|Melbourne airport control tower and a Boeing 747–400 of United Airlines.|
|IATA: MEL – ICAO: YMML|
|Owner||Australia Pacific Airports Corporation Limited|
|Operator||Australia Pacific Airports (Melbourne) Pty Ltd|
|Location||Melbourne Airport, adjacent to Tullamarine|
|Elevation AMSL||434 ft / 132 m|
|Economic impact (2012)||$6.8 billion|
|Social impact (2012)||47.4 thousand|
|Sources: Australian AIP and aerodrome chart
Passengers and aircraft movements from the Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics
Melbourne Airport (IATA: MEL, ICAO: YMML), also known as Tullamarine Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Melbourne, and the second busiest airport in Australia. It was opened in 1970 to replace the nearby Essendon Airport. Melbourne Airport is the sole international airport of the four airports serving the Melbourne metropolitan area.
The Melbourne–Sydney air route is the third most-travelled passenger air route in the world and the third busiest in the Asia Pacific region. The airport features direct flights to 33 destinations in all states and territories of Australia in addition to numerous destinations in Oceania, Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. Melbourne is the most common destination for the airports of five of Australia's seven other capital cities.N1 Melbourne serves as a major hub for Qantas and Virgin Australia, while Jetstar Airways and Tiger Airways Australia utilise the airport as home base. Melbourne is the busiest airport for international export freight as of August 2011, while second busiest for import freight. Domestically, Melbourne serves as headquarters for Australian air Express and Toll Priority and handles more domestic freight than any other airport in the nation.
In 2003, Melbourne received the International Air Transport Association Eagle Award for service and two National Tourism Awards for tourism services. The airport comprises four terminals: one international terminal, two domestic terminals and one budget domestic terminal. Most recently Melbourne Airport was awarded by Skytrax for having the best Airport hotel in the Australia/Pacific in the World Airport Awards. Melbourne Airport was also ranked the 43rd best airport for 2012. Melbourne reached 30 million passengers for the first time in the 12 months ending July 2013.
- 1 History
- 2 Terminals
- 3 Airlines and destinations
- 4 Other facilities
- 5 Operations
- 6 Traffic and statistics
- 7 Access
- 8 Accidents and incidents
- 9 Avalon Airport
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Before the opening of Melbourne Airport, Melbourne's main airport was Essendon Airport which was officially designated an international airport in 1950. In the mid-1950s, over 10,000 passengers were using Essendon Airport and the limitations of Essendon Airport were beginning to become apparent. Essendon Airport's facilities were insufficient to meet the increasing demand for air travel; the runways were too short to handle the then new jet airliners and the terminals failed to handle the increase in passengers, by the mid-1950s, an international overflow terminal was built in a new northern hangar. Due to the encroachment of the urban boundary, the airport had become surrounded by residential housing, meaning that expansion of Essendon Airport was not possible.
The search for a replacement for Essendon commenced in February 1958, when a panel was appointed to assess Melbourne's civil aviation needs.
In May 1959 it was announced that a new airport would be built at Tullamarine, with Prime Minister Robert Menzies announcing on 27 November 1962 a five-year plan to provide Melbourne with a A$45 million "jetport" by 1967. The first sod at Tullamarine turned in two years later in November 1964. In line with the five-year plan, the runways at Essendon were expanded to handle larger aircraft, with Ansett Australia launched the Boeing 727 there in October 1964, the first jet aircraft used for domestic air travel in Australia. Air Force One landed at Essendon on 22 December 1967, carrying United States President Lyndon B. Johnson.
On 1 July 1970, Melbourne Airport was opened to international operations by Prime Minister John Gorton, ending Essendon's near 2 decade run as Melbourne International Airport. Essendon still was home to domestic flights for one year, until they were transferred to Melbourne Airport on 26 June 1971, with the first arrival of a Boeing 747 occurring later that year. In the first year of operations, Melbourne handled six international airlines and 155,275 international passengers.
Melbourne Airport was originally called Tullamarine Airport, after the adjacent suburb of the same name. Tullamarine derives from the indigenous name Tullamareena. International has sporadically been used in the name of the airport. After privatisation, the name changed to Melbourne Airport, following the lead of most other major Australian airports. Locally, the airport is commonly referred to as Tullamarine or simply as Tulla to distinguish the airport from the other three Melbourne airports: Avalon, Essendon and Moorabbin.
On opening Melbourne Airport consisted of three connected terminals: International in the centre, with Ansett to the South and Trans Australia Airlines to the North. The design capacity of the airport was eight Boeing 707s at a rate of 500 passengers per hour, with minor expansion works completed in 1973 allowing Boeing 747s to serve the airport. By the late 1980s peak passenger flows at the airport had reached 900 per hour, causing major congestion.
