Mehmed III

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Mehmed III
Caliph of Islam
Amir al-Mu'minin
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Sultan Mehmet III of the Ottoman Empire.jpg
The portrait of Sultan Mehmet III by Italian painter Cristofano dell'Altissimo, 16th century.
Reign January 15, 1595 – December 22, 1603
Predecessor Murad III
Successor Ahmed I
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Consort Handan Sultan
Alime Sultan
Fülane Hatun
Royal house House of Osman
Father Murad III
Mother Safiye Sultan
Born May 26, 1566
Manisa, Ottoman Empire
Died December 21/22, 1603
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Religion Sunni Islam
Tughra
Mehmed III accepting the surrender of Eger, 1596

Mehmed III Adli (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثالث Meḥmed-i sālis, Turkish: III.Mehmed; May 26, 1566 – December 21/22, 1603) was sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1595 until his death.

Reign[edit]

Mehmed III remains notorious even in Ottoman history for having nineteen of his brothers and half-brothers executed to secure power.[1][2] They were all strangled by his deaf-mutes.

He was born during the reign of his great-grandfather, Suleiman the Magnificent, in 1566. He was the son of Prince Murad (the future Murad III), himself the son of Crown Prince Selim (the future Selim II), who was the son of Sultan Suleiman and Hürrem Sultan. His great-grandfather died the year he was born and his grandfather became the new Sultan, Selim II. His grandfather Sultan Selim II died when Mehmed was 8 and Mehmed's father, Murad III, became Sultan in 1574. Mehmed thus became Crown Prince till his father's death in 1595, when he was 28 years old.

Mehmed III was an idle ruler, leaving government to his mother Safiye Sultan, the valide sultan.[3] The major event of his reign was the Austro-Ottoman War in Hungary (1593–1606). Ottoman defeats in the war caused Mehmed III to take personal command of the army, the first sultan to do so since Suleiman I in 1566. Accompanied by the Sultan, the Ottomans conquered Eger in 1596. Upon hearing of the Habsburg army's approach, Mehmed wanted to dismiss the army and return to Istanbul.[4] However, the Ottomans eventually decided to face the enemy and defeated the Habsburg and Transylvanian forces at the Battle of Keresztes[5] (known in Turkish as the Battle of Haçova), during which the Sultan had to be dissuaded from fleeing the field halfway through the battle. Upon returning to Istanbul in victory, Mehmed told his Vezirs that he would campaign again.[6] The next year the Venetian Bailo in Istanbul noted, "the doctors declared that the Sultan cannot leave for war on account of his bad health, produced by excesses of eating and drinking".[7]

Mehmed III was more conservative than his predecessor and largely halted artistic patronage, including support of the Society of Miniaturists.[citation needed] His reign saw no major setbacks for the supposedly declining Ottoman Empire. He died at Topkapı Palace, Constantinople.

Personal life[edit]

He was born at Manisa Palace, the son of sultan Murad III, whom he succeeded in 1595. His mother was Safiye Sultan, probably a Albanian from Principality of Dukagjini.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]

He married Handan Sultan, an ethnic Greek originally named Helena and had Ahmed I. He also married Alime Sultan, an ethnic Abkhazian daughter of Akuc Bey and had Mustafa I.

He married a princess from the Byzantine Komnenós dynasty of Trebizond, a surviving branch of the Byzantine imperial family of the same name from Constantinople and had Şehzade Yahya.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Quataert, Donald. The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922, p.90. Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-521-63328-1
  2. ^ Kinross, John Patrick. Ottoman Centuries, p.288. William Morrow & Co., 1977. ISBN 0-688-03093-9
  3. ^ Kinross, p.288
  4. ^ Karateke, Hakan T. "On the Tranquility and Repose of the Sultan." The Ottoman World. Ed. Christine Woodhead. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Routledge, 2011. p. 120.
  5. ^ Finkel, Caroline. Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, p.175. Basic Books, 2005. ISBN 0-465-02396-7
  6. ^ Karateke, p. 122.
  7. ^ Goodwin, Jason. Lords of the Horizons: A History of the Ottoman Empire, p.166. New York: Henry Holt & Company.
  8. ^ The Aviary Gate. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  9. ^ The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  10. ^ Inside the Seraglio. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  11. ^ The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Microp�dia - Encyclopaedia Britannica, inc - Google Books. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  12. ^ Peirce, p.94
  13. ^ New Perspectives on Safavid Iran. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  14. ^ Mediterranean passages. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  15. ^ Transactions of the Royal Historical Society: Volume 14. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  16. ^ A Monarchy of Letters. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  17. ^ Islamic Art and Visual Culture. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Mehmed III at Wikimedia Commons

Mehmed III
Born: May 26, 1566 Died: December 22, 1603[aged 37]
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Murad III
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
January 15, 1595 – December 22, 1603
Succeeded by
Ahmed I
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Murad III
Caliph of Islam
January 15, 1595 – December 22, 1603
Succeeded by
Ahmed I