Member states of NATO

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Current NATO members highlighted in blue
Timeline of countries becoming NATO members. Dark blue marks countries that were already NATO members at the given time. Light blue marks new members.

The NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is an international alliance that consists of 28 member states from North America and Europe. It was established at the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. Article Five of the treaty states that if an armed attack occurs against one of the member states, it should be considered an attack against all members, and other members shall assist the attacked member, with armed forces if necessary.[1]

Of the 28 member countries, two are located in North America (Canada and the United States) and 25 are European countries while Turkey is in Eurasia. All members have militaries, although Iceland does not have a typical army (it does, however, have a military coast guard and a small unit of soldiers for NATO operations). Three of NATO's members are nuclear weapons states: France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. NATO has 12 original founding member nation states and from 18 February 1952 to 1 April 2009 it added 16 more member nations.

Original and joining members[edit]

Main article: Enlargement of NATO

NATO has added new members six times since its founding in 1949, and since 2009 NATO has had 28 members. Twelve countries were part of the founding of NATO: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In 1952, Greece and Turkey became members of the Alliance. In 1990, with the reunification of Germany, NATO grew to include the former country of East Germany. Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional cooperation between NATO and its neighbors were set up, including the Partnership for Peace, the Mediterranean Dialogue initiative and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. In 1997, three former Warsaw Pact countries, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland, were invited to join NATO. After this fourth enlargement in 1999, the Vilnius group of The Baltics and seven East European countries formed in May 2000 to cooperate and lobby for further NATO membership. Seven of these countries joined in the fifth enlargement in 2004. Albania and Croatia joined in the sixth enlargement in 2009.

Member states by date of accession[edit]

Date Country Enlargement Notes
4 April 1949  Belgium Founders
 Canada
 Denmark Denmark's NATO membership includes the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
 France France withdrew from the integrated military command in 1966 to pursue an independent defense system but returned to full participation on 3 April 2009.
 Iceland Iceland, the sole member that does not have its own standing army, joined on the condition that it would not be expected to establish one. However, its strategic geographic position in the Atlantic made it an invaluable member. It has a Coast Guard and has recently contributed a voluntary peacekeeping force, trained in Norway for NATO.
 Italy
 Luxembourg
 Netherlands
 Norway
 Portugal
 United Kingdom
 United States
18 February 1952  Greece First Greece withdrew its forces from NATO’s military command structure from 1974 to 1980 as a result of Greco-Turkish tensions following the 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
 Turkey
9 May 1955  Germany Second Joined as West Germany; Saarland reunited with it in 1957 and the territories of Berlin and the former German Democratic Republic reunited with it on 3 October 1990. The GDR (East Germany) was a member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1956–1990.
30 May 1982  Spain Third
12 March 1999  Czech Republic Fourth Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.
 Hungary Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991.
 Poland Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1990.
29 March 2004  Bulgaria Fifth Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991.
 Estonia Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of the Soviet Union.
 Latvia Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of the Soviet Union.
 Lithuania Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of the Soviet Union.
 Romania Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991.
 Slovakia Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.
 Slovenia Previously part of Yugoslavia 1945–1991 (Non-aligned)
1 April 2009  Albania Sixth Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1968.
 Croatia Previously part of Yugoslavia 1945–1991 (Non-aligned)

Military personnel[edit]

Country Active personnel Reserve personnel Total
 Albania 14,500 5,000 19,500
 Belgium 24,500 100,500 125,000
 Bulgaria 34,975 302,500 337,475
 Canada 68,250 47,081 115,331
 Croatia 18,000 12,000 30,000
 Czech Republic 21,057 676 21,733
 Denmark 26,000 63,000 89,000
 Estonia 3,209 60,000 63,209
 France 222,215 100,000 322,215
 Germany 148,996 14,400 163,396
 Greece 109,070 280,000 389,070
 Hungary 19,000 19,000
 Iceland 210 170 380
 Italy 180,000 41,867 220,867
 Latvia 6,000 11,000 17,000
 Lithuania 14,995 4,260 19,255
 Luxembourg 1,057 278 1,335
 Netherlands 47,660 57,200 104,860
 Norway 26,200 56,200 82,400
 Poland 120,000 515,000 635,000
 Portugal 44,900 210,930 255,830
 Romania 73,350 79,900 153,250
 Slovakia 16,000 16,000
 Slovenia 7,300 1,500 8,800
 Spain 123,000 16,200 139,200
 Turkey 612,900 429,000 1,041,900
 United Kingdom 205,850 181,720 387,570
 United States 1,477,896 1,458,500 2,936,396
 NATO 3,585,000 4,300,000 7,885,000

Military expenditures[edit]

Country Population
(2011)
GDP (nominal)
(2010, US$ millions)
Military expenditures
(2011, US$ millions)
Military expenditures
(2012, % of GDP)
Defence expenditures,
(2011, US$ per capita)
Deployable military
(2011)
 Albania 3,011,405 13,292 197 1.5 51 10,000
 Belgium 10,827,519 465,676 5,541 1.1 404 35,000
 Bulgaria 7,351,234 44,843 758 1.55 64 29,000
 Canada 34,447,000 1,574,051 23,685 1.3 492 60,000
 Croatia 4,425,747 59,917 970 1.5 161 16,009
 Czech Republic 10,515,818 192,152 2,448 1.1 162 23,000
 Denmark 5,560,628 310,760 4,518 1.4 636 18,000
 Estonia 1,311,870 19,220 389 1.7 195 6,000
 France 65,821,885 2,582,527 53,444 2.3 666 227,000
 Germany 81,802,000 3,315,643 48,140 1.4 500 205,000
 Greece 11,306,183 305,415 6,425 2.1 427 124,000
 Hungary 10,014,324 128,960 1,378 1.0 111 29,000
 Iceland 318,452 12,767 12 0.09 37 0a
 Italy 60,605,053 2,055,114 30,228 1.4 351 352,000
 Latvia 2,003,900 23,385 289 1.0 76 5,000
 Lithuania 2,944,459 35,734 351 0.8 75 9,000
 Luxembourg 502,100 52,433 279 0.5 402 900
 Netherlands 16,667,700 783,293 11,339 1.3 553 48,000
 Norway 4,937,900 483,650 7,232 1.5 1,036 21,000
 Poland 38,092,000 468,539 8,908 1.7 181 100,000
 Portugal 10,636,888 229,336 3,611 1.5 274 39,000
 Romania 21,466,174 161,629 2,380 1.3 67 66,000
 Slovakia 5,435,273 86,262 1,065 1.1 126 16,000
 Slovenia 2,046,510 46,442 665 1.3 255 7,000
 Spain 46,148,605 1,409,946 13,984 0.9 241 127,000
 Turkey 73,722,988 741,853 14,479 2.3 149 495,000
 United Kingdom 62,008,048 2,247,455 63,567 2.5 994 192,000
 United States 311,328,000 14,657,800 731,879 4.8 2,060 1,427,000
 NATO 906,002,051 32,223,344 1,038,145 3.0 987 3,515,000
From "Data Relating to NATO Defence", estimates for 2011 and SIPRI estimates for 2012 percentage of GDP[2][3]
a Iceland has no armed forces.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The North Atlantic Treaty". North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 1949-04-04. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  2. ^ "Financial and Economic Data Relating to NATO Defence" (PDF). NATO. 13 April 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  3. ^ http://books.sipri.org/product_info?c_product_id=458#.  Missing or empty |title= (help)