Railways in Melbourne

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The pre 1910 Flinders Street Station building on Swanston Street
Flinders Street Station today

The Melbourne rail network is operated by Metro Trains Melbourne under franchise from the Government of Victoria. The network is based on a commuter rail model centred on the Melbourne Central Business District (CBD) and Flinders Street Station, rather than a rapid transit model, with a focus on services at peak periods.

Melbourne's suburban railway network consists of 16 electrified lines, the central City Loop subway, and 207 stations, with a total length of 372 km of electrified lines. The suburban network operates between approximately 5:00 a.m. and midnight. The network is primarily at ground level, with more than 170 level crossings, and some tracks shared with freight trains and V/Line regional services.

In the 2013–14 financial year, the Melbourne rail network recorded 232 million passenger trips, a 2.7 percent increase on the previous year.[1]

History[edit]

Melbourne's first railway line opened in 1854, when only 20 years earlier Melbourne itself did not exist. The network was extended with lines being built to the suburbs, reaching a peak by the 1900s. Electrification of the system commenced from 1919, with electric multiple unit operation commencing at the same time.

In 1839, the Government Surveyor Robert Hoddle provided for a railway linking Melbourne and Hobsons Bay.

On 7 September 1851 a public meeting called for a railway linking Melbourne to Port Melbourne (then called Sandridge) which led to the establishment on 20 January 1853 of the Melbourne and Hobson's Bay Railway Company. On 8 February 1853 the Government also approved the establishment of the Geelong and Melbourne Railway Company and the Melbourne, Mount Alexander and Murray River Railway Company.

In 1855 the Government conducted enquiries and carried out surveys into country railways. On 1 April 1856, the Railway Department was established as part of the Board of Land and Works with George Christian Darbyshire being appointed Engineer in Chief. On 23 May of that year the Melbourne, Mount Alexander and Murray River Railway Company was taken over by the Government.

The first train[edit]

Work began on laying the first railway in Victoria in March 1853, the line stretching 4 kilometres (2.5 mi). from the Melbourne (or City) Terminus (on the site of modern day Flinders Street Station) to Sandridge (now Port Melbourne). As with many of Australia's early railways, it was owned and operated by a private company—the Melbourne and Hobson's Bay Railway Company—which was formed in 1853.

Trains were ordered from Robert Stephenson and Company of the United Kingdom. The first train was locally built by Robertson, Martin & Smith, however, owing to delays in shipping. Australia's first steam locomotive was built in ten weeks and cost £2,700. Forming the first steam train to travel in Australia, it made its maiden voyage on 12 September 1854.[2]

The opening of the line occurred during the period of the Victorian gold rush—a time when both Melbourne and Victoria undertook massive capital works, each with its own gala opening. The inaugural journey on the Sandridge line was no exception. According to the Argus newspaper's report of the next day: "Long before the hour appointed . . . a great crowd assembled round the station at the Melbourne terminus, lining the whole of Flinders Street". Lieutenant-Governor Sir Charles Hotham and Lady Hotham were aboard the train—which consisted of two first class carriages and one second class—and were presented with satin copies of the railway's timetable and bylaws.

The trip took 10 minutes, none of the later stations along the line having been built yet. On arriving at Station Pier (onto which the tracks extended), it was hailed with gun-salutes by the warships HMS Electra and HMS Fantome.

By March 1855, the four engines ordered from the UK were all in service, with trains running every half-hour. They were named Melbourne, Sandridge, Victoria, and Yarra (after the Yarra River over which the line crossed).

Early privateers[edit]

Steam-hauled suburban train departing North Melbourne station for Sunshine.

Melbourne's second railway line opened 13 May 1857, when the Melbourne and Hobson's Bay Railway Company opened their 4.5 km line from the Melbourne (or City) Terminus (on the site of modern day Flinders Street Station) to St Kilda. This line was later extended by the St Kilda and Brighton Railway Company, which opened a line from St Kilda to Brighton in 1857.

Country lines were also built in 1857, with the Geelong and Melbourne Railway Company opening a line from Geelong to Newport. In 1859 the Williamstown railway line opened, connecting Williamstown and Geelong to Spencer Street Station.

More country lines followed in 1859 when Victorian Railways opened a line from the Williamstown line at Footscray, to Sunbury, taking over from the Melbourne, Mount Alexander and Murray River Railway Company that was established in 1853 to build a railway to Echuca, but failed to make any progress.

The first line to Melbourne's south-eastern suburbs was opened in 1859 by the Melbourne and Suburban Railway Company, which ran from Princes Bridge railway station to Punt Road (Richmond), South Yarra, and Prahran. This line was extended to Windsor in 1860, connecting with the St Kilda and Brighton Railway Company line from St Kilda. The new line replaced the indirect St Kilda and Windsor line to the city, which was closed in 1867.

Another suburban line was built by the Melbourne and Essendon Railway Company in 1860, with their line running from North Melbourne to Essendon, with a branch line from Newmarket to Flemington Racecourse opening in 1861. On the eastern side of town, the Melbourne and Suburban Railway Company opened a branch line from Richmond to Burnley and Hawthorn in 1861.

By this point, the railways of Melbourne was a disjointed group of city centric lines, with various companies operating from three separate city terminals—Princes Bridge, Flinders Street, and Spencer Street stations.

Some of the smaller companies were encountering financial problems. The St Kilda and Brighton Railway Company and Melbourne and Suburban Railway Company were absorbed by the Melbourne and Hobson's Bay Railway Company in 1865, forming the Melbourne and Hobsons Bay United Railway Company. The Melbourne and Essendon Railway Company was taken over by the Victorian Government in 1867. The Melbourne and Hobsons Bay United Railway Company was not taken over by the Victorian Government until 1878.

