocriptine, cabergoline, pergolide, and lysergic acid diethylamide. Aspergillus is a potential source of chitosan.
- Rodrigues AG, Ping LY, Marcato PD, Alves OL, Silva MC, Ruiz RC et al. (2013). "Biogenic antimicrobial silver nanoparticles produced by fungi.". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97 (2): 775–82. doi:10.1007/s00253-012-4209-7. PMID 22707055.
- Aspergillus oryzae (koji) the fungus used to produce soy sauce, miso, rice wines, rice beers, and rice vinegars
- Cheese molds Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium camemberti
- LUBILOSA a mycopesticide project
- Medicinal mushrooms
- Mycoremediation a fungi-based form of bioremediation
- Mycorrhiza medicinal fungi of the plant kingdom
- Physarum polycephalum a semi-intelligent slime mold
- Prototaxites a prehistoric tree-like fungus
- Saccharomyces boulardii a medicinal yeast
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's/brewer's yeast) extracts Vegemite, Marmite, Cenovis, Guinness Yeast Extract, EpiCor, MOS, baker's yeast, yeast extract, pgg-glucan, nutritional yeast, zymosan