In late 1989, Federal Airports Corporation Inspector A. Rohead was put in charge of a bicentennial project to rename streets in Melbourne Airport to honour the original inhabitants, European pioneers and aviation history. Information on the first two categories was provided by Ian Hunter, Wurundjeri researcher, and Ray Gibb, local historian. The project was completed but was shelved, with the only suggested name that was allocated being Gowrie Park Drive, named after the farm at the heart of the airport. During the 1920s the farm had been used as a landing site for aircraft, which were parked at night during World War II in case Essendon Aerodrome was bombed.
Expansion and privatisation
In 1988, the Australian Government formed the Federal Airports Corporation (FAC), placing Melbourne Airport under the operational control of the new corporation along with 21 other airports around the nation. In April 1994, the Australian Government announced that all airports operated by Federal Airports Corporation would be privatised in several phases. Melbourne Airport was included in the first phase, being acquired by the newly formed Australia Pacific Airports Corporation Limited for $1.3 billion. The transfer was completed on 30 June 1997 on a 50-year long-term lease, with the option for a further 49 years. In July 1997, the Melbourne Airport website was launched, providing Australia's first real-time flight operations data over the internet.
The first major upgrades at the airport were carried out at the domestic terminals, with an expansion of the Ansett domestic terminal approved in 1989 and completed in 1991, adding a second pier added for use by smaller regional airlines. Work on an upgrade of the international terminal commenced in 1991, with the 'SkyPlaza' retail complex completed in late 1993 on a site flanking the main international departure gates. The rest of the work was completed in 1995, when the new three-level satellite concourse was opened at the end of the existing concourse. Diamond shaped and measuring 80 m (260 ft) on each side, the additional 10 aerobridges provided by the expansion doubled the international passenger handing capacity at Melbourne Airport.
Since privatisation, further improvements to infrastructure have begun at the airport, including expansion of runways, car parks and terminals. The multi-storey carpark outside the terminal was completed between 1995 and August 1997 at a cost of $49 million, providing 3,100 parking spaces, the majority undercover. This initially four-level structure replaced the previous open air carpark outside the terminal. Work commenced on the six-story 276-room Hilton Hotel (now Park Royal) above the carpark in January 1999, which was completed in mid-2000 at a cost of $55 million. Expansion of the Qantas domestic terminal was completed in 1999, featuring a second pier and 9 additional aircraft stands.
In December 2000, a fourth passenger terminal was opened: the Domestic Express Terminal, located to the south of the main terminal building at a cost of $9 million. It was the first additional passenger terminal facility to be built at Melbourne Airport since 1971.
Expansion of carparks has also continued with a $40 million project commenced in 2004, doubling the size of the short term carpark with the addition of 2,500 spaces over six levels, along with 1,200 new spaces added to the 5,000 already available in the long term carpark. Revenue from retail operations at Melbourne Airport broke the $100 million mark for the first time in 2004, this being a 100 per cent increase in revenue since the first year of privatisation.
Widening of the main north–south runway by 15 m (49 ft) was completed over a 29-day period in May 2005, enabling the operation of the Airbus A380. The works were followed in March 2006 by a 5,000 m2 (54,000 sq ft) expansion of Terminal 2, and the construction of an additional level of airline lounges above the terminal. In 2008 a further 25,000 m2 (270,000 sq ft) expansion of Terminal 2 commenced, costing $330 million with completion in 2011. The works added 5 additional aerobridges on a new passenger concourse, and a new 5,000 m2 (54,000 sq ft) outbound passenger security and customs processing zone.
Melbourne Airport's terminals have 56 gates: 40 domestic and 16 international. There are five dedicated freighter parking positions on the Southern Freighter Apron. The current terminal numbering system was introduced in July 2005; they were previously known as Qantas Domestic, International, and South (formerly Ansett Domestic).
Terminal 1 hosts domestic services for Qantas Group airlines, Qantas, Jetstar and QantasLink and is located to the northern end of the building. Departures are located on the first floor, while arrivals are located on the ground floor. The terminal has 16 parking bays served by aerobridges; 12 are served by single aerobridges whilst four are served by double aerobridges. There are another five non-aerobridge gates, which are used by QantasLink and Jetstar.
Opened with Melbourne Airport in 1970 for Trans Australia Airlines, the terminal passed to Qantas in 1992 when they acquired the airline. Work on improving the original terminal commenced in October 1997 and was completed in late 1999 at a cost of cost $50 million, featuring a second pier, stands for 9 additional aircraft, an extended access roadway and the expansion of the terminal.complete.
Today, a wide range of shops and food outlets are situated at the end of the terminal near the entrance into Terminal 2. Qantas has a Qantas Club, Business Class and a Chairman's lounge in the terminal.