The terminals themselves were linked in 1879, when track was built along the southern side of Flinders Street at street level to connect with Spencer Street Station, although this was only used for freight traffic at night. It was not until 1889 that the two track Flinders Street Viaduct was built between the two city terminus stations.

Outwards expansion also continued, with major trunk lines being opened into rural Victoria. Victorian Railways extended their line to Broadmeadows in 1872 as part of the line to Seymour and Albury-Wodonga. In 1879 the Gippsland line was opened from South Yarra to Caulfield, Pakenham and Bairnsdale.

Land boom lines[edit]

Connex train arriving at the Camberwell railway station

The 1870s and 1880s were a time of great growth and prosperity in Melbourne. Land speculation companies were formed, to buy up outer suburban land cheaply, and to agitate for suburban railways to be built or extended to serve these land holdings and increase land values. By 1880 the "Land Boom" was in full swing in Victoria, with the passing of the Railway Construction Act 1884, later known as the Octopus Act for the 66 lines across the state that were authorised in it.[3]

The Frankston line began with the opening of a line from Caulfield to Mordialloc in 1881, reaching the terminus in 1882. A second new suburban railway line was opened from Spencer Street Station to Coburg in 1884, and extended to Somerton in 1889, meeting the main line from Spencer Street to Wodonga. Land developers opened a private railway from Newport to Altona in 1888, but it was closed in 1890, due to lack of demand.

The line from Hawthorn was extended, to Camberwell in 1882, Lilydale in 1883, and Healesville in 1889. In addition, a branch line (now known as the Belgrave line) was opened from Ringwood to Upper Ferntree Gully in 1889. A short branch two station was also opened from Hawthorn to Kew in 1887. The Brighton Beach line was also extended to Sandringham in 1887.

In 1888, railways came to the north eastern suburbs with the opening of the Inner Circle line from Spencer Street Station via Royal Park station to what is now Victoria Park station, and then on to Heidelberg. A branch was also opened off the Inner Circle in Fitzroy North, to Epping and Whittlesea in 1888 and 1889. Trains between Spencer Street and Heidelberg reversed at Victoria Park until a link was opened between Victoria Park and Princes Bridge in 1901.

The Outer Circle line opened in 1890, linking Oakleigh (on the Gippsland line) to Riversdale (with a branch to Camberwell on the Lilydale line) and Fairfield (on the Heidelberg line). Originally envisaged to link the Gippsland line with Spencer Street Station in the 1870s, this reason disappeared with the building of a direct link via South Yarra before the line had even opened. The line saw little traffic as it traversed empty paddocks, and with no though traffic, the Outer Circle was closed in sections between 1893 and 1897. The Camberwell to Ashburton stretch of the Outer Circle re-opened in 1899, then in 1900, part of the northern section of the Outer Circle reopened as a shuttle service between East Camberwell and Deepdene station. This line closed in 1927.

At the same time as the Outer Circle, a railway was opened from Burnley to Darling and a junction with the Outer Circle at Waverley Road (near the modern East Malvern). A stub of the future Glen Waverley line, it was cut back to Darling in 1895.

The land boom railway building hit a peak with the construction of the Rosstown Railway between Elsternwick and Oakleigh. Built by William Murry Ross, the line was planned from the 1870s to serve a sugar beet mill near Caufield. Construction commenced in 1883, followed by rebuilding in 1888. Ross's debt grew, and he attempted to sell the line many times without success. The line never opened to traffic and was later dismantled.

The stock market crash of 1891 lead to an extended period of economic depression, and put an end to railway construction until the next decade.

By the 1900s, the driving force for new railway lines were the farmers in what is now Melbourne's outer suburbs. In the Dandenong Ranges a narrow gauge 762 mm line was opened from Upper Ferntree Gully to Belgrave and Gembrook in 1900 to serve the local farming and timber community. In the Yarra Valley a branch was opened from Lilydale to Yarra Junction and Warburton in 1901.

On the other side of the valley, the Heidelberg line was extended to Eltham in 1902 and Hurstbridge in 1912. The freight only Mont Park line was also opened in 1911, branching from Macleod. Finally on the Mornington Peninsula, a branch was built from Bittern to Red Hill in 1921.

Electrification[edit]

First set of Tait suburban passenger carriages hauled by steam locomotive Dde 750, 1913
Four car Tait train at the Spring Vale Cemetery platform

Planning for electrification was started by Victorian Railways chairman Thomas James Tait, who engaged English engineer Charles Hesterman Merz to deliver a report on the electrification of the Melbourne suburban network. His first report in 1908 recommended a three stage plan over 2 years, covering 200 route km. of existing lines and almost 500 suburban carriages (approximately 80 trains). The report was considered by the Government and the Railway Commissioners, and Merz was engaged to deliver a second report based on their feedback.

Delivered in 1912, this second report recommended an expanded system of electrification to 240 route km. of existing lines (463 track km.), and almost 800 suburban carriages (approximately 130 trains). The works were approved by the State Government in December 1912. It was envisaged that the first electric trains would be running by 1915, and the project was completed by 1917; World War I restrictions prevented electrical equipment being imported from the United Kingdom, so progress fell behind.

Rolling stock construction continued, with a number of older suburban carriages converted for electric use as the Swing Door trains, while the first of the Tait trains were introduced as steam hauled carriages. Track expansion was also carried out, with four tracks being provided between South Yarra and Caulfield, as well as grade separation from roads.

