Members of the 1922 Seanad

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
1922 Seanad (1922)
1925 Seanad (1925)
1928 Seanad

Seanad Éireann, the upper house of the Oireachtas (legislature) of the Irish Free State, was first constituted on 8 December 1922. The Free State Seanad was elected in stages and thus considered to be in permanent session. However, as a gesture of continuity with its Free State predecessor, the first Seanad elected after 1937 is numbered as the "Second Seanad". The Free State Senate, despite the occurrence of five senatorial elections before its abolition, is considered to have been a single 'Seanad' for the duration of its existence and is thus referred for that whole period as the "First Seanad".

Initial membership[edit]

The Constitution of the Irish Free State established the Oireachtas as a bicameral legislature consisting of a lower house, the Dáil, and an upper house, the Senate or Seanad. The "Third Dáil", elected in elected in June 1922 as a "provisional parliament" or "constituent assembly", had approved the Constitution in September, and continued as the Dáil of the new Free State when the Constitution came into force on 6 December 1922. However, there was no pre-existing body which might be repurposed as the Seanad, so this had to be constructed from scratch.

The Constitution specified a 60-seat Seanad, with Senators serving 12-year terms and divided into four cohorts with one cohort re-elected every three years.[1] For the initial 1922 Seanad, 30 were to be nominated by the President of the Executive Council and the other 30 elected by Dáil Éireann. The President's selections would provide the second and fourth cohorts, for re-election in 1928 and 1934; the Dáil's provided the first and third, for re-election in 1925 and 1931.[2]

Cosgrave announced his selection in the Dáil on 6 December 1922, immediately after his election as President had been ratified by the Governor-General.[3] The 15 who would serve 12-year terms were selected by lot.[2]

The Dáil election was conducted on 7 December 1922 by single transferable vote as a single 30-member district.[4][5][6] The procedure to be used was specified in a Dáil resolution of 1 November and published in Iris Oifigiúil on 7 November.[7][8] A candidate for election had to be nominated and seconded by a TD; many were nominated by Cosgrave on submission from various public bodies.[3][6][9] Nominations closed at midday on 7 December; ballots were distributed at 3 pm, the poll closed at 5pm, and counting began immediately.[4] At 8 pm, the Ceann Comhairle, who was also the returning officer,[7] announced the result would not be known for some time, and the Dáil was adjourned.[6] President Cosgrave had announced the assassination of Sean Hales during the Irish Civil War.[10] Eighty-one TDs voted;[5][11] none of the abstentionist TDs were eligible to vote or nominate candidates.[fn 1] To facilitate transfer of fractions of votes, each initial vote's value was multiplied by 1000, giving a quota of 2,613.[4][5] Eighteen candidates were elected on the first count: one with four (4,000) first-preference votes and 17 others with three (3,000) each.[4][5] The report on the conduct of the election speculated that groups of three TDs had coordinated their votes to ensure a candidate exceeded the quota.[12] Candidates with equal numbers of first-preference votes were ranked by the number of second preferences and so on.[12] The remaining twelve Senators were elected in 34 subsequent counts.[4][5] Counting was completed after midnight,[4] the results were announced next afternoon,[11] and the Seanad first assembled on 11 December 1922.[13]

Party composition[edit]

The following table shows the composition by party when the 1922 Seanad first met on 8 December 1922.

Party Seats
Cumann na nGaedheal 13
Labour Party 4
Farmers' Party 1
Independents 42
Total 60

List of senators[edit]