Terminal 2 handles all international flights out of Melbourne Airport and the city and opened with the airport in 1970. The terminal has 20 gates with aerobridges. Cathay Pacific, Malaysia Airlines, Qantas (which includes two lounges in Terminal 2, a First lounge and a Business lounge/Qantas Club), Thai Airways International, Singapore Airlines, Air New Zealand/United Airlines and Emirates Airline all operate airline lounges in the terminal.
A $330 million expansion programme for Terminal 2 was announced in 2007. The objectives of this project include new lounges and retail facilities, a new satellite terminal, increased luggage capacity and a redesign of customs and security areas. A new satellite terminal features floor-to-ceiling windows offers views of the North-South runway. The new concourse includes three double-decker aerobridges, each accommodating an A380 aircraft or two smaller aircraft and one single aerobridge. The baggage handling capacity will be increased, and two new baggage carousels will cater to increased A380 traffic. Work commenced in November 2007 and will be completed in 2011.
Although described as a satellite terminal, the terminal building is connected by an above-ground corridor to Terminal 2. Departures take place on the lower deck (similar to the A380 boarding lounges currently in use at Gates 9 and 11), with arrivals streamed on to the first floor to connect with the current first floor arrivals deck. All gates including 18 and 20 are now handling passengers.
Terminal 3 – opened with the airport as the Ansett Australia terminal, but is now owned by Melbourne Airport. Terminal 3 is home to Virgin Australia and Regional Express Airlines. It currently has eleven parking bays served by single aerobridges and eight parking bays not equipped with aerobridges.
An expansion of the terminal was approved in 1989 and completed in 1991 when a second pier was added by Ansett to the south for use by smaller regional airline Kendell. The terminal was used exclusively by the Ansett Group for all its domestic activities until its collapse in 2001. It was intended to be used by the "New" Ansett, under ownership of Tesna – however, following the Tesna group's withdrawal of the purchase of Ansett in 2002, the terminal was sold back to Melbourne Airport by Ansett's administrators. As a result, Melbourne Airport undertook a major renovation and facelift of the terminal, following which Virgin Australia (then Virgin Blue) moved in from what was then called Domestic Express (now Terminal 4), and has since began operating The Lounge in the terminal, using the former Ansett Australia Golden Wing Lounge area. Regional Express also operates an airline lounge in the terminal.
Terminal 4 – originally called the Domestic Express or South Terminal – is dedicated to budget airlines and is the first facility of its kind at a conventional airport in Australia. It was originally constructed for Virgin Blue (Virgin Australia) and Impulse Airlines. Virgin Blue eventually moved into Terminal 3 following the demise of Ansett. A $5 million refit began in June 2007 along the lines of the budget terminal model at Singapore Changi Airport and Kuala Lumpur International Airport. Lower landing and airport handling fees are charged to airlines due to the basic facilities, lack of jet bridges, and fewer amenities and retail outlets compared to a conventional terminal. However, the terminal is located next to the main terminal building, unlike in Singapore and Kuala Lumpur. The terminal was rebuilt by Tiger Airways Australia, which has used it as its main hub since it operated its first domestic flight on 23 November 2007.
Jetstar Airways confirmed its involvement in discussions with Melbourne Airport regarding the expansion of terminal facilities to accommodate for the growth of domestic low-cost services. The proposed expansion of Terminal 4 includes infrastructure to accommodate Tiger Airways Australia and Jetstar Airways flights. These plans are currently in development, and the expansion of Terminal 4 would include the relocation of the current freight centre. If approved, the development is expected to cost hundreds of millions of dollars and take five years to complete. In March 2012 it was announced that in October the same year T4 is to break ground, with an expected completion of date of July 2014. The new T4 terminal will be 35,000 m2 (380,000 sq ft) and linked "under one roof" with T3. The airport is yet to confirm which airline(s) will use the new terminal once operational.
Southern Freighter Apron
The Southern Freighter Apron has five dedicated freighter parking positions which host 21 dedicated freighter operations a week. In August 1997, the fifth freighter parking position and the apron was extended.
Airlines and destinations
- ^1 These flights may make an intermediate stop en route to their listed final destination; however the airlines have no traffic rights to carry passengers solely between Melbourne and the intermediate Australian stop.
