List of members of the Swiss Federal Council

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For a chronological list of Councillors serving together, see List of members of the Swiss Federal Council by date.

The seven members of the Swiss Federal Council (German: Schweizerischer Bundesrat; French: Conseil fédéral suisse; Italian: Consiglio federale svizzero; Romansh: Cussegl federal svizzer) constitute the federal government of Switzerland and serve as the country's head of state. Each of the seven Councillors heads a department of the Swiss federal administration.[1]

The members of the Federal Council are elected for a term of four years by both chambers of the federal parliament sitting together as the Federal Assembly. Each Councillor is elected individually by secret ballot by an absolute majority of votes. A person elected to the Council by the Federal Assembly is considered a Federal Councillor even if he or she declines the election.[2] Accordingly, the five persons who did so and never assumed office are listed in a separate table below. For the same reason, the principal table only records the date of election, and not the date on which the Councillors assumed their office.

Once elected for a four-year-term, Federal Councillors can neither be voted out of office by a motion of no confidence nor can they be impeached. Re-election is possible for an indefinite number of terms. Parliament has decided not to re-elect a sitting Councillor only four times, and only twice (in 2003 and 2007) since the beginning of the 20th century. In practice, therefore, Councillors serve until they decide to resign and retire to private life, usually after three to five terms of office.[3]

Members[edit]

