Megacity

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This article is about the general category of conurbation. For other uses, see Mega City (disambiguation).

A megacity is usually defined as a metropolitan area with a total population in excess of ten million people.[1] A megacity can be a single metropolitan area or two or more metropolitan areas that converge. The terms conurbation, metropolis and metroplex are also applied to the latter.

As of 2013, there are 24 megacities in existence according to the Population Reference Bureau. The largest of these are the metropolitan areas of Tokyo, Delhi, Mexico City, Karachi,[2] New York and Shanghai: each of these has a population in excess of 20 million inhabitants.[3] Tokyo is the largest metropolitan area, while Shanghai is the largest city proper.

History[edit]

In 1800, only 3% of the world's population lived in cities, a figure that rose to 47% by the end of the twentieth century. In 1950, there were 83 cities with populations exceeding one million; by 2007, this number had risen to 468.[4] If the trend continues, the world's population as a whole will double every 45 years. The UN forecasts that today's urban population of 3.2 billion will rise to nearly 5 billion by 2030, when three out of five people will live in cities.[5] This increase will be most dramatic on the least-urbanized continents, Asia and Africa. Surveys and projections indicate that all urban growth over the next 25 years will be in developing countries.[6] One billion people, almost one-seventh of the world's population, now live in shanty towns.[7] In many poor countries overpopulated slums exhibit high rates of disease due to unsanitary conditions, malnutrition, and lack of basic health care.[8] By 2030, over 2 billion people in the world will be living in slums.[9] Over 90% of the urban population of Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda, three of the world's most rural countries, already live in slums.

By 2025, according to the Far Eastern Economic Review, Asia alone will have at least 10 megacities, including Mumbai, India (33 million), Shanghai, China (27 million), Karachi, Pakistan (26.5 million), Dhaka, Bangladesh (26 million) and Jakarta, Indonesia (24.9 million people).[10] Lagos, Nigeria has grown from 300,000 in 1950 to an estimated 12.5 million today, and the Nigerian government estimates that the city will have expanded to 25 million residents by 2015.[11]

Largest cities[edit]

Growth[edit]

Tokyo is the world's largest megacity
Shanghai, China
Mumbai, India
Metro Manila, Philippines
Jakarta, Indonesia
Seoul, South Korea

For almost five hundred years, Rome was the largest, wealthiest, and most politically important city in Europe.[12] Its population passed one million people by the end of the 1st century BC.[13] Rome's population started declining in 402 AD when Flavius Honorius, Western Roman Emperor from 395 to 423, moved the government to Ravenna and Rome's population declined to a mere 20,000 during the Early Middle Ages, reducing the sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins and vegetation.

Baghdad was likely the largest city in the world from shortly after its foundation in 762 AD until the 930s, with some estimates putting its population at over one million.[14] Chinese capital cities Chang'an and Kaifeng also experienced huge population booms during prosperous empires. According to the census in the year 742 recorded in the New Book of Tang, 362,921 families with 1,960,188 persons were counted in Jingzhao Fu (京兆府), the metropolitan area including small cities in the vicinity of Chang'an.[15] The medieval settlement surrounding Angkor, the one-time capital of the Khmer Empire which flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, could have supported a population of up to one million people.[16]

In 1950, New York City was the only urban area with a population of over 10 million.[17] Geographers had identified 25 such areas as of October 2005,[18] as compared with 19 megacities in 2004 and only nine in 1985. This increase has happened as the world's population moves towards the high (75–85%) urbanization levels of North America and Western Europe.

