Melancthon is a rural Canadian township in the northwest corner of Dufferin County, Ontario, bordered on the east by Mulmur Township, Amaranth Township and East Luther Grand Valley to the south, Southgate Township to the west, and the Municipality of Grey Highlands to the north. The township does not include the town of Shelburne on its southern border. It has one of the lowest population densities in southwestern Ontario.
The primary industry of the township is farming, with limited beef, dairy, sheep and horse farming. It is also home to the Melancthon EcoPower Centre wind farm.
The township was founded in 1853 as a part of Grey County and transferred to Dufferin County in 1881. Township council currently comprises a mayor, a deputy mayor and three councillors.
- Population in 2011: 2839 (2006–2011 population change: −1.9 %)
- Population in 2006: 2895 (2001–2006 population change: 5.7%)
- Population in 2001: 2796 (or 2739 when adjusted for 2006 boundary)
- Population in 1996: 2607
- Population in 1991: 2447
Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 974 (total dwellings: 1100)