Name Portrait Canton[4] Election Left office Department headed[5] Party Presidency Notes Seq[6]
1 Furrer, JonasJonas Furrer Jonas Furrer ZH 16 November 1848 25 July 1861 Foreign affairs,[7] Justice FDP/PRD 1848–49
1852
1855
1858
Died in office A01
2 Ochsenbein, UlrichUlrich Ochsenbein Ulrich Ochsenbein.gif BE 16 November 1848 6 December 1854 Defence FDP/PRD Not re-elected[8] B01
3 Druey, HenriHenri Druey Daniel-Henri Druey.gif VD 16 November 1848 29 March 1855 Justice, Foreign affairs,[7] Finance FDP/PRD 1850 Died in office C01
4 Munzinger, JosefJosef Munzinger Martin Munziger.gif SO 16 November 1848 6 February 1855 Finance, Foreign affairs,[7]
Posts and Construction,
Trade and Customs
FDP/PRD 1851 Died in office D01
5 Franscini, StefanoStefano Franscini Stefano Franscini.gif TI 16 November 1848 19 July 1857 Home affairs FDP/PRD Died in office E01
6 Frey-Herosé, FriedrichFriedrich Frey-Herosé Friedrich Frey-Herosé.gif AG 16 November 1848 31 December 1866 Trade and Customs, Foreign affairs,[7]
Defence
FDP/PRD 1854
1860
F01
7 Naeff, Wilhelm MatthiasWilhelm Matthias Naeff Naeff.gif SG 16 November 1848 31 December 1875 Posts and Construction, Foreign affairs,[7]
Trade and Customs, Posts,
Finance, Railway and Trade
FDP/PRD 1853 G01
8 Stampfli, JakobJakob Stämpfli Jakob Stämpfli.gif BE 6 December 1854 31 December 1863 Justice, Foreign affairs,[7]
Finance, Defence
FDP/PRD 1856
1859
1862
B02
9 Fornerod, ConstantConstant Fornerod Constant Fornerod.gif VD 11 July 1855 31 October 1867 Trade and Customs, Foreign affairs,[7]
Finance, Defence
FDP/PRD 1857
1863
1867
C02
10 Knüsel, Melchior Josef MartinMelchior Josef Martin Knüsel Melchior Josef Martin Knüsel.gif LU 14 July 1855 31 December 1875 Finance, Trade and Customs, Justice,
Foreign affairs,[7] Home affairs
FDP/PRD 1861
1866
Elected after Johann Jakob Stehlin declined the election D02
11 Pioda, Giovanni BattistaGiovanni Battista Pioda Pioda.gif TI 30 July 1857 26 January 1864 Home affairs FDP/PRD E02
12 Dubs, JakobJakob Dubs Jakob Dubs.gif ZH 30 July 1861 28 May 1872 Justice, Foreign affairs,[7]
Home affairs, Posts
FDP/PRD 1864
1868
1870
A02
13 Schenk, KarlKarl Schenk Karl Schenk.gif BE 12 December 1863 18 July 1895 Home affairs, Finance,
Railway and Trade
FDP/PRD 1865
1871
1874
1878
1885
1893
Died in office B03
14 Challet-Venel, Jean-JacquesJean-Jacques Challet-Venel Challet-Venel.gif GE 12 July 1864 7 December 1872 Finance, Posts FDP/PRD Not re-elected[9] E03
15 Welti, EmilEmil Welti Emil Welti.gif AG 8 December 1866 31 December 1891 Defence, Trade and Customs,
Posts and Telegraph,
Posts and Railways, Justice
FDP/PRD 1869
1872
1876
1880
1884
1891
F02
16 Ruffy, VictorVictor Ruffy Victor Ruffy.gif VD 6 December 1867 29 December 1869 Finance, Defence FDP/PRD Died in office C03
17 Ceresole, PaulPaul Cérésole Paul Ceresole.gif VD 1 February 1870 31 December 1875 Finance, Defence,
Foreign affairs,[7] Justice
FDP/PRD 1873 C04
18 Scherer, Johann JakobJohann Jakob Scherer Johann Jakob Scherer.gif ZH 12 July 1872 23 December 1878 Finance, Railway and Trade,
Foreign affairs,[7] Defence
FDP/PRD 1875 Died in office A03
19 Borel, EugèneEugène Borel Eugène Borel.gif NE 7 December 1872 31 December 1875 Posts and Telegraph FDP/PRD E04
20 Heer, JoachimJoachim Heer Joachim Heer.gif GL 10 December 1875 31 December 1878 Posts and Telegraph, Foreign affairs,[7]
Railway and Trade
FDP/PRD 1877 D03
21 Anderwert, FridolinFridolin Anderwert Fridolin Anderwert.gif TG 10 December 1875 25 December 1880 Justice FDP/PRD Died in office
(committed suicide)[10]
G02
22 Hammer, BernhardBernhard Hammer Bernhard Hammer.gif SO 10 December 1875 31 December 1890 Finance, Defence FDP/PRD 1879
1889
E05
23 Droz, NumaNuma Droz Numa Droz.gif NE 18 December 1875 18 December 1892 Home affairs, Trade and Agriculture,
Foreign affairs
FDP/PRD 1881
1887
Elected after Louis Ruchonnet and Charles Estoppey declined the election. C05
24 Bavier, SimeonSimeon Bavier Bavier.gif GR 10 December 1878 5 January 1883 Finance, Posts and Railways, Foreign affairs[7] FDP/PRD 1882 D04
