A megachurch is an American term for a Protestant church having 2,000 or more people in average weekend attendance. The Hartford Institute's database lists more than 1,300 such Protestant churches in the United States; according to that data, approximately 50 churches on the list have average attendance exceeding 10,000, with the highest recorded at 47,000 in average attendance. While 3,000 individual Catholic parishes (churches) have 2,000 or more attendants for an average Sunday Mass, these churches are not seen as part of the megachurch movement.
Globally, these large congregations are a significant development in Protestant Christianity. In the United States, the phenomenon has more than quadrupled in the past two decades. It has since spread worldwide. In 2007, five of the ten largest Protestant churches were in South Korea. The largest mega church in the United States is Lakewood Church in Houston, Texas with more than 40,000 members every weekend and the current largest megachurch in the world is South Korea's Yoido Full Gospel Church, an Assemblies of God church, with more than 830,000 members as of 2007.
|This section requires expansion. (March 2009)|
The origins of the megachurch movement, with a large number of local congregants who return on a weekly basis can be traced to the 1950s. There were large churches earlier in history, but they were considerably rarer. Examples include Charles Spurgeon's Baptist Metropolitan Tabernacle in London which attracted 5,000 weekly for years in the late 19th century, and religious broadcaster Aimee Semple McPherson's Angelus Temple in Los Angeles, which was similarly large. The advent of television in the 1950s, and the Internet in the 1990s and 2000s have been seen as a motivator for megachurches as megachurch services are often broadcast.
A common criticism of megachurches is that they draw members away from other churches. This has led to use of the derisive term, "big box churches". The majority of North American churchgoers attend small churches of fewer than 200 members.
Critics of megachurches claim that such churches are more concerned with entertainment than religion. Civil rights activist and minister Al Sharpton has claimed that such churches focus on personal morality issues while ignoring social justice.
Critics have also raised issues with the application of corporate business models, e.g., from Wal-Mart; a seeker-friendly approach, intensive market research, heavy reliance upon opinion polls, polished advertising targeted at affluent young professionals, unconventional worship styles and Eastern influences.
Some megachurches, such as the Christian Open Door, are sometimes criticized by former members and anti-cult associations for an alleged use of cultic practices. Another concern with megachurches is their tax-exempt status. These churches generate millions of dollars in revenue and are not subject to the same disclosures that charities are on tax-exempt revenues. This has received attention from the US Senate. A megachurch was investigated by a media outlet for alleged illegal contributions to the political campaigns of Republican candidates and one has been accused of embezzlement.
- USA Churches : Church Sizes Columbus:USAChurches.org. Retrieved 2011-02-05
- Biard, Julia (2006-02-23). "The good and bad of religion-lite". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2006-11-05.
- "MegaChurches: large congregations spread across Black America". CBS Interactive. 2004. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
- "Hartford Institute for Religion Research, database of Megachurches". Hirr.hartsem.edu. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
- "Megachurch Definition". Hirr.hartsem.edu. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
- "O come all ye faithful". Special Report on Religion and Public Life (The Economist). 2007-11-03. p. 6. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
- In Pictures: America's 10 Biggest Megachurches, Forbes.
- "Exploring the Megachurch Phenomena: Their characteristics and cultural context". Hirr.hartsem.edu. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
- National Historic Landmarks Program, Angelus Temple
- "EEUU: las megaiglesias atraen sobre todo a menores de 45 años (U.S.: megachurches attract mostly younger than 45 years)". Retrieved 2009-10-13.
- "National Congregations Study, Cumulative Dataset (1998 and 2006-2007)". Retrieved 2010-05-10.
- Littlefield, Christina. "Long reach of a big church". Retrieved 2006-11-05.
- "Black Leaders Blast Megachurches, Say They Ignore Social Justice". Associated Press. 2005-12-06. Retrieved 2006-11-05.
- "Earthly Empire:How evangelical churches are borrowing from the business playbook". Business Week. 2005-05-23. Retrieved 2006-11-05.
- Naegelen, Lucien (21 April 1996). "Le supermarché de Dieu" (PDF). Alsace (in French). Retrieved 14 August 2009.
- "Senator Probes Megachurches' Finances". NPR. 2007-12-04. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
- "First Read — Church directed money to FL gov?". Firstread.msnbc.msn.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
- "Crystal Cathedral Scandal 'a Bad Picture of the Church, Christianity', Christian News". Christianpost.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.