The first trials did not occur until October 1918 on the Flemington Racecourse line. Driver training continued on this line until the night of Sunday 18 May 1919, when the first electric train ran between Sandringham and Essendon, simulating revenue services. Electric services were inaugurated on 28 May 1919 with the first train running to Essendon, then to Sandringham. Full services started the next day.

The Burnley–Darling line, the Fawkner line, the re-opened branch to Altona, and the Williamstown line followed in 1920.

The line to Broadmeadows, the Whittlesea line to Reservoir, the Bendigo line to St Albans, and the inner sections of the Hurstbridge line were electrified in 1921.

The Gippsland line to Dandenong and Frankston line were electrified in 1922, as was the inner sections of the Ringwood line due to regrading works.

1923 was the completion of the original electrification scheme, but over the next three years a number of short extensions were carried out. The Ashburton line was electrified in 1924, final works on the Lilydale line were completed in 1925, as was electrification on the line to Upper Ferntree Gully. Electrification on the outer ends of the Hurstbridge line were completed by 1926, the Whittlesea line to Thomastown was electrified in 1929, and the Burnley - Darling line was extended to Glen Waverley in 1930 to become the Glen Waverley line.

Post-War rebuilding[edit]

A retired Harris train

Railways experienced increased patronage into the 1940s, but railway improvements recommended in the Ashworth Improvement Plan were delayed until after World War II.[4] It was not until 1950 that the Victorian Railways were able to put their Operation Phoenix rebuilding plan into action. The delivery of the Harris trains, the first steel suburban trains on the network, enabled the retirement of the oldest of the Swing Door trains.

Railway lines were extended during this period to encompass Melbourne's growing suburban footprint. The Ashburton line was extended along the old Outer Circle track formation to Alamein station in 1948. The Fawkner line to Upfield and the Reservoir line to Lalor were both electrified in 1959, the Epping line reaching Epping in 1964. A great deal of track amplification was also undertaken, with a number of single line sections eliminated.[5]

The Upper Ferntree Gully to Belgrave section of the Gembrook narrow gauge line was converted to broad gauge and electrified in 1962. The remainder of the line was closed in 1954, but has been progressively reopened by the Puffing Billy Railway. The Pakenham line was electrified in 1954 as part of the works being carried out on the Gippsland line, but suburban services to Pakenham did not start until 1975.

During this rebuilding, a number of little used lines were closed on the edges of Melbourne. The Bittern to Red Hill line closed in 1953, the line between Epping and Whittlesea closed in 1959, and the Lilydale to Warburton line closed in 1964. The final stages of the rebuilding stretched into the 1970s, with track amplification carried out to Footscray, and Box Hill, and the first deliveries of the stainless steel Hitachi trains. Detailed planning for the Doncaster line also commenced in this period, and by 1972 the route was decided upon. Despite rising costs, the state governments of the period continued to make assurances that the line would be built,[6] but by 1984 land for the line had been sold.[6]

Modernisation[edit]

Comeng train on the Werribee line

By the late 1970s, the state of Melbourne's railway network was very run down. The last major investment on the suburban tracks had taken place fifty years earlier with the completion of Glen Waverley line in 1930 and extensions of all suburban services on existing non-electrified lines during the 1950s. Sixty year old Tait trains (known colloquially as "red rattlers") were still in operation, and inner city congestion at Flinders Street led to peak hour delays.

The Lonie Report, delivered in 1980, called for financial rationalisation and the closure of the Port Melbourne, St. Kilda, Altona, Williamstown, Alamein and Sandringham lines, and their replacement with buses. These recommendations and cuts were not enacted. However, many uneconomic branch lines were closed throughout the rest of the state. The line between Lilydale and Healesville was closed in 1980, now used by the Yarra Valley Railway beyond Yarra Glen. The branch from Baxter to Mornington was closed in 1981, but the line south of Moorooduc is now operated by the Mornington Railway as a tourist route.

In the 1980s, the government authority overseeing Victorian Railways became VicRail and was restructured along corporate lines. The Metrol train control centre was opened in 1980 to coordinate trains throughout the network. Public transport in Melbourne was also reorganised, with the Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) formed in 1983 to coordinate all train, tram and bus services in the city. Between 1981 and 1985 the underground City Loop line was opened around central Melbourne to improve the capacity of Flinders and Spencer Street stations to handle suburban trains and to offer a better choice of stations to users.

In 1983 the Werribee line was electrified, followed two years later by an extension of the Altona line to Laverton. The Port Melbourne and St Kilda lines were converted to standard gauge light rail in 1987, to accommodate tram routes 111 (now route 109) and 96.

Privatisation[edit]

One of Melbourne's newest railway stations, Roxburgh Park

The early 1990s saw further changes, with the MTA reborn as the Public Transport Corporation, trading as "The Met".

State Governments of both sides of politics began to push for reform of the railway network, proposing conversion of the Upfield, Williamstown and Alamein lines to light rail. These proposals failed, with the Upfield line instead receiving a series of upgrades to replace labour-intensive manual signalling systems. Federal government funding was made available for the electrification of the Cranbourne line in 1995. Rationalisation of the Jolimont Railyards commenced, allowing the creation of Melbourne Park and the later Federation Square.

The Kennett Government also initiated a number of reforms to the operation of the railway system, with guards being abolished from suburban trains and train drivers taking over the task of door operation. Stations were de-manned, and the Metcard ticketing system was introduced to cut the need for staff even further.