25 Hertenstein, WilhelmWilhelm Hertenstein Hertenstein.gif ZH 21 March 1879 27 November 1888 Defence FDP/PRD 1888 Died in office A04
26 Ruchonnet, LouisLouis Ruchonnet Ruchonnet.gif VD 3 March 1881 14 September 1893 Economic affairs, Justice, Foreign affairs[7] FDP/PRD 1883
1890
Elected after Karl Hoffmann declined his election. Died in office G03
27 Deucher, AdolfAdolf Deucher Deucher.gif TG 10 April 1883 10 July 1912 Justice, Posts and Railways, Economic affairs, Foreign affairs[7] FDP/PRD 1886
1897
1903
1909
Died in office D05
28 Hauser, WalterWalter Hauser Hauser.gif ZH 13 December 1888 22 October 1902 Defence, Finance, Foreign affairs[7] FDP/PRD 1892
1900
Died in office A05
29 Frey, EmilEmil Frey Emil Frey.gif BL 11 December 1890 11 March 1897 Defence FDP/PRD 1894 E06
30 Zemp, JosefJosef Zemp Joseph Zemp.gif LU 17 December 1891 17 June 1908 Posts and Railways, Foreign affairs[7] CVP/PDC 1895
1902
F03
31 Lachenal, AdrienAdrien Lachenal Adrien Lachenal.gif GE 15 December 1892 31 December 1899 Foreign affairs, Economic affairs, Home affairs FDP/PRD 1896 C06
32 Ruffy, EugèneEugène Ruffy Eugène Ruffy.gif VD 14 December 1893 31 October 1899 Justice, Home affairs,
Foreign affairs,[7] Defence
FDP/PRD 1898 G04
33 Mueller, EduardEduard Müller Eduard Müller.gif BE 16 August 1895 9 November 1919 Justice, Defence,
Foreign affairs[7]
FDP/PRD 1899
1907
1913
Died in office B04
34 Brenner, ErnstErnst Brenner Ernst Brenner.gif BS 25 March 1897 11 March 1911 Justice, Foreign affairs[7] FDP/PRD 1901
1908
Died in office E07
35 Comtesse, RobertRobert Comtesse Robert Comtesse.gif NE 14 December 1899 4 March 1912 Finance, Justice,
Posts and Railways, Foreign affairs[7]
FDP/PRD 1904
1910
C07
36 Ruchet, Marc-EmileMarc-Emile Ruchet Ruchet40.gif VD 14 December 1899 9 July 1912 Home affairs, Finance,
Foreign affairs[7]
FDP/PRD 1905
1911
G05
37 Forrer, LudwigLudwig Forrer Ludwig Forrer.jpg ZH 11 December 1902 7 December 1917 Economic affairs, Home affairs, Foreign affairs,[7] Defence, Justice, Posts and Railways FDP/PRD 1906
1912
A06
38 Schobinger, Josef AntonJosef Anton Schobinger Josef Anton Schobinger.gif LU 17 June 1908 27 November 1911 Justice, Economic affairs, Finance, Home affairs CVP/PDC F04
39 Hoffmann, ArthurArthur Hoffmann Arthur Hoffmann.gif SG 4 April 1911 19 June 1917 Justice, Defence,
Foreign affairs
FDP/PRD 1914 E08
40 Motta, GiuseppeGiuseppe Motta Giuseppe Motta.gif TI 14 December 1911 23 January 1940 Finance, Foreign affairs CVP/PDC 1915
1920
1927
1932
1937
F05
41 Perrier, LouisLouis Perrier Louis Perrier.gif NE 12 March 1912 16 May 1913 Posts and Railways, Home affairs FDP/PRD C08
42 Decoppet, CamilleCamille Decoppet Camille Decoppet.gif VD 17 July 1912 7 November 1919 Home affairs, Justice, Defence FDP/PRD 1916 G06
43 Schulthess, EdmundEdmund Schulthess Edmund Schulthess.gif AG 17 July 1912 15 April 1935 Economic affairs, Economic affairs FDP/PRD 1917
1921
1928
1933
D06
44 Calonder, FelixFelix Calonder Felix-Louis Calonder.gif GR 12 June 1913 12 February 1920 Home affairs, Foreign affairs[7] FDP/PRD 1918 C09
45 Ador, GustaveGustave Ador Gustave Ador.gif GE 26 June 1917 31 December 1919 Foreign affairs, Home affairs LPS/PLS 1919 E09
46 Haab, RobertRobert Haab Robert Haab.gif ZH 13 December 1917 31 December 1929 Posts and Railways FDP/PRD 1922
1929
A07
47 Scheurer, KarlKarl Scheurer Karl Scheurer.gif BE 11 December 1919 14 November 1929 Defence FDP/PRD 1923 Died in office B05
48 Chuard, ErnestErnest Chuard Ernest Chuard.gif VD 11 December 1919 31 December 1928 Home affairs FDP/PRD 1924 G07
49 Musy, Jean-MarieJean-Marie Musy Jean-Marie Musy.gif FR 11 December 1919 30 April 1934 Finance CVP/PDC 1925
1930
E10
50 Häberlin, HeinrichHeinrich Häberlin Heinrich Häberlin.gif TG 12 February 1920 12 March 1934 Justice FDP/PRD 1926
1931
C10
51 Pilet-Golaz, MarcelMarcel Pilet-Golaz Marcel Pilet-Golaz.gif VD 13 December 1928 7 November 1944 Home affairs, Posts and Railways,
Foreign affairs
FDP/PRD 1934
1940
G08
52 Minger, RudolfRudolf Minger Rudolf Minger.gif BE 12 December 1929 31 December 1940 Defence SVP/UDC 1935 B06