The following airlines operate cargo-only services from Melbourne Airport’s Southern Freighter Apron:
|Australian air Express||Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Canberra, Gold Coast, Hobart, Launceston, Perth, Sydney, Townsville|
|Cathay Pacific Cargo||Hong Kong, Sydney|
|Emirates SkyCargo||Dubai-Al Maktoum, Dubai-International, Singapore|
|MASkargo||Kuala Lumpur International, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Sydney|
|Polar Air Cargo||Cincinnati, Hong Kong, Honolulu, Sydney|
|Qantas Freight operated by Atlas Air||Auckland, Chicago-O'Hare, Hong Kong, Honolulu, New York-JFK|
|Singapore Airlines Cargo||Adelaide, Auckland, Singapore|
|Toll Priority||Brisbane, Perth, Sydney|
|Toll Priority operated by Toll Aviation||Adelaide, Brisbane, Sydney|
Melbourne Airport is served by four hotels. A Parkroyal Hotel is located 100 m (330 ft) from Terminal 2 atop the multi-level carpark. Work commenced on the six-story 280-room hotel in January 1999, which was completed in mid-2000. The hotel was originally a Hilton but was relaunched as the Parkroyal on 4 April 2011. Holiday Inn has an outlet located 400 m (1,300 ft) from the terminal precinct. Ibis Budget offers lodgings located 600 m (2,000 ft) from the terminals. Mantra Tullamarine opened in 2009, 2 km (1.2 mi) from the terminal precinct.
Melbourne is the second busiest airport in Australia. The airport is curfew-free and operates 24 hours a day, although between 2 am and 4 am, freight aircraft are more prevalent than passenger flights. In 2004, the environmental management systems were accredited ISO 14001, the world's best practice standard, making it the first airport in Australia to receive such accreditation.
Construction works were undertaken to prepare the airport for the arrival of the double-decker Airbus A380. The A380 has been purchased by several airlines using the airport, namely Malaysia Airlines, Qantas, Qatar Airways, Thai Airways, Vietnam Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Singapore Airlines, Etihad Airways and Emirates. The improvements included the construction of dual airbridges (Gates 9 and 11) with the ability to board both decks simultaneously to reduce turnaround times, the widening of the North-South runway and remote stands and taxiways by 15 m (49 ft), the extension of the international terminal building by 20 m (66 ft) to include new penthouse airline lounges, and the construction of an additional baggage carousel in the arrivals hall. As a result the airport was the first in Australia to be capable of handling the A380. The A380 made its first test flight into the airport on 14 November 2005. On 15 May 2008 the A380 made its first passenger flight into the airport when a Singapore Airlines Sydney-bound flight was diverted from Sydney Airport because of fog.
Beginning services in October 2008, Qantas was the first airline to operate the A380 from the airport, flying nonstop to Los Angeles International Airport twice a week. This was the inaugural route for the Qantas A380. Qantas was followed by Singapore Airlines, who now opearates the A380 daily to Singapore Changi Airport. Singapore Airlines services began on 29 September 2009, and will become double daily from August 2012. Emirates intend to fly the A380 to Dubai International Airport from 1 October 2012
Melbourne Airport has two intersecting runways: one 3,657 m (11,998 ft) north–south and one 2,286 m (7,500 ft) east–west. Due to increasing traffic, several runway expansions are planned, including an 843 m (2,766 ft) extension of the north-south runway to lengthen it to 4,500 m (14,764 ft), and a 1,214 m (3,983 ft) extension of the east–west runway to a total of 3,500 m (11,483 ft). Two new runways are also planned: a 3,000 m (9,843 ft) runway parallel to the current north–south runway and a 3,000 m (9,843 ft) runway south of the current east–west runway. The 3rd runway is expected to cost $500 million and will be open by 2020. Traffic movement is expected to reach 248,000 per annum by 2017, necessitating a third runway.
On 5 June 2008, it was announced that the airport would install a Category III landing system, allowing planes to land in low visibility conditions, such as fog. This system will be the first of its kind in Australia, and was commissioned March 2010 at a cost of $10 million.
Awards and accolades
Melbourne Airport has received numerous awards. The International Air Transport Association ranked Melbourne among the top five airports in the world in 1997 and 1998 and, in 2003, presented it with the Eagle Award. The Australian Airport Association named it the Airport of the Year in 1999, while Business Traveller Magazine and Airports Council International have ranked Melbourne in the top ten every year from 1996 to 2000 and in the top five for airports that handle between 15 and 25 million passengers.
The airport has received recognition in other areas. It has won national and state tourism awards, and Singapore Airlines presented the airport with the Service Partner Award and Premier Business Partner Award in 2002 and 2004, respectively. In 2006, the airport won the Australian Construction Achievement Award for the runway widening project, dubbed "the most outstanding example of construction excellence for 2006". Most recently Melbourne Airport was awarded by Skytrax for having the best Airport hotel in the Australia/Pacific in the WORLD AIRPORT AWARDS <http://www.worldairportawards.com/Awards_2012/hotel_auspac.htm>. Melbourne Airport was also ranked the 43rd best airport for 2012 <http://www.worldairportawards.com/Awards_2012/top60airports.htm>.
