||It has been suggested that this article be merged into Medicinal fungi. (Discuss) Proposed since August 2014.|
Medicinal molds are fungi used for biotechnology or drug discovery. Because molds typically exist as thin mycelial monolayers, with no protective shell, immune system, or much mobility, they rely on an ability to synthesize a variety of unusual compounds for survival. Important medicines from molds, such penicillin and lovastatin were first isolated from fungal cultures.
Paclitaxel is synthesised using Penicillium raistrickii and plant cell fermentation (PCF). Fungi can synthesize other mitotic inhibitors including vinblastine, vincristine, podophyllotoxin, griseofulvin, aurantiamine, oxaline, and neoxaline.
11,11'-Dideoxyverticillin A, an isolate of marine Penicillium, was used to create dozens of semi-synthetic anticancer compounds. 11,11'-Dideoxyverticillin A, andrastin A, barceloneic acid A, and barceloneic acid B, are farnesyl transferase inhibitors that can be made by Penicillium. 3-O-Methylfunicone, anicequol, duclauxin, and rubratoxin B, are anticancer/cytotoxic metabolites of Penicillium.
Alexander Fleming led the way to the beta-lactam antibiotics with the Penicillium mold and penicillin. Cephalosporin, fusafungine, fumagillin, alamethicin, fusidic acid, aphidicolin, cerulenin, brefeldin A, verrucarin A, itaconic acid, aphidicolin, nigrosporin B, eupenifeldin, vermiculine, citromycin, MT81, and citric acid, can be synthesized by molds.
Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors
Akira Endo led the way to the statin medications isolating the pravastatin precursor mevastatin from Penicillium. Lovastatin, the first commercial statin, was found in the Aspergillus mold. Aspergillus is capable of producing 70mg lovastatin per kilogram of substrate.
The red yeast rice mold, Monascus purpureus, creates lovastatin, mevastatin, and the simvastatin precursor monacolin J. Zaragozic acids were isolated from ascomycota. Nicotinamide riboside, a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, is made by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Ciclosporin, was discovered in Tolypocladium inflatum. Bredinin was discovered in Eupenicillium brefeldianum. Mycophenolic acid was discovered in Penicillium stoloniferum. Thermophilic molds were the source of the fingolimod precursor myriocin. Aspergillus synthesizes immunosuppressants gliotoxin and endocrocin. Subglutinols are immunosuppressants isolated from Fusarium subglutinans.
Aspergillus and Penicillium are potential sources of ergot alkaloid precursors to psychotropic medicines, hydergine (dihydroergocristine, dihydroergocornine, α-, and β-dihydroergocryptine), cafergot, dihydroergotamine, methysergide, methylergometrine, nicergoline, lisuride, bromocriptine, cabergoline, pergolide, as well as bio-active ergolines ergine, ergometrine, lysergic acid, lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide, lysergic acid diethylamide.
Endophytic fungi are currently used to manufacture paclitaxel.
Fermentek produces apicidin, beauvericin, cytochalasin E, radicicol, K252a, and wortmannin, using Penicillium and Aspergillus. Endophytic fungi are potential sources of the paclitaxel precursor baccatin III, the docetaxel precursor 10-deacetylbaccatin, vinblastine, vincristine, huperzine A, hypericin, vincamine, gentiopicrin, chlorogenic acid, diosgenin, and ginkgolide B. Endophytic fungi are potential sources of podophyllotoxin and camptothecin, precursors to etoposide, teniposide, topotecan, and irinotecan.
Mycelium can be used to biosynthesize gold nanoparticles and be used as a mycofiltrate to recover gold from electronic waste. Aspergillus can metabolize piceid to resveratrol. The introduction and expression of the fungal gene responsible for synthesizing baccatin III, to the mushroom Flammulina velutipes was recently reported.
Saccharomyces is used industrially to produce the amino acid lysine, as well as recombinant proteins insulin and Hepatitis B surface antigen. Transgenic yeast can be used to produce artemisinin, hydrocortisone, and a number of insulin analogs. Candida is used industrially to produce vitamins ascorbic acid and riboflavin. Aspergillus niger is used to produce the recombinant protein phytase. Pichia is used to produce the amino acid tryptophan and the vitamin pyridoxine. Rhodotorula is used to produce the amino acid phenylalanine. Moniliella is used industrially to produce the sugar alcohol erythritol. Transgenic yeast can synthesize benzylisoquinoline opioid precursors, as well as convert said precursors to morphine, although a full biosynthetic pathway has yet to be demonstrated. The first "synthetic chromosome" produced by yeast was reported in 2014.
- Aspergillus oryzae (koji) the fungus used to produce soy sauce, miso, rice wines, rice beers, and rice vinegars
- Bacillus isolates
- Fungal isolates
- Medicinal mushrooms
- Microorganisms used in food and beverage preparation
- Mycoremediation fungi-based bioremediation
- Mycorrhiza (arbuscular, ecto, ericoid) medicinal fungi of the plant kingdom
- Physarum polycephalum a semi-intelligent slime mold
- Saccharomyces boulardii a medicinal yeast
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's/brewer's yeast) extracts Vegemite, Marmite, Cenovis, Guinness Yeast Extract, EpiCor, MOS, baker's yeast, yeast extract, pgg-glucan, nutritional yeast, nicotinamide riboside, zymosan
- Streptomyces isolates comprise a number of fundamental chemotherapy medicines, as well as more than two thirds of all marketed antibiotics
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