Since the 2000s, the largest megacity has been the Greater Tokyo Area. The population of this urban agglomeration includes areas such as Yokohama and Kawasaki, and is estimated to be between 35 and 36 million. This variation in estimates can be accounted for by different definitions of what the area encompasses. While the prefectures of Tokyo, Chiba, Kanagawa, and Saitama are commonly included in statistical information, the Japan Statistics Bureau only includes the area within 50 kilometers of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Offices in Shinjuku, thus arriving at a smaller population estimate.[19][20] A characteristic issue of megacities is the difficulty in defining their outer limits and accurately estimating the populations. Based on the population criteria, the world's 30 megacities are, in rank of population:

Rank Megacity Country Continent Population Density
1 Tokyo Japan Japan Asia 34,800,000 2,629/km2 (6,810/sq mi)
2 Guangzhou China China Asia 31,700,000 1,883/km2 (4,877/sq mi)
3 Shanghai China China Asia 28,900,000 3,800/km2 (9,900/sq mi)
4 Jakarta Indonesia Indonesia Asia 26,400,000 4,383.53/km2 (11,353.3/sq mi)
5 Seoul South Korea South Korea Asia 25,800,000 17,000/km2 (43,000/sq mi)
6 Delhi India India Asia 24,000,000 1,050/km2 (2,700/sq mi)
7 Mexico City Mexico Mexico North America 23,800,000 6,000/km2
8 New York City United States United States North America 23,500,000 1,876/sq mi (724/km2)
9 Karachi Pakistan Pakistan Asia 22,700,000
10 Manila  Philippines Asia 22,200,000 19,000/km2 (48,000/sq mi)
11 São Paulo Brazil Brazil South America 21,500,000 1,198
12 Mumbai India India Asia 21,400,000 16,692
13 Beijing China China Asia 19,300,000 1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)
14 Los Angeles United States United States North America 18,200,000 1,024.7/km2 (2,645.0/sq. mi.)
15 Osaka Japan Japan Asia 16,800,000
16 Dhaka Bangladesh Bangladesh Asia 16,300,000 45,000/km2 (115,200/sq mi)
17 Cairo Egypt Egypt Africa 16,100,000 19,376/km2 (50,180/sq mi)
18 Kolkata India India Asia 16,000,000 24,000/km2 (63,000/sq mi)
19 London United Kingdom United Kingdom Europe 15,500,000
20 Moscow Russia Russia Europe 14,500,000 4,581.24 /km2 (11,865.4 /sq mi)
21 Buenos Aires Argentina Argentina South America 14,500,000 14,000/km2 (37,000/sq mi)
22 Bangkok Thailand Thailand Asia 14,500,000 5,300/km2 (14,000/sq mi)
23 Istanbul Turkey Turkey Europe/Asia 13,800,000 2,725/km2 (7,060/sq mi)
24 Lagos Nigeria Nigeria Africa 13,200,000 20,008/km2 (51,820/sq mi)
25 Tehran Iran Iran Asia 13,200,000 10,327.6/km2 (26,748.3/sq mi)
26 Rio de Janeiro Brazil Brazil South America 12,900,000 4,781/km2 (12,380/sq mi)
27 Lahore Pakistan Pakistan Asia 12,210,000
28 Rhine-Ruhr Germany Germany Europe 12,190,000 1,422/km2 (3,684/sq mi)
29 Shenzhen China China Asia 11,700,000 8,600/km2 (22,000/sq mi)
30 Paris France France Europe 10,700,000 1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)

Source: Th. Brinkhoff: The Principal Agglomerations of the World, 2013-10-01[unreliable source?]

Another list defines megacities as urban agglomerations instead of metropolitan areas.[21] As of 2010, there are 25 megacities by this definition, like Tokyo.[citation needed][needs update] Other sources list Nagoya[22] and the Rhein-Ruhr[23] as megacities.

Challenges[edit]

Slums[edit]

According to the United Nations, the proportion of urban dwellers living in slums decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the developing world between 1990 and 2005.[24] However, due to rising population, the absolute number of slum dwellers is rising. The majority of these come from the fringes of urban margins, located in legal and illegal settlements with insufficient housing and sanitation. This has been caused by massive migration, both internal and transnational, into cities, which has caused growth rates of urban populations and spatial concentrations not seen before in history.[citation needed] These issues raise problems in the political, social, and economic arenas.[citation needed] Slum dwellers often have minimal or no access to education, healthcare, or the urban economy.