Name   Party Entered Office Term Notes
Henry Barniville   Cumann na nGaedheal Elected in 1922 3 years 20 20th elected, after 6th count, with 2 first-preference votes
Thomas Westropp Bennett   Cumann na nGaedheal Elected in 1922 3 years 19 19th elected, after 2nd count, with 2 first-preference votes
Richard A. Butler   Independent Elected in 1922 3 years 18 18th elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
John Counihan   Independent Elected in 1922 3 years 29 29th elected, after 35th count, with 2 first-preference votes
Peter de Loughry   Cumann na nGaedheal Elected in 1922 3 years 21 21st elected, after 9th count, with 2 first-preference votes
Cornelius Irwin   Cumann na nGaedheal Elected in 1922 3 years 22 22nd elected, after 9th count, with 2 first-preference votes
Thomas Linehan   Farmers' Party Elected in 1922 3 years 16 16th elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
Joseph Clayton Love   Cumann na nGaedheal Elected in 1922 3 years 27 27th elected, after 35th count, with 2 first-preference votes
Edward MacEvoy   Cumann na nGaedheal Elected in 1922 3 years 25 25th elected, after 35th count, with 2 first-preference votes
Edward MacLysaght   Independent Elected in 1922 3 years 24 24th elected, after 26th count, with 2 first-preference votes
Eamonn Mansfield   Independent Elected in 1922 3 years 23 23rd elected, after 15th count, with 2 first-preference votes.
Resigned on 12 December 1922[14]
George Nesbitt   Independent Elected in 1922 3 years 26 26th elected, after 35th count, with 1 first-preference vote
Michael O'Dea   Cumann na nGaedheal Elected in 1922 3 years 30 30th elected, after 35th count, with 2 first-preference votes
J. T. O'Farrell   Labour Party Elected in 1922 3 years 17 17th elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
James Parkinson   Cumann na nGaedheal Elected in 1922 3 years 28 28th elected, after 35th count, with 2 first-preference votes
William Barrington   Independent Elected in 1922 9 years 12 12th elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
Eileen Costello   Independent Elected in 1922 9 years 08 8th elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
James G. Douglas   Independent Elected in 1922 9 years 03 3rd elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
Michael Duffy   Labour Party Elected in 1922 9 years 13 13th elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
Thomas Farren   Labour Party Elected in 1922 9 years 15 15th elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
Alice Stopford Green   Independent Elected in 1922 9 years 01 1st elected, after 1st count, with 4 first-preference votes
Sir John Griffith   Independent Elected in 1922 9 years 02 2nd elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
Patrick W. Kenny   Cumann na nGaedheal Elected in 1922 9 years 11 11th elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
James J. MacKean   Cumann na nGaedheal Elected in 1922 9 years 07 7th elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
John MacLoughlin   Independent Elected in 1922 9 years 10 10th elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
Thomas MacPartlin   Labour Party Elected in 1922 9 years 14 14th elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes.
Died on 20 October 1923[15]
William Molloy   Independent Elected in 1922 9 years 06 6th elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
Maurice George Moore   Independent Elected in 1922 9 years 05 5th elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
Brian O'Rourke   Cumann na nGaedheal Elected in 1922 9 years 04 4th elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
William O'Sullivan   Cumann na nGaedheal Elected in 1922 9 years 09 9th elected, after 1st count, with 3 first-preference votes
John Philip Bagwell   Independent Nominated in 1922 6 years  
Henry Givens Burgess   Independent Nominated in 1922 6 years  
Lord Glenavy   Independent Nominated in 1922 6 years Cathaoirleach
Sir Nugent Everard   Independent Nominated in 1922 6 years  
Edmund W. Eyre   Independent Nominated in 1922 6 years  
Oliver St. John Gogarty   Cumann na nGaedheal Nominated in 1922 6 years  
James Perry Goodbody   Independent Nominated in 1922 6 years  
Henry Greer   Independent Nominated in 1922 6 years  
Benjamin Haughton   Independent Nominated in 1922 6 years  
Earl of Wicklow   Independent Nominated in 1922 6 years  
Arthur Jackson   Independent Nominated in 1922 6 years  
Andrew Jameson   Independent Nominated in 1922 6 years  
Sir Bryan Mahon   Independent Nominated in 1922 6 years  
Marquess of Headfort   Independent Nominated in 1922 6 years  
W. B. Yeats   Independent Nominated in 1922 6 years  
Earl of Mayo   Independent Nominated in 1922 12 years  
Countess of Desart   Independent Nominated in 1922 12 years  
James Charles Dowdall   Independent Nominated in 1922 12 years  
Sir Thomas Esmonde   Independent Nominated in 1922 12 years  
Martin Fitzgerald   Independent Nominated in 1922 12 years  
Earl of Granard   Independent Nominated in 1922 12 years  
Henry Guinness   Independent Nominated in 1922 12 years  
Sir John Keane   Independent Nominated in 1922 12 years  
James Moran   Independent Nominated in 1922 12 years  
Earl of Kerry   Independent Nominated in 1922 12 years  
Sir Horace Plunkett   Independent Nominated in 1922 12 years Resigned on 28 November 1923[16]
Sir Hutcheson Poë   Independent Nominated in 1922 12 years Resigned on 9 December 1924[17]
George Sigerson   Independent Nominated in 1922 12 years Died on 17 February 1925[18]
Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl   Independent Nominated in 1922 12 years  
Jennie Wyse Power   Independent Nominated in 1922 12 years  
William Cummins   Labour Party Elected in 1923 Until 1925 election Elected to Seanad at a by-election on 21 February 1923, replacing Eamonn Mansfield[19]
Thomas Foran   Labour Party Elected in 1923 Until 1925 election Elected to Seanad at a by-election on 28 November 1923, replacing Thomas MacPartlin[20]
Samuel Lombard Brown   Independent Elected in 1923 Until 1925 election Elected to Seanad at a by-election on 12 December 1923, replacing Sir Horace Plunkett[21]
Douglas Hyde   Independent Elected in 1925 Until 1925 election Elected to Seanad at a by-election on 4 February 1925, replacing Sir Hutcheson Poë[22]
John O'Neill   Cumann na nGaedheal Elected in 1925 Until 1925 election Elected to Seanad at a by-election on 5 March 1925, replacing George Sigerson[23]