53 Meyer, AlbertAlbert Meyer Albert Meyer.gif ZH 12 December 1929 31 December 1938 Home affairs, Finance FDP/PRD 1936 A08
54 Baumann, JohannesJohannes Baumann Johannes Baumann.gif AR 22 March 1934 31 December 1940 Justice FDP/PRD 1938 C11
55 Etter, PhilippPhilipp Etter Philipp Etter.gif ZG 28 March 1934 19 November 1959 Home affairs CVP/PDC 1939
1942
1947
1953
E11
56 Obrecht, HermannHermann Obrecht Hermann Obrecht.gif SO 4 April 1935 20 June 1940 Economic affairs FDP/PRD D07
57 Wetter, ErnstErnst Wetter Ernst Wetter.gif ZH 15 December 1938 31 December 1943 Finance FDP/PRD 1941 A09
58 Celio, EnricoEnrico Celio Enrico Celio.gif TI 22 February 1940 23 June 1950 Posts and Railways CVP/PDC 1943
1948
F06
59 Stampfli, WaltherWalther Stampfli Walther Stampfli.gif SO 18 July 1940 18 November 1947 Economic affairs FDP/PRD 1944 D08
60 Steiger, Eduard vonEduard von Steiger Eduard von Steiger.gif BE 10 December 1940 9 November 1951 Justice SVP/UDC 1945
1951
B07
61 Kobelt, KarlKarl Kobelt Karl Kobelt.gif SG 10 December 1940 5 November 1954 Defence FDP/PRD 1946
1952
C12
62 Nobs, ErnstErnst Nobs Ernst Nobs.gif ZH 15 December 1943 13 November 1951 Finance SPS/PSS 1949 A10
63 Petitpierre, MaxMax Petitpierre Max Petitpierre.gif NE 14 December 1944 30 June 1961 Foreign affairs FDP/PRD 1950
1955
1960
G09
64 Rubattel, RodolpheRodolphe Rubattel Rodolphe Rubattel.gif VD 11 December 1947 1 November 1954 Economic affairs FDP/PRD 1954 D09
65 Escher, JosefJosef Escher Josef Escher.gif VS 14 September 1950 26 November 1954 Posts and Railways CVP/PDC F07
66 Feldmann, MarkusMarkus Feldmann Markus Feldmann.gif BE 13 December 1951 3 November 1958 Justice SVP/UDC 1956 B08
67 Weber, MaxMax Weber Max Weber.gif ZH 13 December 1951 8 December 1953 Finance SPS/PSS A11
68 Streuli, HansHans Streuli Hans Streuli.gif ZH 22 December 1953 19 November 1959 Finance FDP/PRD 1957 A12
69 Holenstein, ThomasThomas Holenstein Thomas Holenstein.gif SG 16 December 1954 20 November 1959 Economic affairs CVP/PDC 1958 F08
70 Chaudet, PaulPaul Chaudet Paul Chaudet.gif VD 16 December 1954 28 November 1966 Defence FDP/PRD 1959
1962
D10
71 Lepori, GiuseppeGiuseppe Lepori Giuseppe Lepori.gif TI 16 December 1954 24 November 1959 Posts and Railways CVP/PDC C13
72 Wahlen, Friedrich TraugottFriedrich Traugott Wahlen Friedrich Traugott Wahlen.gif BE 11 December 1958 31 December 1965 Justice, Economic affairs,
Foreign affairs
SVP/UDC 1961 B09
73 Bourgknecht, JeanJean Bourgknecht Jean Bourgknecht.gif FR 17 December 1959 3 September 1962 Finance CVP/PDC E12
74 Spuhler, WillyWilly Spühler Willy Spühler.gif ZH 17 December 1959 31 January 1970 Posts and Railways,
Transport, Energy, Communications,
Foreign affairs
SPS/PSS 1963
1968
A13
75 Moos, Ludwig vonLudwig von Moos Ludwig von Moos.gif OW 17 December 1959 31 December 1971 Justice CVP/PDC 1964
1969
F09
76 Tschudi, Hans-PeterHans-Peter Tschudi Hans-Peter Tschudi.gif BS 17 December 1959 31 December 1973 Home affairs SPS/PSS 1965
1970
C14
77 Schaffner, HansHans Schaffner Hans Schaffner.gif AG 15 June 1961 31 December 1969 Economic affairs FDP/PRD 1966 G10
78 Bonvin, RogerRoger Bonvin Roger Bonvin.gif VS 27 September 1962 31 December 1973 Finance,
Transport, Energy, Communications
CVP/PDC 1967
1973
E13
79 Gnägi, RudolfRudolf Gnägi Rudolf Gnägi.gif BE 8 December 1965 31 December 1979 Transport, Energy, Communications,
Defence
SVP/UDC 1971
1976
B10
80 Celio, NelloNello Celio Nello Celio.gif TI 15 December 1966 31 December 1973 Defence, Finance FDP/PRD 1972 D11
81 Graber, PierrePierre Graber Pierre Graber.gif NE 10 December 1969 31 January 1978 Foreign affairs SPS/PSS 1975 A14
82 Brugger, ErnstErnst Brugger Ernst Brugger.gif ZH 10 December 1969 31 January 1978 Economic affairs FDP/PRD 1974 G11
83 Furgler, KurtKurt Furgler Kurt Furgler.gif SG 8 December 1971 31 December 1986 Justice, Economic affairs CVP/PDC 1977
1981
1985
F10
84 Ritschard, WilliWilli Ritschard Willi Ritschard.gif SO 5 December 1973 3 October 1983 Transport, Energy, Communications,
Finance
SPS/PSS 1978 Died in office C15
85 Hurlimann, HansHans Hürlimann Hans Hürlimann.gif ZG 5 December 1973 31 December 1982 Home affairs CVP/PDC 1979 E14