In addition to the onsite control tower, the airport is home to Melbourne Centre, an air traffic control facility that is responsible for the separation of aircraft in Australia's busiest flight information region, Melbourne FIR. Melbourne FIR monitors airspace over Victoria, Tasmania, southern New South Wales, most of South Australia, the southern half of Western Australia and airspace over the Indian and Southern Ocean. In total, the centre controls 6% of the world's airspace. The airport is also the home of the Canberra approach and Melbourne approach facilities, which provide control services to aircraft arriving and departing at those airports.
Traffic and statistics
Melbourne Airport recorded more than 27.9 million passengers in 2010–11. 6.2 million of those were international, with the remaining 21.7 million being domestic. There were 206,798 aircraft movements, the vast majority being domestic passenger services. In the long term, the compounded average annual growth rate (CAAGR) for passenger movements is between 3.3% and 4.3%. For aircraft movements, the CAAGR is between 1.8% and 2.6%. This firmly entrenches Melbourne as Australia's second busiest airport, ahead of Brisbane
The following table lists passenger statistics for Melbourne Airport. Forecast statistics are in dark grey.
Melbourne Airport is 23 km (14 mi) from the city centre and is accessible via CityLink and the Tullamarine Freeway. One freeway offramp runs directly into the airport grounds, and a second to the south serves freight transport, taxis, buses and airport staff. Melbourne Airport has five car parks, all of which operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The short-term, multi-level long-term, business and express carparks are covered, while the long-term parking is not. The main multi-level carpark in front of the terminal was built in the late 1990s, replacing the pre-existing ground-level car parking. It has been progressively expanded ever since.
The Skybus Super Shuttle service is the main public transport link to the airport, taking approximately 20 minutes to reach Southern Cross Station in the Melbourne central business district. From Southern Cross, travellers can access V/Line regional and Metro Trains Melbourne suburban trains, Yarra Trams and interstate train and bus services.
There are four local bus services to Melbourne Airport. The route 901 SmartBus service was introduced in September 2010, and is much more frequent than the other local bus services. The publicly funded Route 901 SmartBus runs at 15-minute intervals throughout the day (30 minutes at night) to and from Broadmeadows railway station, a 20-minute trip depending on traffic and road conditions, where travellers can connect with frequent Metro rail services to Southern Cross, Flinders Street and points beyond with a $6 full fare myki card or a $3 concession myki and top it up with value to travel. In some cases it is cheaper than skybus.
There are nine other bus companies serving the airport, with services to Ballarat, Bendigo, Dandenong, Frankston, Mornington Peninsula, Geelong, Melbourne's suburbs, Shepparton and the Riverina. These provide alternatives to transfer onto V/Line services.
In 2001, the state government investigated the construction of a heavy rail link to the airport under the Linking Victoria programme. Two options were considered; the first branched off the Craigieburn Suburban Line to the east, and the second branched off the Albion Goods Line, which passes close to the airport's boundary to the south. The second option was preferred. Market research concluded most passengers preferred travelling to the airport by taxi or car, and poor patronage of similar links in Sydney and Brisbane cast doubt on the viability of the project. This led to the project being deferred until at least 2012. On 21 July 2008, the Premier of Victoria reaffirmed the government's commitment to a rail link and said that it would be considered within three to five years. To maximise future development options, the airport is lobbying for the on-grounds section of the railway to be underground.
In 2010, Martin Pakula of the Labor Party, newly appointed State Minister for Public Transport announced that the rail link had been taken off the agenda with new freeway options being explored instead, however a change of government at the 2010 Victorian State Election to Liberals, saw policy for the introduction of the rail link return to the agenda, with a promise by the incoming Coalition government to undertake planning for its construction.
On 13 March 2013, the Victorian Liberal government under the newly installed Premier Dennis Napthine announced that the Melbourne Airport Rail Link (MARL) would be constructed sometime in the future running from the CBD via Sunshine station and the Albion–Jacana railway line.
Accidents and incidents
- On 29 May 2003, Qantas Flight 1737 from Melbourne to Launceston Airport was hijacked shortly after takeoff. The hijacker, a passenger named David Robinson, intended to fly the aircraft into the Walls of Jerusalem National Park, located in central Tasmania. The flight attendants and passengers successfully subdued and restrained the hijacker, and the aircraft returned to Melbourne.