Crime and terrorism[edit]

The lack of proper and sufficient infrastructure and public services (such as proper sanitation, housing, education and healthcare) to support the growing population not only leads to the growth of slums, but also breeds discontent among urban dwellers, leading to high crime rates, as visibly seen in growing megacities such as Karachi, Rio de Janeiro and Lagos.[25]

Homelessness[edit]

Megacities often have significant numbers of homeless people. The actual legal definition of homelessness varies from country to country, or among different entities or institutions in the same country or region.[26]

In 2002, research showed that children and families were the largest growing segment of the homeless population in the United States,[27][28] and this has presented new challenges, especially in services, to agencies. In the USA, the government asked many major cities to come up with a ten-year plan to end homelessness. One of the results of this was a "Housing first" solution, rather than to have a homeless person remain in an emergency homeless shelter it was thought to be better to quickly get the person permanent housing of some sort and the necessary support services to sustain a new home. But there are many complications with this kind of program and these must be dealt with to make such an initiative work successfully in the middle to long term.[29][30]

Traffic congestion[edit]

Bangkok is notorious for its traffic congestion.

Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, increased pollution, and increased vehicular queueing. The Texas Transportation Institute estimated that, in 2000, the 75 largest metropolitan areas experienced 3.6 billion vehicle-hours of delay, resulting in 5.7 billion U.S. gallons (21.6 billion liters) in wasted fuel and $67.5 billion in lost productivity, or about 0.7% of the nation's GDP. It also estimated that the annual cost of congestion for each driver was approximately $1,000 in very large cities and $200 in small cities.[citation needed] Traffic congestion is increasing in major cities and delays are becoming more frequent in smaller cities and rural areas.

Urban sprawl[edit]

A flat land area in the Greater Los Angeles Area in the U.S. state of California almost completely filled with houses, buildings, roads, and freeways. Areas constructed to capacity contribute to urban expansion.

Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a multifaceted concept, which includes the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density, auto-dependent development on rural land, with associated design features that encourage car dependency.[31] As a result, some critics argue that sprawl has certain disadvantages, including, longer transport distances to work, high car dependence, inadequate facilities e.g.: health, cultural. etc. and higher per-person infrastructure costs. Discussions and debates about sprawl are often obfuscated by the ambiguity associated with the phrase. For example, some commentators measure sprawl only with the average number of residential units per acre in a given area. But others associate it with decentralization (spread of population without a well-defined center), discontinuity (leapfrog development), segregation of uses, etc.[citation needed]

Gentrification[edit]

Gentrification and urban gentrification denote the socio-cultural changes in an area resulting from wealthier people buying housing property in a less prosperous community.[32] Consequent to gentrification, the average income increases and average family size decreases in the community, which may result in the informal economic eviction of the lower-income residents, because of increased rents, house prices, and property taxes. This type of population change reduces industrial land use when it is redeveloped for commerce and housing. In addition, new businesses, catering to a more affluent base of consumers, tend to move into formerly blighted areas, further increasing the appeal to more affluent migrants and decreasing the accessibility to less wealthy natives.

Environmental problems[edit]

Air pollution[edit]

Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere. Many urban areas have significant problems with smog, a type of air pollution derived from vehicle emissions from internal combustion engines and industrial fumes that react in the atmosphere with sunlight to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog.