86 Chevallaz, Georges-AndréGeorges-André Chevallaz Georges-André Chevallaz.gif VD 5 December 1973 31 December 1983 Finance, Defence FDP/PRD 1980 D12
87 Honegger, FritzFritz Honegger Fritz Honegger.gif ZH 7 December 1977 31 December 1982 Economic affairs FDP/PRD 1982 G12
88 Aubert, PierrePierre Aubert Pierre Aubert.gif NE 7 December 1977 31 December 1987 Foreign affairs SPS/PSS 1983
1987
A15
89 Schlumpf, LeonLeon Schlumpf Leon Schlumpf.gif GR 5 December 1979 31 December 1987 Transport, Energy, Communications SVP/UDC 1984 B11
90 Egli, AlphonsAlphons Egli Alphons Egli.gif LU 8 December 1982 31 December 1986 Home affairs CVP/PDC 1986 E15
91 Friedrich, RudolfRudolf Friedrich Rudolf Friedrich.gif ZH 8 December 1982 20 October 1984 Justice FDP/PRD G13
92 Stich, OttoOtto Stich Otto Stich.gif SO 7 December 1983 31 October 1995 Finance SPS/PSS 1988
1994
C16
93 Delamuraz, Jean-PascalJean-Pascal Delamuraz Jean-Pascal Delamuraz.gif VD 7 December 1983 30 March 1998 Defence, Economic affairs FDP/PRD 1989
1996
D13
94 Kopp, ElisabethElisabeth Kopp Elisabeth Kopp.gif ZH 2 October 1984 12 January 1989 Justice FDP/PRD G14
95 Koller, ArnoldArnold Koller Arnold Koller.gif AI 10 December 1986 13 January 1999 Justice, Defence CVP/PDC 1990
1997
F11
96 Cotti, FlavioFlavio Cotti Flavio Cotti.gif TI 10 December 1986 13 January 1999 Home affairs, Foreign affairs CVP/PDC 1991
1998
E16
97 Felber, RenéRené Felber René Felber.gif NE 9 December 1987 31 March 1993 Foreign affairs SPS/PSS 1992 A16
98 Ogi, AdolfAdolf Ogi Adolf Ogi.gif BE 9 December 1987 31 December 2000 Transport, Energy, Communications,
Defence
SVP/UDC 1993
2000
B12
99 Villiger, KasparKaspar Villiger Kaspar Villiger.gif LU 1 February 1989 31 December 2003 Defence, Finance FDP/PRD 1995
2002
G15
100 Dreifuss, RuthRuth Dreifuss Ruth Dreifuss.gif GE 10 March 1993 31 December 2002 Home affairs SPS/PSS 1999 Elected after Francis Matthey declined the election. A17
101 Leuenberger, MoritzMoritz Leuenberger Moritz Leuenberger, 2010.jpg ZH 27 September 1995 1 November 2010 Transport, Energy, Communications SPS/PSS 2001
2006
C17
102 Couchepin, PascalPascal Couchepin BR Pascal Couchepin.jpg VS 11 March 1998 31 October 2009 Economic affairs, Home affairs FDP/PRD 2003
2008
D14
103 Metzler-Arnold, RuthRuth Metzler-Arnold Ruth Metzler.gif AI 11 March 1999 31 December 2003 Justice CVP/PDC Not re-elected[11] F12
104 Deiss, JosephJoseph Deiss Joseph Deiss.gif FR 11 March 1999 31 July 2006 Foreign affairs, Economic affairs CVP/PDC 2004 E17
105 Schmid, SamuelSamuel Schmid BR-Samuel-Schmid.jpg BE 6 December 2000 31 December 2008[12] Defence BDP 2005 Elected for SVP/UDC B13
106 Calmy-Rey, MichelineMicheline Calmy-Rey Micheline Calmy-Rey 2011.jpg GE 4 December 2002 31 December 2011 Foreign affairs SPS/PSS 2007
2011
A18
107 Blocher, ChristophChristoph Blocher Christoph Blocher (Bundesrat, 2004).jpg ZH 10 December 2003 31 December 2007 Justice SVP/UDC Not re-elected.[13] F13
108 Merz, Hans-RudolfHans-Rudolf Merz Hans-Rudolf Merz, 2010.jpg AR 10 December 2003 1 November 2010 Finance FDP/PRD 2009 G16
109 Leuthard, DorisDoris Leuthard Doris Leuthard 2011.jpg AG 14 June 2006 Incumbent Economic Affairs,
Transport, Energy, Communications
CVP/PDC 2010 E18
110 Widmer-Schlumpf, EvelineEveline Widmer-Schlumpf Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf 2011.jpg GR 12 December 2007 Incumbent Justice,
Finance
BDP 2012 Initially elected for SVP/UDC F14
111 Maurer, UeliUeli Maurer Ueli Maurer 2011.jpg ZH 10 December 2008 Incumbent Defence SVP/UDC 2013 B14
112 Burkhalter, DidierDidier Burkhalter Didier Burkhalter 2011.jpg NE 16 September 2009 Incumbent Home affairs, Foreign affairs FDP/PRD D15
113 Sommaruga, SimonettaSimonetta Sommaruga Simonetta Sommaruga 2011.jpg BE 22 September 2010 Incumbent Justice SPS/PSS C18
114 Schneider-Ammann, JohannJohann Schneider-Ammann Johann Schneider-Ammann 2011.jpg BE 22 September 2010 Incumbent Economic affairs FDP/PRD G17
115 Berset, AlainAlain Berset Alain.berset.08.jpg FR 14 December 2011 Incumbent Home affairs SPS/PSS A19