- On 20 March 2009, Emirates Airline Flight 407, an Airbus A340-500, was taking off from Melbourne Airport on Runway 16 for a flight to Dubai International Airport and failed to become airborne in the normal distance. When the aircraft was nearing the end of the runway, the crew commanded nose-up sharply, causing its tail to scrape along the runway as it became airborne, during which smoke was observed in the cabin. The crew dumped fuel and returned to the airport. The damage caused to the aircraft was considered substantial. The aircraft damaged a strobe light at the end of the runway as well as an antenna on the localiser, which led to the ILS being out of service for some time causing some disruptions to the airport's operation.
When Jetstar was established in 2004, it decided to operate flights to Adelaide, Brisbane, Perth and Sydney from Avalon rather than Melbourne Airport. This made Melbourne the only city in Australia with two commercially served airports and generated airport competition for the first time in an Australian city. To compete with Avalon, Melbourne established the Budget Terminal and lowered landing fees, which made it the cheapest arrival point in Australia and one of the cheapest international airports in the world. Since then, Jetstar has moved all its flights from Avalon to Melbourne Airport, with the exception of Sydney and Brisbane which it operates from both airports.
AirAsia X was widely expected to launch international flights to Kuala Lumpur from Avalon in October 2008. However, Linfox's proposal to upgrade Avalon's international facilities was rejected on 5 June 2008, which prompted AirAsia X to announce flights from Melbourne Airport on 20 August 2008. Linfox vowed to resolve the Government's concerns and build the terminal, but on 14 November 2008, announced that upgrading Avalon to handle international flights would no longer be viable due to the government's resistance. Then on 10 March 2009, Linfox announced that Avalon would indeed handle international flights within two years and the Government would approve of a $50 million terminal by the end of 2009.
- City of Keilor – the former local government area of which Melbourne Airport was a part
- List of airports in Victoria
- Transport in Australia
- Melbourne Airport achieves 6% total passenger growth for 2012/13
- Fiscal year 1 July – 30 June
- "Melbourne airport - Economic and social impacts". Ecquants. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- PDF). AIP En Route Supplement from Airservices Australia, effective 14 November 2013, Aeronautical Chart (
- "Airport Traffic Data 1985–86 to 2010–11". Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics (BITRE). May 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.[dead link] Refers to "Regular Public Transport (RPT) operations only"
- "Suburbs in postcode 3045 – Australia Post Codes". Auspostcode.com. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "New Melbourne to Sydney flight route takes-off". The Age (Australia). 2 July 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
- "OAG reveals latest industry intelligence on the busiest routes" (Press release). OAG. 21 September 2007. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
- "Melbourne air freight exports top Sydney for the first time" (Press release). Victorian Government. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
- "2003 Annual Report" (PDF). Melbourne Airport. 2003. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- "Melbourne's Airport – A World Class Operator". Melbourne Airport Media Releases (Press release). 3 June 2003. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- "Melbourne Airport Wins Australian Tourism Award". Melbourne Airport Media Releases (Press release). 16 October 1998. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- "Second Major Australian Tourism Award for Melbourne Airport". Melbourne Airport Media Releases (Press release). 1 December 2000. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- "2010 Annual Report" (PDF). Melbourne Airport. 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- "Melbourne Airport train link derailed by buck-passing". The Age (Australia). 26 June 2010.
- "Melbourne to Get Jetport in 5-Year Development Plan". The New York Times. 27 November 1962. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
- "12,000-Car Melbourne Jam". The New York Times. 29 June 1970. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
- "Essendon Airport, Tullamarine Fwy, Strathmore, VIC, Australia (entry AHD102718)". Australian Heritage Database. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
- "Melbourne to Get Jetport in 5-Year Development Plan". The New York Times. 22 December 1967. Retrieved 27 September 2008.[dead link]
- "Essendon Airport History". City of Moonee Valley. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
- "1997–1998 Annual Report" (PDF). Melbourne Airport. 1998. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- Moynihan, Stephen (13 July 2007). "Tiger bites into fares, but Tulla bleeds". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 31 July 2008.
- Murphy, Mathew (19 May 2008). "Jetstar bid for Tulla expansion". The Age (Australia). Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- Jim Eames (1998). Reshaping Australia's Aviation Landscape: The Federal Airports Corporation 1986–1998. Focus Publishing. p. 53. ISBN 1-875359-47-8.
- Federal Airports Corporation documents, "Bulla Bulla" I.W. Symonds, the late Harry Heaps and Wally Mansfield
- "Airport Privatisation". MarketResearch.com. 25 April 2006. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
- Jim Eames (1998). Reshaping Australia's Aviation Landscape: The Federal Airports Corporation 1986–1998. Focus Publishing. p. 123. ISBN 1-875359-47-8.
- "Anderson approves new Melbourne Airport terminal". Media Release. minister.infrastructure.gov.au. 15 April 2000. Archived from the original on 28 July 2008. Retrieved 29 July 2008.
