||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (April 2011)|
A Megalithic Yard is a unit of measurement, about 2.72 feet (0.83 m), that some researchers believe was used in the construction of megalithic structures. The proposal was made by Alexander Thom as a result of his surveys of 600 megalithic sites in England, Scotland, Wales and Britanny. Thom additionally proposed the Megalithic Rod of 2.5 MY and suggested the Megalithic Rod could be divided into one hundred and the Meglithic Yard divided into forty, which he called the Megalithic Inch of 2.073 centimetres (0.816 in). Thom applied the statistical lumped variance test of J.R. Broadbent on this quantum and found the results significant while others have challenged his statistical analysis and suggested that Thom's evidence can be explained in other ways, for instance the average length of a pace.
Thom suggested that "There must have been a headquarters from which standard rods were sent out but whether this was in these islands or on the Continent the present investigation cannot determine."
Margaret Ponting has suggested that artefacts such as a marked bone found during excavations at Dail Mòr near Callanish, the Patrickholme bone bead from Lanarkshire and Dalgety bone bead from Fife in Scotland have shown some evidence of being measuring rods based on the Megalithic Yard in Britain. An Oak rod from the Iron Age fortified settlement at Borre Fen mearured 53.15 inches (135.0 cm) with marks dividing it up into eight parts of 6.64 inches (16.9 cm). Euan Mackie referred to five eights of this rod 33.2 inches (84 cm) as "very close to a megalithic yard". A Hazel measuring rod recovered from a Bronze Age burial mound in Borum Eshøj, East Jutland by P. V. Glob in 1875 mearured 30.9 inches (78 cm). Keith Critchlow suggested this may have shrunk 0.63 inches (1.6 cm) from the Megalithic Yard over 3000 years.
Thom made a comparison of his Megalithic Yard with the Spanish vara, the pre-metric measurement of Iberia, its value 2.7425 feet. Archaeologist Euan Mackie noticed similarities between the MY and a unit of measurement extrapolated from a long, marked shell from Mohenjo Daro and ancient measuring rods used in mining in the Austrian Tyrol. He suggested similarities with other measurements such as the ancient Indian gaz and the Sumerian šu-du3-a. Along with John Michell, Mackie also noted that it is the diagonal of a rectangle measuring 2 by 1 Egyptian remens.[verification needed] Jay Kappraff has noted similarity between the Megalithic Yard and the ancient Indus short yard of 33 inches (0.84 m). Anne Macaulay reported that the Megalithic Rod is equal in length to the Greek fathom of (2.072 metres (6.80 ft)) from studies by Eric Fernie of the Metrological Relief in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.
Thom's claim was initially ignored or regarded as unbelievable by mainstream archaeologists.
Clive Ruggles, citing astronomer Douglas C. Heggie, has said that both classical and Bayesian statistical reassessments of Thom's data "reached the conclusion that the evidence in favour of the MY was at best marginal, and that even if it does exist the uncertainty in our knowledge of its value is of the order of centimetres, far greater than the 1mm precision claimed by Thom. In other words, the evidence presented by Thom could be adequately explained by, say, monuments being set out by pacing, with the 'unit' reflecting an average length of pace." David George Kendall makes the same argument, and says that pacing would have created a greater difference in measurements between sites, and that a statistical analysis of sites would reveal if they were measured by pacing or not. In an investigation for the Royal Academy Kendall concluded that there was evidence of a uniform unit in Scottish circles but not in English circles, and that further research was needed. Statistician P. R. Freeman reached similar conclusions and found that two other units fit the data as well as the yard.
Douglas Heggie casts doubt on Thom's suggestion as well, stating that his careful analysis uncovered "little evidence for a highly accurate unit" and "little justification for the claim that a highly accurate unit was in use".
Most researchers have concluded that there is marginal evidence for a standardized measuring unit, but that it was not as uniform as Thom believed.
Arguments for a Geometric Derivation
Some commentators upon Thom's megalithic yard (John Ivimy and then Euan Mackie) have noted how such a measure could relate to geometrical ideas found historically in two Egyptian metrological units; the remen of about 1.2 feet and royal cubit of about 1.72 feet. The remen and royal cubit were used to define land areas in Egypt: "On documentary and other evidence Griffith came to the conclusion that the square on the royal cubit was intended to be twice that the square on the remen; and Petri identified the remen as a length of 20 digits".