Changes[edit]

Date Gain Loss Notes
6 December 1922   Independent Lord Glenavy elected as Cathaoirleach
12 December 1922   Independent Resignation of Eamonn Mansfield[14]
21 February 1923 Labour Party   William Cummins elected at a by-election to replace Eamonn Mansfield[19]
20 October 1923   Labour Party Death of Thomas MacPartlin[15]
28 November 1923 Labour Party   Thomas Foran elected at a by-election to replace Thomas MacPartlin[20]
28 November 1923   Independent Resignation of Sir Horace Plunkett[16]
12 December 1923 Independent   Samuel Lombard Brown elected at a by-election to replace Sir Horace Plunkett[21]
9 December 1924   Independent Resignation of Sir Hutcheson Poë[17]
4 February 1925 Independent   Douglas Hyde elected at a by-election to replace Sir Hutcheson Poë[22]
17 February 1925   Independent Death of George Sigerson[18]
5 March 1925 Cumann na nGaedheal   John O'Neill elected at a by-election to replace George Sigerson[23]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Not having subscribed to the Oath of Allegiance, they could not sign the roll, which was required by regulations 2 (nomination) and 11 (voting).[7][8]

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Constitution of the Irish Free State, Articles 31, 32
  2. ^ a b Constitution of the Irish Free State, Article 82
  3. ^ a b "President's nominees for Seanad". Houses of the Oireachtas. 6 December 1922. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Department of Local Government 1923, p.3
  5. ^ a b c d e "Seanad Éireann election result sheet". Oireachtas. December 1922. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c "Elections to Seanad.". Dáil Éireann debates. 7 December 1922. pp. Vol. 2 No. 2 p.16 cc.38–40. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c Department of Local Government 1923, pp.6–15
  8. ^ a b "Election of the Seanad - Motions by the Minister for Local Government". Dáil Éireann debates. 1 November 1922. p. Vol.1 No.27 p.21 cc.1969–2014. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  9. ^ Hayes, Michael (6 December 1922). "Nominations to Executive Council". Dáil Éireann debates. pp. Vol.2 No.1 p.9 c.28. Retrieved 23 December 2013. "The Seanad election takes place to-morrow and the avalanche of candidates proposed by the President will mean a long count." 
  10. ^ "Assassination of Deputy Sean Hales, and wounding of Leas Cheann Comhairle.". Dáil Éireann debates. 7 December 1922. pp. Vol. 2 No. 2 p.15 c.38. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  11. ^ a b "Result of elections to Seanad". Dáil Éireann debates. 8 December 1922. pp. Vol.2 No.3 p.3 cc.41–42. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  12. ^ a b Department of Local Government 1923, p.4
  13. ^ "Prelude". Seanad Éireann debates. 11 December 1922. pp. Vol.1 No.1 p.1 c.1. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  14. ^ a b "Mr. Edward Mansfield". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 14 November 2009. 
  15. ^ a b "Mr. Thomas MacPartlin". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 15 November 2009. 
  16. ^ a b "Sir Horace Plunkett". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 15 November 2009. 
  17. ^ a b "Sir Hutcheson Poë". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 15 November 2009. 
  18. ^ a b "Dr. George Sigerson". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 15 November 2009. 
  19. ^ a b "Mr. William Cummins". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 15 November 2009. 
  20. ^ a b "Mr. Thomas Foran". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 15 November 2009. 
  21. ^ a b "Mr. Samuel Lombard Brown". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 15 November 2009. 
  22. ^ a b "Dr. Douglas Hyde". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 15 November 2009. 
  23. ^ a b "Mr. John O'Neill". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 15 November 2009.