- "Domestic Multi-User Terminal For Melbourne Great For Competition". Melbourne Airport Media Releases (Press release). 26 August 2002. Retrieved 29 July 2008.[dead link]
- Jim Eames (1998). Reshaping Australia's Aviation Landscape: The Federal Airports Corporation 1986–1998. Focus Publishing. p. 55. ISBN 1-875359-47-8.
- "1999 Annual Report" (PDF). Australia Pacific Airports. Retrieved 29 July 2008.
- Australian Infrastructure Fund (5 December 2000). "Media Release: New Domestic Express Terminal opens at Melbourne Airport". data.iguana2.com. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- "2004 Annual Report" (PDF). Australia Pacific Airports. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- "2005 Annual Report" (PDF). Australia Pacific Airports. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- "2006 Annual Report" (PDF). Australia Pacific Airports. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- "2008 Annual Report" (PDF). Australia Pacific Airports. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- "Melbourne Airport – Technical". Melbourne Airport. Archived from the original on 21 July 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- "Melbourne Airport – the hub for freight in Australasia". Melbourne Airport. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- "Melbourne Airport renames terminals". Melbourne Airport Media Releases. Melbourne Airport. Archived from the original on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 29 July 2008.
- "Qantas Club Locations". Qantas. Archived from the original on 22 July 2008. Retrieved 29 July 2008.
- "Melbourne Airport – Airline Lounges". Melbourne Airport. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 29 July 2008.
- Battersby, Jean (1996). "Art and Airports 2". Craft Arts International 37: 49–64.
- Masanauskas, John (27 August 2007). "More space promised in Melbourne airport facelift". Herald Sun (Australia: News.com.au). Retrieved 29 July 2008.
- "$330m Expansions to Melbourne's International Terminal". Melbourne Airport. 25 August 2007. Archived from the original on 31 August 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2007.
- "Melbourne Airport to buy Ansett terminal". ABC News Online. ABCnet.au. 3 May 2002. Retrieved 29 July 2008. [dead link]
- "Virgin Blue and Melbourne Airport Reach Terminal Deal". Melbourne Airport Media Releases (Press release). 23 July 2002. Retrieved 29 July 2008.[dead link]
- "The Lounge Pricing". Virgin Blue. Retrieved 29 July 2008.[dead link]
- "Rex Lounge". Regional Express. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
- "Domestic Multi-User Terminal For Melbourne Great For Competition". Melbourne Airport Media Releases. 26 August 2002. Retrieved 2 May 2008.[dead link][dead link]
- "Melbourne Airport". Airport Technology. Retrieved 26 July 2008.
- Murphy, Mathew (3 May 2007). "Fares to fall as city sinks its claws into Tiger". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- Gisick, Mike (21 March 2012). "Tullamarine T4 to break ground by October". Australian Aviation (Australia). Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- Aussies to fly direct to Delhi | News.com.au
- Air Vanuata Northern Summer Schedules 2012[dead link]
- Air Vanuatu Cargo
- Shanghai Daily (30 March 2011). "More flights from Shanghai to Sydney and Melbourne". Shanghaiist. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Jetstar helps more holidaymakers escape to islands
- "Qantas Grows Capacity in Western Australia" (Press release). Qantas. 13 July 2010.[dead link]
- "Hobart Flights Boost – The Mercury – The Voice of Tasmania". The Mercury. 12 October 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- Royal Brunei Airlines (15 October 2010). "Royal Brunei Airlines to fly to Melbourne". bruneiair.com. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- Cheap Melbourne flights back on from November as Tiger Airways returns to Adelaide | adelaidenow
- Wilson, Neil (31 January 2012). "Tiger Airways gets green-light for more flights". Herald Sun. Australia. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- "Tassie Tiger returns with backup as flights resume". The Sydney Morning Herald. 20 April 2012.
- "Tiger Airways Announces Fares Between Melbourne and Perth On Sale Now From $109.95". tigerairways.com. 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- "News and Press Releases". Virgin Australia. 16 May 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.[dead link][dead link]
- "Qantas Freighter Network: Northern Summer Schedule 2010". Qantas. June 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- "Parkroyal returns to Melbourne with new GM". Hospitality. Australia. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "Melbourne Airport – Hotels". Melbourne Airport. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Melbourne Flight summary" (PDF). Melbourne Airport. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- "Melbourne Airport – Environment". Melbourne Airport. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- "Melbourne – Australia's first fully A380-ready city". Melbourne Airport Media Releases (Press release). 10 November 2005. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- Barnes, Renee (14 November 2005). "The Airbus has landed". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- "Seven News Melbourne". Episode 2008-05-15. 15 May 2008.