The biggest change was privatisation. In 1997 "The Met" was split into two operating units—"Hillside Trains" and "Bayside Trains", each to be franchised to a different private operator. Ownership of land and infrastructure for rail and tram services was transferred to a new Victorian Government agency, VicTrack. In addition, a statutory office was created in Government—the Director of Public Transport—with specific responsibility for entering into franchise agreements with public transport operators for the operation of rail and tram services throughout Victoria. In 1999 the process was complete, with Connex Melbourne and M>Train each operating half of the network. By 2004 the parent company of M>Train (National Express) withdrew from operating public transport in Victoria, and their half of the suburban network was passed to Connex as part of a renegotiated contract.

The franchising contracts contained provisions for the new operators to refurbish the Comeng trains, and to replace the older Hitachi trains—Connex chose the Alstom X'Trapolis while M>Train chose Siemens. Since privatisation the Victorian Government has funded expansions to the suburban network—the electrification of the St. Albans line was extended to Watergardens (near the former Sydenham station) in 2002, and the Broadmeadows line was extended to Craigieburn in 2007.

In 2006, Professor Paul Mees and a group of academics estimated that privatisation had cost taxpayers $1.2 billion more than if the system had remained both publicly owned and operated. With the franchise extensions in 2009, taxpayers will pay an estimated $2.1 billion more by 2010.[7] However the Institute of Public Affairs has released its own report into Melbourne's privatisation citing it as a modest success and pointing out that patronage had returned to Melbourne's railways (37.6% increase) after ballooning deficits and the use of old rolling stock had deterred patronage .[8] The Auditor General of Victoria also performed a comprehensive audit report into the franchises and found that "the franchises represent reasonable value for money".[9]

In November 2007, Singapore's SMRT Transit and Hong Kong's MTR Corporation Limited expressed interest in taking control of Melbourne's suburban rail network from Connex in November 2009, when their contract was to be reviewed.[10]

On 25 June 2009, Connex lost its bid to renew its contract with the Victorian Government. Hong Kong backed and owned MTR Corporation took over the Melbourne train network on 30 November 2009, operating as a locally themed consortium Metro Trains Melbourne.[11][12] MTR is a non-public railway owner and operator in Hong Kong where it is well known for constructing Transit Oriented Developments (TODS) around its stations.

Recent years[edit]

Metropolitan train patronage 1999-2013 based on official state government figures.

In 2003, a union call was released that demanded the restaffing of all rail stations by 2006 for safety reasons.[13] Then-Transport Minister Lynne Kosky stated that the Government's A$10.5 billion 10-year major transport plan, announced in May 2006, had significantly underestimated the usage rates of public transport.[14] The State Government responded by purchasing new trains and introduced a new ticketing option that enabled commuters to pay a reduced fare if their journey finished by 7am.[citation needed]

In May 2005, the State Government commissioned a A$25 million study on the construction of a third track to the Dandenong line to increase capacity for a rapidly growing suburban area. The scheduled time frame for the study consisted of a working group report in 2007; provided that approval is the outcome of the report, a tender process was to be initiated in 2008; and construction would finish in 2011. The cost of the triplication process was expected to be as high as A$1 billion, as project activities included the organization of corresponding bus services for the rail line, changes to stations and platforms along the line, and the improvement of the signalling system.[15]

In 2008, the Victorian Labor Government released a A$38 billion Victorian Transport Plan that included a A$4.5 billion extension of the city's underground train network—the first new underground rail line since the construction of the City Loop 25 years earlier. Then-Premier John Brumby claimed that the plan would allow thousands more passengers to use the suburban rail network. The underground line was also designed to provide direct rail access to Melbourne University, the Women's Hospital and the Royal Children's Hospital.[16][17]

Following the investment announcement, the plan for the introduction of more than 200 new weekly train services was released to tackle overcrowding on the city's busiest train lines, a problem that had been attributed to a lack of trains and falling reliability.[18] In the three-year period between 2005 and 2008, rail patronage grew by 35 per cent.[19]

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) televised a news story on a A$78 million project by the State Government to build detention spaces, or "handover areas", to bolster the security at train stations in early June 2013. The Federation of Community Legal Centres expressed concerns regarding the use of the rooms and called for a public education initiative; however, the Victorian Police stressed that the rooms are not prison cells and did not share the Federation's concern. A Victoria Police representative explained that the duty-of-care matters for police officers in the spaces are no different from those in a police station.[20]

Future expansion[edit]

Diagram showing Melbourne's rail network, including former and planned lines

In December 2008, the Brumby Government announced a $14.1 billion Victorian Transport Plan to augment Melbourne’s rail network. The plan includes:

  • Regional Rail Link, a new railway line at a cost of more than $4 billion, providing new tracks to separate regional trains from Metro trains, which will deliver "extra capacity on the network"
  • A metro rail tunnel, costing more than $4.5 billion, from Dynon to Domain, to "relieve overcrowding on the busy suburban lines from Melbourne’s west"
  • Rolling stock, $2.65 billion for up to 70 new trains, including 32 "new generation" trains which will carry 30 per cent more passengers
  • Rail extensions to Cranbourne East, South Morang and electrification to Sunbury and Melton, more than $2.4 billion
  • Improvements to train operations, at a cost of $200 million
  • Upgrades to metro stations, costing $50 million, and new stations in growth areas at a cost of $220 million
  • A Park & Ride expansion package costing $60 million.[21]

On 1 May 2009 the State Government announced that they had committed $562.3 million in the 2009 State Budget for the extension of the Epping line 3.5 kilometres north to South Morang. Construction started in 2010 and was completed in 2012.[22]

On 27 March 2013, Public Transport Victoria published a document, detailing a 4 stage plan spread over the next 20 years to slowly redevelop Melbourne's rail network into that of a 'metro-style' network, by separating train lines and creating point-to-point lines, upgrading to high-capacity signalling and the order of new trains, to allow Melbourne's train network to operate like that of most metro systems around the world.[23]

Operations[edit]

Melbourne's suburban electrified railway system consists of 16 interdependent lines all feeding into Flinders Street station. Some of these lines share track with regional lines, and also carry diesel-hauled passenger and goods trains to locations beyond the suburban network. Melbourne railways are built to 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) Irish broad gauge. Interstate lines and the tram system (including former railway lines converted to light rail) are 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge.