A square with side length equal to the diagonal of a square with side length equal to one remen has an area of one square royal cubit, ten thousand (a myriad) of which defined an Egyptian land measure, the setat. [cite mackie] John Ivimy noted that "The ratio MY : Rc is SQRT(5) : SQRT(2) to the nearest millimeter, which makes the MY equal to SQRT(5) remens, or the length of a 2 x 1 remen rectangle.", see figure below.
The main weakness in this argument is probably that the builders of the megalithic would have needed the remen and royal cubit, upon which this geometrical relationship relies numerically, to derive their yard.
- Thom, Alexander., The megalithic unit of length, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, A 125, 243-251, 1962.
- Alexander Thom (12 March 1964). New Scientist. Reed Business Information. pp. 690–. ISSN 0262-4079. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- Barbara Ann Kipfer (2000). Encyclopedic dictionary of archaeology. Springer. pp. 344–. ISBN 978-0-306-46158-3. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
- Archibald Stevenson Thom (1995). Walking in all of the squares: a biography of Alexander Thom : engineer, archaeoastronomer, discoverer of a prehistoric calendar, the geometry of stone rings and megalithic measurement. Argyll Pub. ISBN 978-1-874640-66-0. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- Thom, Alexander., The larger units of length of megalithic man, Journal for the Royal Statistical Society, A 127, 527-533, 1964.
- Broadbent S.R., Quantum hypothesis, Biometrika, 42, 45-57 (1955)
- David H. Kelley; Eugene F. Milone; Anthony F. (FRW) Aveni (28 February 2011). Exploring Ancient Skies: A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy. Springer. pp. 163–. ISBN 978-1-4419-7623-9. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- A. Thom (1976). Megalithic sites in Britain, p. 43. Clarendon. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
- Margaret Ponting (13 February 2003). "Megalithic Callanish". In Clive Ruggles. Records in Stone: Papers in Memory of Alexander Thom. Cambridge University Press. pp. 423–441. ISBN 978-0-521-53130-6. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- John David North (1996). Stonehenge: Neolithic man and the cosmos, p. 302. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-255773-3. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
- Keith Critchlow (1979). Time stands still: new light on megalithic science, p. 37. Gordon Fraser. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
- Euan Wallace MacKie (1977). The megalith builders, p. 192. Phaidon. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- John Michell (1978). City of Revelation: On the Proportion and Symbolic Numbers of the Cosmic Temple. Abacus. ISBN 978-0-349-12321-9. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- Euan Wallace MacKie (1977). Science and society in prehistoric Britain. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-70245-8. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Jay Kappraff (2002). Beyond measure: a guided tour through nature, myth, and number. World Scientific. pp. 237–. ISBN 978-981-02-4702-7. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- Anne Macaulay; Richard A. Batchelor (July 2006). Megalithic measures and rhythms: sacred knowledge of the ancient Britons, p. 38 (Megalithic yardsticks). Floris. ISBN 978-0-86315-554-3. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
- Society of Antiquaries of London (1981). The Antiquaries journal: being the journal of the Society of Antiquaries of London, The Greek Metrological Relief in Oxford by Eric J. Fernie, p. 255. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
- David George Kendall; F. R. Hodson; Royal Society (Great Britain); British Academy (1974). The Place of astronomy in the ancient world: a joint symposium of the Royal Society and the British Academy. Oxford University Press for the British Academy. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- Ruggles, Clive (1999). Astronomy in Prehistoric Britain and Ireland. Yale University Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-300-07814-5.
- Kendall, D. G. (1974), "Hunting quanta", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences (276): 231–266
- "A Bayesian Analysis of the Megalithic Yard", Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 139 (1), 1976
- Heggie, Douglas C. (1981). Megalithic Science: Ancient Mathematics and Astronomy in North-west Europe. Thames and Hudson. p. 58. ISBN 0-500-05036-8.
- Balfour, M; O GIngerich (1980). "Book-Review - Stonehenge and its Mysteries". Journal of Historical Astronomy. SUPP. VOL.11, P.S104. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- Euan Mackie (1977). Science and Society in Prehistoric Briain, p. 53-57. Paul Elek.
- A.E.Berriman (1953). Historical Metrology, p. 71. J.M.Dent.
- John Ivimy (1974). The Sphinx and the Megaliths, p. 132. Turnstone.