- "The Qantas A380 – Now on sale" (Press release). Qantas. 16 June 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- "Singapore Airlines A380 To Fly To Melbourne" (Press release). Singapore Airlines. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- Murphy, Mathew (21 November 2007). "Correct weight for Emirates A380". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- "2008 Draft Master Plan" (PDF). Melbourne Airport. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- Melbourne Airport plans $500m third runway for 2018-2022 - Flights | hotels | frequent flyer | business class - Australian Business Traveller
- Dunn, Mark (21 December 2007). "New runways plan for Melbourne airport". Herald Sun (Australia). Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- Murphy, Mathew; Burgess, Matthew (5 June 2008). "Plan to fog-proof Melbourne Airport". The Age (Australia). Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- "Melbourne Airport Voted in Top 5 World Airports". Melbourne Airport Media Releases (Press release). 20 April 1998. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- "Melbourne Airport – Awards". Melbourne Airport. Archived from the original on 13 April 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- "Eagle Award Recognition 1998–2008". International Air Transport Association. Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- "Melbourne Airport Is Tops For Business Travellers". Melbourne Airport Media Releases (Press release). 26 October 2000. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- "Melbourne Airport named in World's Top Five". Melbourne Airport Media Releases (Press release). 23 February 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- "Airport Service Quality Awards 2007" (Press release). Airports Council International. 25 February 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- "Melbourne Airport awarded by Singapore Airlines". Melbourne Airport Media Releases (Press release). 25 June 2004. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- "Runway widening project wins major Aust. construction award". Melbourne Airport Media Releases (Press release). 20 June 2006. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- "Melbourne Centre". Airservices Australia. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- "Australian International Airline Activity" (PDF). Aviation Statistics. Bureau of Transport and Regional Economics. October 2011. pp. 31–32. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
- "Domestic aviation activity June 2013". Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics (BITRE). August 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013. Refers to "Regular Public Transport (RPT) operations only"
- "Second Airport entry road opens". Melbourne Airport Media Releases. Melbourne Airport. Archived from the original on 22 July 2008. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
- "Melbourne Airport – Parking". Melbourne Airport. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- "SmartBus Route 901". The Victorian Transport Plan. transport.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 10 November 2010.[dead link]
- Metro Trains Melbourne (21 September 2010). "New SmartBus direct to Melbourne Airport". metrotrains.com.au. Retrieved 10 November 2010.
- "Other Bus Services – To and From the Airport". Melbourne Airport. Retrieved 30 May 2011.[dead link]
- Lucas, Clay (1 March 2010). "Airport road won't cope with demand, study shows". The Age (Australia).
- "Melbourne Airport Rail Link Not Viable Now" (Press release). Minister for Transport. 18 January 2002. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- "Why can't this train get us to the airport?". The Age (Melbourne). 4 June 2006. Retrieved 29 July 2008.
- "Surge in passenger demand prompts call for Airport rail link". Herald Sun (Australia). 22 July 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2008.[dead link]
- Ferguson, John (29 April 2008). "Melbourne airport seeks underground train line". Herald Sun (Australia). Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- Lucas, Clay (12 November 2009). "New airport link proposed". The Age (Australia).
- Troeth, Simon (15 November 2010). "COALITION WILL PLAN MELB AIRPORT RAIL LINK". Liberal Party Victoria (Melbourne).
- "Route chosen for Melbourne airport link". Perth Now. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Two stabbed in attempted hijack over Melbourne". The Sydney Morning Herald. 29 May 2003. Retrieved 1 October 2008.
- "Qantas hijacker found not guilty". The Age (Melbourne). 14 July 2004. Retrieved 22 November 2008.
- "AO-2009-012: Tail strike, Airbus Industrie, A340-541, A6-ERG, Melbourne Airport, Vic, 20 March 2009". Australian Transportation Safety Bureau (Press release). 20 March 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2009.[dead link]
- "History made as Avalon Airport welcomes first Jetstar flight" (PDF) (Press release). Jetstar Airways. 1 June 2004. Retrieved 30 June 2008.[dead link]
- Hawthorne, Mark (31 May 2007). "Fee deal aims to lure airlines to Melbourne". The Age (Australia). Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- Newman, Geoffery (1 June 2007). "Melbourne to cut air fees as Tiger takes off". The Australian. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- The Australian (16 May 2008). "Perth shows it has the X factor in the battle to attract low-cost Malaysian airline". News Limited. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
- The Age (5 June 2008). "Linfox's Avalon Airport plans rejected". Melbourne. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- "AirAsia X flies direct to Melbourne". Peanuts! Online. 20 August 2008. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
- Herald Sun (14 November 2008). "Linfox's Avalon Airport plans rejected". Retrieved 15 November 2008.[dead link]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Melbourne Airport.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Melbourne Airport.|