Power is supplied by catenary-style overhead wiring at 1500 volts DC.

Before 1999, the network was operated by the Victorian Government, under a number of names. Until the early 1980s it was known as Victorian Railways. This was shortened to VicRail in the early 1980s and then later in the decade the metropolitan system became known as Metropolitan Transit. This was at the same time that regional services became known as V/Line. In the 1990s this was shortened to The Met. In preparation for privatisation the system was split into Bayside Trains and Hillside Trains.

Timeline of private operators

  • 1999–2009 Connex (Operated the Clifton Hill and Burnley groups and the Showgrounds services only)
  • 1999–2004 M>Train (National Express Group)(Operated the remaining groups)
  • 2009–current Metro Trains Melbourne (MTR Corporation Joint Venture)

Infrastructure[edit]

Quadruple track near Caulfield station, showing signalling and overhead wiring

The Melbourne suburban rail network consists of 16 electrified lines, the central City Loop subway, and 200 stations, with a total length of 372 km of electrified lines. It operates on 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) broad gauge track. The network is primarily at ground level, with more than 170 level crossings,[24] and shared trackage with freight trains and V/Line regional services. The suburban network uses power catenary-style overhead wiring at 1500 volts DC.

All but a handful of the lines include at least one single-track section, and except for flyovers at North Melbourne, Burnley, and Camberwell, all junctions are flat junctions. These restrictions hinder the performance of the system, as delays tend to "knock on" to other services. Two lines have three-track sections (the centre line being signalled for two-way operation and used for up trains in the morning peak period and down trains at other times). Where two or more lines come together in the inner area, there are four or more tracks.

Operationally, the 16 lines are divided into four groups of lines. The Clifton Hill Group comprises the two lines that branch at Clifton Hill station. The Burnley Group comprises the four lines that go through Burnley station. The Caulfield Group comprises the three lines that go through Caulfield station, plus the Sandringham line. The Northern Group comprises the remaining lines, which all go through North Melbourne station.

The City Loop consists of four single-track underground lines, one for each group, allowing trains arriving in the city from each group to circle the central business district then head out again to a destination on the same group. Trains generally operate within one of the four groups, although there is some interworking between the Burnley and Clifton Hill groups and between the Caulfield and Northern Groups.

Safeworking[edit]

A signal with associated train stop in the raised position to the right

Most lines in Melbourne operate under an automatic block system of safeworking with three-position power signalling. This permits signals to operate automatically with the passage of trains, enforcing the distance between them. At junctions signals are manually controlled from signal boxes, with interlockings used to ensure conflicting paths are not set. The Flemington Racecourse line has two-position automatic signalling, a variant of the three-position system.

The outer end of the Hurstbridge line is operated with token based systems and two-position manual signalling, where access to the line is based upon possession of a token.

Train stops are used to enforce stop indications on signals—should a train pass a signal, the train's brakes will automatically be applied. Trains are also fitted with pilot valves, a form of dead man's switch that applies the brakes should the driver fail to maintain a foot or hand pilot valve in a set position.[25] The "VICERS" vigilance control and event recorder system is also being currently fitted to suburban trains to provide an additional level of safety.[25]

Train control[edit]

The main control room for the rail network is Metrol. Located in the Melbourne CBD, it controls signals in the inner suburbs, tracking the location of all trains, as well as the handling the distribution of real time passenger information, and manages disruptions to the timetable. Additional signal boxes are located throughout the network, and in direct communication with Metrol.

Terminology[edit]

The railways in Melbourne generally use British-derived terminology. For example:

  • Up refers to the direction "towards Melbourne".
  • Down refers to the direction "away from Melbourne", or "towards the country".
  • Points refers to what are known as railroad switches, or crossovers in American English.
  • Signal box refers to the signal control installation (tower in American terminology).

Suburban services[edit]

Fleet[edit]

All trains on the Melbourne suburban network are electric and are driver-only operated. Guards on suburban trains were discontinued between 1993 and 1995.[26]

All trains are fitted with power-operated sliding doors which are closed by the driver, but opened by passengers. The doors of newer model X'Trapolis 100 and Siemens trains are opened by a button, but the Comeng trains are opened using handles.

Trains also have inter-car doors to enable passengers to change carriages while in transit. All trains are fitted with air conditioning, closed-circuit cameras, and emergency intercom systems. Trains are fixed into three car units, and may operate alone or in pairs.

There are three types of trains in operation, each type being unable to operate coupled to another train type. The rolling stock currently consists of (numbers are number of 3-carriage units):

Classification and configuration[edit]

Since shortly after the introduction of suburban electric trains in Melbourne, their carriages have been classified as follows. All fleet types have used these classifications, with different fleet types using different number ranges for the carriages.

  • M indicates a motorised carriage, with a driving compartment.
  • T indicates a trailer carriage.
  • D indicated a trailer carriage with a driving compartment. Only Swing-door, Tait, and Hitachi trains had these.
  • G indicated a trailer carriage fitted with both gas and electric lighting, for use on country services. Only Tait trains had these.
  • BT indicated a second class trailer carriage. Prior to the abolition of first class suburban travel in 1958, motorised carriage were generally second class and trailer carriages were generally first class.