Smog is also caused by large amounts of coal burning, which creates a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide. World coal consumption was about 6,743,786,000 short tons in 2006[33] and is expected to increase 48% to 9.98 billion short tons by 2030.[34] China produced 2.38 billion tons in 2006. India produced about 447.3 million tons in 2006. 68.7% of China's electricity comes from coal. The USA consumes about 14% of the world total, using 90% of it for generation of electricity.[35]

In fiction[edit]

Many of the following fictional cities were inspired by Fritz Lang's 1927 film, Metropolis and the influential depiction of Los Angeles in Ridley Scott's 1982 film, Blade Runner.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "How Big Can Cities Get?" New Scientist Magazine, 17 June 2006, page 41.
  2. ^ http://defence.pk/threads/karachi-is-now-the-largest-city-in-the-world.45538/page-2
  3. ^ 2013 World Population Data Sheet
  4. ^ "Principal Agglomerations of the World". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  5. ^ "Megacities Of The Future". Forbes.com. 2007-06-11. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  6. ^ "Nigeria: Lagos, the mega-city of slums and plums". Energypublisher.com. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  7. ^ Whitehouse, David (2005-05-19). "Half of humanity set to go urban". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  8. ^ "Planet of Slums - The Third World’s Megacities". Blackcommentator.com. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  9. ^ "State of World Population 2007". Unfpa.org. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  10. ^ May 20, 2006 (2006-05-20). "Planet of Slums by Mike Davis". Atimes.com. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  11. ^ "Lagos, Nigeria facts". National Geographic. 2006-07-28. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  12. ^ "Roman Empire Population". Unrv.com. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  13. ^ "Population crises and cycles in history". Home.vicnet.net.au. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  14. ^ "Largest Cities Through History". Geography.about.com. 2010-06-16. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  15. ^ New Book of Tang, vol. 41 (Zhi vol. 27) Geography 1.
  16. ^ Metropolis: Angkor, the world's first mega-city, The Independent, August 15, 2007
  17. ^ Tertius Chandler, 1987, St. David's University Press. "Top 10 Cities of the Year 1950". Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census. Retrieved 2007-03-24. 
  18. ^ "Population statistics". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  19. ^ "Greater Tokyo population statistics". Stat.go.jp. 2008-10-01. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  20. ^ "Tokyo metropolitan area population statistics". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  21. ^ http://www.demographia.com/db-megacity.pdf
  22. ^ http://www.demographia.com/db-worldua.pdf
  23. ^ http://www.espon.eu/export/sites/default/Documents/Projects/ESPON2006Projects/StudiesScientificSupportProjects/UrbanFunctions/fr-1.4.3_April2007-final.pdf
  24. ^ "p. 26" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  25. ^ P. H. Liotta, James F. Miskel. The Real Population Bomb: Megacities, Global Security & the Map of the Future. Potomac Books. Retrieved 2014-05-03. 
  26. ^ "Glossary defining homelessness". Homeless.org.au. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  27. ^ FACS, "Homeless Children, Poverty, Faith and Community: Understanding and Reporting the Local Story", March 26, 2002 Akron, Ohio. [1]
  28. ^ National Coalition for the Homeless, "Homeless Youth" 2005 [2] PDF (164 KB)
  29. ^ Abel, David, "For the homeless, keys to a home: Large-scale effort to keep many off street faces hurdles", Boston Globe, February 24, 2008.
  30. ^ PBS, "Home at Last? – A radical new approach to helping the homeless", NOW TV program, December 21, 2007.
  31. ^ What is Sprawl?. SprawlCity.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  32. ^ Benjamin Grant (June 17, 2003). Urban gentrification is associated with movement "PBS Documentaries with a point of view: What is Gentrification?". Public Broadcasting Service. 
  33. ^ World coal consumption 1980-2006 October 2008 EIA statistics
  34. ^ EIA, World Energy Projections Plus (2009)
  35. ^ "U.S. Coal Supply and Demand". Eia.doe.gov. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  36. ^ Sharp, Michael D. (2005). Popular Contemporary Writers. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0-7614-7601-6. 
  37. ^ Namu, Adilifu (2008). Black space: imagining race in science fiction film. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71745-8. 
  38. ^ Westfahl, Gary (2005). The Greenwood encyclopedia of science fiction and fantasy: themes, works, and wonders, Volume 2. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32952-4. 

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]