Legend:
             Free Democratic Party (FDP/PRD) after 1894; previously a more or less coherent group of Liberals, Radicals and Democrats[14]
             Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP/PDC)
             Liberal Party (LPS/PLS)
             Swiss People's Party (SVP/UDC) after 1971; previously Party of Farmers, Traders and Independents (BGB/PAI) and associated minor parties
             Social Democratic Party (SPS/PSS)
             Conservative Democratic Party (BDP/PBD) The Councillors currently serving are indicated with bold type.

Members who declined their election[edit]

Five people have declined their election to the Federal Council by the Federal Assembly. Their number here is that of the Federal Councillor in the list above who was later elected in their place.

Name Canton Election Party Notes
10 Stehlin, Johann JakobJohann Jakob Stehlin BS 11 July 1855 FDP/PRD
23 Ruchonnet, LouisLouis Ruchonnet VD 10 December 1875 FDP/PRD Later elected as 26th member.
23 Estoppey, CharlesCharles Estoppey VD 18 December 1875 FDP/PRD
26 Hoffmann, KarlKarl Hoffmann SG 22 February 1881 FDP/PRD
100 Matthey, FrancisFrancis Matthey NE 3 March 1993 SPS/PSS

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Swiss Federal Constitution / Bundesverfassung (BV) / Constitution fédérale (Cst.) / Costituzione federale (Cost.) of 1999-02-07, SR/RS 101 (E·D·F·I), art. 177 (E·D·F·I).
  2. ^ This is the prevailing reading of the relevant constitutional provision: Swiss Federal Constitution / Bundesverfassung (BV) / Constitution fédérale (Cst.) / Costituzione federale (Cost.) of 1999-02-07, SR/RS 101 (E·D·F·I), art. 175 (E·D·F·I).
  3. ^ Federal Council in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  4. ^ For the abbreviations, see Data codes for Switzerland: Cantons. Up until 1987, the Federal Chancellery recorded the Councillors' legal place of origin. From 1987 on, the canton in which the Councillors live has been recorded, or, for councillors who were members of the Federal Assembly, the canton whose population they represented.
  5. ^ The names of the federal departments have changed over the years. Generic names have been used as much as possible.
  6. ^ The sequence number indicates to which of the seven seats (denoted by the letters A to G) the Councillor was elected.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x As President of the Confederation. The department used to be held by councillors during the annually changing office of President of the Confederation.
  8. ^ Ulrich Ochsenbein in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  9. ^ Philippe Chenaux: Jean-Jacques Challet (-Venel) in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 2003-09-16.
  10. ^ Fridolin Anderwert in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  11. ^ Franz Xaver Bischof: Ruth Metzler (-Arnold) in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 2007-11-27.
  12. ^ "Schmid announces resignation". Swissinfo. 12 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  13. ^ "Blocher ousted by Swiss parliament". Swissinfo. December 12, 2007. 
  14. ^ Beginnings of the Free Democratic Party in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.