An exception to the above classifications was the trial double-deck train, which used T to indicate a trailer carriage with a driving compartment, and M to indicate a motorised carriage without a driving compartment.

Currently, all trains are assembled into a symmetrical M-T-M arrangement. Trains comprise either one or two such units. All peak period services and some off-peak services comprise two units. The recently retired Hitachi trains operated in fixed two-unit sets.

Service patterns[edit]

Melbourne uses "clock-face" timetables in off-peak periods, but generally not in peak periods, due to operating near to the capacity of the infrastructure and having to accommodate single-line sections, flat junctions, and regional diesel-hauled trains. Even in off-peak periods, however, frequencies vary according to time of day and day of week, and by line. In some places, services on two lines combine to provide more frequent services on common sections of tracks. Saturday and Sunday services are identical during the day, but differ during the evening on some lines. Sunday morning services however start later than on Saturdays, and run less frequently until around 10am.

Melbourne, along with other Australian railways, uses the British terminology of "up" and "down", with "up" being defined as toward Flinders Street Station.

Burnley Group[edit]

All trains run via the City Loop (in one direction depending on time of day and day of week), with the exception of Alamein and Blackburn services. Since 8 May 2011, Glen Waverley trains travel direct to Flinders Street on weekday mornings without travelling via the loop. With minor exceptions, Lilydale and Belgrave trains do not stop at East Richmond station, which is served by Glen Waverley trains.

During peak hours express trains operate from the outer ends of the Lilydale and Belgrave lines in the direction of peak travel, using the third track from Box Hill and the City Loop. Alamein trains run via the City Loop, although they formerly ran direct to Flinders Street; stopping all stations trains from the intermediate terminus of Blackburn also run direct to Flinders St.

All off-peak trains run via the City Loop in one direction, with the exception of Alamein services which are shuttles to and from the junction at Camberwell.

Caulfield Group[edit]

All trains on the Pakenham, Cranbourne, and Frankston lines operate via the City Loop (in one direction depending on time of day and day of week), with the exception of a small number of peak hour services. Sandringham trains also operate via the underground loop on weekends, but not weekdays.

The Frankston line has a number of peak hour express services in the direction of peak travel that use the third track from Moorabbin. The Pakenham and Cranbourne lines have a smaller number of peak expresses, and all Sandringham trains stop at all stations.

Weekday Frankston services do not form part of the Caulfield loop and are instead directed to the Cross-City group.

Clifton Hill Group[edit]

From 9 November 2008, all trains (with the exception of those departing the city after midnight, all services after midnight run direct from Flinders Street) operate via the City Loop (in a clockwise direction from Jolimont station on weekdays and anti-clockwise on weekends and public holidays). On most occasions, Hurstbridge line trains operate express between Jolimont and Clifton Hill, with the South Morang trains serving the intermediate stations.

Northern Group[edit]

All trains operate via the City Loop (in one direction depending on the time of day and day of week), except for the Williamstown services. All off-peak Williamstown services are shuttles to and from the junction at Newport, while in peak they run direct from Flinders Street. Since 9 November 2008, Werribee trains do not run through the Loop during morning and afternoon peaks.

Since 2011, Werribee and WIlliamstown services do not use the Northern loop at all, instead being directed onto the Frankston line as part of the Cross-City group.

Cross-City Group[edit]

In PTV's Network Development plan, released April 2013, it revealed that the timetable change introduced in 2011 created a sub-group known as the Cross-City group, which consists of the Werribee/Williamstown line and the Frankston line. This group does not have a loop tunnel, rather, it runs straight through Flinders street and Southern Cross using the outer viaduct. During weekdays, most trains from Frankston run through Flinders Street and terminate at either Werribee or Williamstown, and vice versa. During peak hours, either trains may terminate and reverse. During weekends, this group does not operate, instead being fed into their former respective loops. The group's creation is part of a plan to create through-running lines across the CBD to facilitate easier transfers for commuters that wish to travel from the western suburbs to the eastern suburbs.

Greater metropolitan lines[edit]

Stony Point line services operate as shuttles from Frankston station with advertised connections between trains. Melton (Ballarat line) services are operated by V/Line and depart from Southern Cross Station, but metropolitan tickets can be used.

Special services[edit]

There are no regularly scheduled services on the Flemington Racecourse line, but services are run to the Racecourse whenever race meetings are held at the racecourse. Services are also operated to the Showgrounds platform during the Royal Melbourne Show every September.

Fares and tickets[edit]

Metcard operated barrier gates
Main articles: Metcard and Myki

From 1996, Melbourne's railway network used the multi-modal fare and ticketing system known as Metcard, which was valid on all public transport services in Melbourne. At the start of 2010 the new Myki smart-card ticketing system began to be introduced, which has replaced Metcard. By July 2012, Metcard was reduced to providing only short-term ticketing options, and on 29 December 2012 Metcard was no longer available for use on Melbourne's public transport.

Fares are charged on the basis of zones and are time-based. There are two concentric zones (reduced from three on 4 March 2007), with fares applicable to one or two zones. Tickets are valid for two hours, all day and for longer periods, such as weekly and monthly. Within the time periods, tickets can be used on an unlimited number of services and all modes (train, tram, and bus). There is no extra fee for transfers. Various discounts are also available, such as for off-peak travel and buying tickets in bulk.

Metcard tickets were credit-card in size which contain a magnetic stripe, and had to be inserted in a validator before each use. Only the busier stations have ticket-operated barrier gates. At other stations enforcement is based on honesty, with random checks. Metcards used to be available from machines at all stations, but those have recently been removed as part of the conversion to Myki. Metcards are also no longer available from machines on trams, from station ticket offices at staffed stations and from bus drivers as of 29 December 2012. As Metcards had to be validated before use (except when bought on trams, which were sold pre-validated), they had to be bought in advance and used when required.

The Metcard ticket system was originally due to be replaced in 2008 with the new system of Myki smart-cards. Extensive delays in implementing the new system meant that it was only in January 2010 that Myki became available on the Melbourne rail network. In July of that year, the use of Myki was extended to Melbourne Metropolitan trams and buses.

Passenger information[edit]

Timetable information is available to passengers at stations through the PRIDE II system, which is an electronic timetable and announcement system, and stands for Passenger Real-time Information Dissemination Equipment. The system consists of:

  • The control system, situated at Metrol.
  • Control stations, at which staff update information, and announcements and CCTV recordings are dealt with for nearby stations.
  • Public address systems at each station on the network. The PRIDE system automatically announces when a train is due soon, delayed, or cancelled; this is done via the rail telephone network.
  • PRIDE "talking boxes" installed on each platform of all stations.
  • Electronic information displays.

Control data comes from two locations: Metrol, and control stations. Next train data and times are automatically updated by the train control systems, with manual overrides also possible.

All stations are provided with "talking boxes" which have two buttons and a small speaker. The green button, when pressed, contacts the PRIDE controller over the rail telephone network, identifying itself by the DTMF tones that correspond to the ID number assigned to the box. The system then reads out times and destinations for the next two services to depart that platform (or, in the case of stations with a single island platform with departures either side, both platforms). The red button when pressed, gives the user two way communication with the closest control station.

Busy stations are often provided with an electronic LED PIDs, which indicate the destination, time, stopping pattern summary, and minutes to departure for the next train on the platform.

Stations on the City Loop, in addition to North Melbourne, Richmond, and Box Hill stations, have CRT screen PIDs, although some of these have recently been replaced by widescreen LCD screens. These displays show in detail the destination, scheduled and actual departure time, and all stations the next train stops at. Also shown is the destination and time of the following train, and the system is capable of providing suggested connections and warn of service interruptions.

On Sunday, 26 September 2010, the PRIDE system was upgraded with new voice announcements. The voice is now female, and now advises to touch on and off when using Myki.[27]

As part of the Bayside Rail Upgrade, stations on the Frankston line will receive new "network status boards". These LCD screens provide travel information on all of Melbournes 16 railway lines as well as tram & bus services, including delays, replacement services or planned disruptions. [28]

Regional passenger services[edit]

V/Line regional services share tracks with suburban trains from the outskirts of Melbourne to the central regional railway service terminus at Southern Cross Station. The Pakenham line has the longest shared line section, used by V/Line services to the Latrobe Valley. The Werribee, Sunbury and Craigieburn lines also share tracks. The Regional Rail Link project is intended to separate suburban services from all regional trains except those to the North-East and then Latrobe Valley, a ceremonial start of construction held in August 2009.[29][30]

Freight services[edit]

NR class locomotive at the Melbourne Steel Terminal, off Footscray Road

Melbourne also has an extensive network of railway lines and yards to serve freight traffic. The lines are of two gauges—5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) broad gauge and 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge, and are not electrified. In the inner western suburbs of the city, freight trains operate on dedicated lines, but in other areas freight trains share tracks with the suburban Metro Trains Melbourne and regional V/Line passenger services. The majority of freight terminals are located in the inner suburbs around Port of Melbourne, others are located between the Melbourne CBD and Footscray.

Until the 1980s a number of suburban stations had their own goods yards, with freight trains running over the suburban network, often with the E or L class electric locomotives.

Legislation, governance and access[edit]

Key statutes[edit]

The prime rail statute in Victoria is the Transport Integration Act. The Act establishes the Department of Transport as the integration agency for Victoria's transport system. The Act also establishes and sets the charters of the state agencies charged with providing public transport rail services and managing network access for freight services, namely the Director of Public Transport and V/Line. In addition, the Act creates VicTrack which owns the public rail network and associated infrastructure. Another important statute is the Rail Management Act 1996[31] which confers powers on rail operators and provides for a rail access scheme for the state's rail network.

Safety[edit]

Regulation[edit]

Main article: Rail Safety Act

The safety of rail operations in Melbourne is regulated by the Rail Safety Act 2006 which applies to all commercial passenger and freight operations as well as tourist and heritage railways.[32] The Act creates a framework containing safety duties for all rail industry participants and requires rail operators who manage infrastructure and rolling stock to obtain accreditation prior to commencing operations. Accredited rail operators are also required to have a safety management system to guide their operations.

Sanctions applying to the safety scheme established under the Rail Safety Act are contained in the Transport (Compliance and Miscellaneous) Act 1983.[33] The safety regulator for the rail system in Melbourne is the Director, Transport Safety (trading as Transport Safety Victoria) whose office is established under the Transport Integration Act 2010.

Investigation[edit]

Rail operators in Victoria can also be the subject of no blame investigations conducted by the Chief Investigator, Transport Safety or the Australian Transport Safety Bureau(ATSB). The Chief Investigator is charged by the Transport Integration Act[34] with conducting investigations into rail safety matters including incidents and trends. ATSB, on the other hand, has jusridiction over the same matters where they occur on the Defined Interstate Rail Network.

Ticketing and conduct[edit]

Ticketing requirements for public transport in Melbourne are mainly contained in the Transport (Ticketing) Regulations 2006[35] and the Victorian Fares and Ticketing Manual.[36] Rules about safe and fair conduct on trains and trams in Melbourne are generally contained in the Transport (Compliance and Miscellaneous) Act 1983[37] and the Transport (Conduct) Regulations 2005.[38] If Metro does not reach its Punctuality and Delivery goals they will give out compensation to eligible customers.

Tourist and heritage railways[edit]

Tourist and Heritage Railways in Melbourne and Victoria are currently governed by provisions in the Transport (Compliance and Miscellaneous) Act 1983. In future, they will be regulated by the recently enacted Tourist and Heritage Railways Act 2010[39] which is yet to commence.

See also[edit]

Further reading and reviews[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Melbourne's trams and trains more crowded than last year, report finds". ABC News (Melbourne). 17 September 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2014. 
  2. ^ Although horse-drawn "trains" debuted on a railway between Goolwa and Port Elliot in South Australia on 18 May of that year, Melbourne hosted the first mechanical railway.
  3. ^ "On These Days - Parliament of Victoria". www.parliament.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 28 August 2008. [dead link]
  4. ^ Lee, Robert (2007). The Railways of Victoria 1854-2004. Melbourne University Publishing Ltd. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-522-85134-2. 
  5. ^ Policy: Track Amplifications (Duplication, Triplication etc)
  6. ^ a b Stephen Cauchi (February 1998). "Whatever Happened to the Proposed Railway to Doncaster East". Newsrail (Australian Railway Historical Society (Victorian Division)) 26 (2): page 42. 
  7. ^ The Age, 4/8/2009
  8. ^ http://www.ipa.org.au/library/ALLSOP_Transport.pdf Victoria's public transport—assessing the results of privatisation, IPA Backgrounder, April 2007 Vol 19/1
  9. ^ Franchising Melbourne's train and tram system (2005:11), The Auditor General of Victoria, http://download.audit.vic.gov.au/files/ptfranchising_report.pdf
  10. ^ "Private companies could boost rail, tram expansion". The Age (Melbourne). 26 November 2007. 
  11. ^ Swinburne Institute for Social Research: Putting the Public Interest back into Public Transport
  12. ^ Cooper, Mex (25 June 2009). "New train, tram operators for Melbourne". The Age (Melbourne). 
  13. ^ Marino, Melissa (23 March 2003). "Push for safer trains". The Sunday Age (Melbourne). p. 16. Retrieved 11 February 2009. 
  14. ^ Jason Dowling (27 May 2007). "Gridlock choking life out of city". The Age. Retrieved 7 June 2013. 
  15. ^ Dan Silkstone (24 October 2005). "State trains running decades late". The Age. Retrieved 7 June 2013. 
  16. ^ Richard Willingham (28 March 2013). "Airport link 15 years off in $30b public transport plan". The Age. Retrieved 7 June 2013. 
  17. ^ Stephen McMahon (9 September 2009). "Under-city rail plan to cut Melbourne congestion". The Herald Sun. Retrieved 7 June 2013. 
  18. ^ More trains in railway overhaul, The Age, 9 April 2008
  19. ^ "Common Urban Myths About Transport". Public Transport Users Association. Public Transport Users Association Inc. 2 January 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2013. 
  20. ^ Kate Stowell (6 June 2013). "Holding cells being built at Melbourne train stations" (Video upload). ABC. Retrieved 7 June 2013. 
  21. ^ $14.1 b investment plan
  22. ^ "Vic govt commits $562m to rail extension". The Age. 1 May 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2009. 
  23. ^ "Network Development Plan - Metropolitan Rail". Public Transport Victoria. Retrieved 2 April 2013. 
  24. ^ [1] Jonathan Taylor, Russell Crawford, "Prioritising Road-Rail Level Crossings for Grade Separation Using a Multi-Criteria Approach"
  25. ^ a b "Rail system safety". Department of Infrastructure website. Retrieved 22 December 2007. 
  26. ^ "VR History". www.victorianrailways.net. Retrieved 20 May 2008. 
  27. ^ "Metro Trains go female". Video. Retrieved 28 September 2010. [dead link]
  28. ^ Network Status Boards Public Transport Victoria
  29. ^ "Regional Rail Link - turning of the first sod". Rail Geelong - Gallery. www.railgeelong.com. Retrieved 29 August 2009. 
  30. ^ "CONSTRUCTION STARTS ON THE $4.3 BILLION REGIONAL RAIL LINK". Media Release: Premier of Victoria. www.premier.vic.gov.au. 27 August 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2009. 
  31. ^ Rail Management Act 1996
  32. ^ Official copy of the Rail Safety Act from the Victorian Government legislation web site - http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/Domino/Web_Notes/LDMS/LTObject_Store/LTObjSt3.nsf/DDE300B846EED9C7CA257616000A3571/6D4190C62DE6207FCA257761002C568A/$FILE/06-9a016.pdf
  33. ^ See Part 7 of the Act. Official copy of the Transport (Compliance and Miscellaneous) Act 1983 from the official Victorian Government legislation site - http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/Domino/Web_Notes/LDMS/LTObject_Store/LTObjSt5.nsf/DDE300B846EED9C7CA257616000A3571/7BB774D3E0245B77CA2577CE00030B90/$FILE/83-9921a153.pdf
  34. ^ Transport Integration Act 2010, Part 7.
  35. ^ Transport (Ticketing) Regulations 2006
  36. ^ Victorian Fares and Ticketing Manual - Metlink - Your guide to public transport in Melbourne and Victoria
  37. ^ Victorian Law Today Act
  38. ^ Victorian Law Today Statutory Rule
  39. ^ Victorian Statute Book Act

External links[edit]