Members of the Delian League

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The Delian League before the Peloponnesian War, in 431 BC.

The members of the Delian League/Athenian Empire (c. 479-404 BC) can be categorized into two groups: the allied states (symmachoi) reported in the stone tablets of the Athenian tribute lists (454-409 BC), who contributed the symmachikos phoros ("allied tax") in money, and further allies, reported either in epigraphy or historiography, whose contribution consisted of ships, wood, grain and military assistance; proper and occasional members, subject members and genuine allies.

Analysis[edit]

The study of the symmachikos phoros provides the following insights: The amount of tax paid by each state is written in Attic numerals. One-sixtieth is dedicated to Athena, the patron goddess of the city.[1] The membership is not limited to Ionians or Greek city-states (see Ialysus, Mysians, Eteocarpathians and the Carians whom Tymnes rules). Allied states of Western Greece are not categorized under a fiscal district the Thracian, Hellespontine, Insular, Carian and Ionian phoros of the eastern states; somehow comparable districts to the former Achaemenid satrapies of Skudra, Hellespontine Phrygia, the Yaunâ on this side of the sea, Karka, and the Yaûna across the sea. The categorization of members under these fiscal districts appeared first in the list of 443/2 BC.[2] After 438 BC, the Carian phoros became part of the Ionian district and after c. 425 BC a new Aktaios phoros, comprising the coastal Troad, was created out of the Hellespontine district. During the Sicilian Expedition a fragmentary list suggests that the Athenian state had created a Magna Graecian district. The following names are readable: Naxians, Catanians, Sicels, Rhegians.[3][4] The only references until now on the Pontic phoros are the list of 425/4 BC[5] and 410/09 BC.

Paradoxically, although the modern current term for the alliance is "Delian League", inscriptions have not yet been found on the island related to the League, and the information about the transfer of the treasure comes from the chronologization of the first Attic tribute list in 454 BC and not by Thucydides,[6] who just informs about the treasure and the center of the Athenian power/alliance being on Delos (Thuc. I.96.97). The first inscription which records the Athenians and allies comes from Delphi, dating to c. 475 BC,[7] is fragmentary, and the names of the allies are not readable or not mentioned. There is an epigraphical gap between 475 and 454 BC, although the phrase Athenians and allies is always present in historiography (Thuc. 1. 109, campaign in Egypt).

The exact location of several inscribed cities is still debated. Athenian cleruchies and colonies like Amphipolis are considered part of the Athenian state and not members of the League.

Fiscal districts (443-409 BC)[edit]

Insular phoros[edit]

Nesiotikos phoros (Νησιωτικὸς φόρος)

Euboea[edit]

Cyclades[edit]

North Aegean[edit]

Unknown region[edit]

  • Belbina
  • Grynches
  • Renaioi

Ionian phoros[edit]

  • Ionikos phoros (Ἰονικὸς φόρος)
  • Astyrenoi Mysoi in 444/443 and 438/437

Islands[edit]

  • Amorgioi on Amorgos
  • Chios 425/4 BC (before the fiscal districts in 454/3, 448/7 and 447/6)
  • Nisyrioi on Nisyros
  • Oinaioi of Oine on Icaria
  • Thermaioi of Thermai on Icaria

Aeolis[edit]

Ionia[edit]

Unknown region (of Ionian or Carian phoros)[edit]

  • Airaies
  • Amynandes
  • Boutheia
  • Chalkeatai
  • Cheronnesioi
  • Diosiritai
  • Edries Messes
  • Erines
  • Gargares
  • Heraioi
  • Hiera para Sidymeas
  • Hyblisses
  • Idymes
  • Isindioi
  • Karbasyandes
  • Karyes para Idyma (city)
  • Kasolabes
  • Klaundes
  • Killares, whom [...] rules
  • Kindyes, whom [...] rules
  • Kodapes
  • Koioi
  • Krosa or Crusa
  • Kyromes
  • Lepsimandes
  • Marathesioi
  • Oranietai
  • Pactyes Idymeus ruler
  • Pasandes
  • Pladases
  • Pteleosioi
  • Sidosioi
  • Taramptos
  • Tarbanes
  • Teichiossa

Carian phoros[edit]

Karikos phoros (Καρικὸς φόρος)

Caria and Doris[edit]

Dodecanese[edit]

Lycia[edit]

Lycaonia[edit]

  • Milyae tribe

Pamphylia[edit]

Cilicia[edit]

  • Ityra
  • Kelenderis

Thracian phoros[edit]

Thrakios phoros (Θράκιος φόρος)

Pieria[edit]

Mygdonia[edit]

Chalcidice[edit]

East Macedonia[edit]

Thrace proper[edit]

Sporades[edit]

Unknown region[edit]

  • Asseritai
  • Chedrolioi
  • Haisa
  • Galaia
  • Kossaioi
  • Miltorioi
  • Othorioi
  • Pharbelioi
  • Pieres at Pergamon
  • Pergamoteichitai
  • Sermaies
  • Singeion
  • Skablaioi
  • Smilla Gigonos
  • Thyssioi
  • Tinda

Hellespontine phoros[edit]

Hellespontios phoros (Ἑλλησπόντιος φόρος)

Islands[edit]

Thrace[edit]

Thracian Chersonese[edit]

Asia Minor[edit]

Unknown region[edit]

  • Arisbaioi
  • Artaioteichitai
  • Azeies
  • Brylleianoi
  • Daunioteichitai
  • Gentinioi
  • Halonesioi
  • Harpagianoi
  • Kebrenioi
  • Kianoi
  • Kolones
  • Lamponeies
  • Limnaioi
  • Metropolis (Anatolia) ?
  • Neandreies
  • Neapolis (in Western-Macedonia prefecture)?
  • Otlenoi
  • Paisenoi
  • Palaiperkosioi
  • Perkosioi of the city Perkote
  • Serioteichitai
  • Skapsioi
  • Sombia
  • Teria para Brylleion
Aktaiai Poleis[edit]

The cities of the Aktaios phoros (Ἀκταῖος φόρος), the coastal Troad, separated from the Hellespontine district in 427 BCfollowing the Mytilenaean revolt and first appearing in the tribute lists of 425/4 BC.

Pontic phoros (Black Sea)[edit]

Pontikos phoros (Ποντικός φόρος)

Other allies[edit]

Aegean

Cyprus

Egypt

Ionian Islands

West central Greece

Macedonia

Magna Graecia

Peloponnese

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Empire of the owl: Athenian imperial finance By Loren J. Samons Page 36 ISBN 3-515-07664-6 (2000)
  2. ^ Ancient Greece: Social & Historical Documents from Archaic Times to the Death of Socrates Page 274 by Matthew Dillon ISBN 978-0-415-21755-2 (2000)
  3. ^ IG I³ 291 Attica c.415 BC
  4. ^ The concept of neutrality in classical Greece By Robert A. Bauslaugh Page 147 ISBN 978-0-520-06687-8 (1991)
  5. ^ IG I³ 71 line 170
  6. ^ Thucydides: narrative and explanation By Tim Rood Page 233 ISBN 0-19-815256-6 (1998)
  7. ^ IG I³ 1465 Phokis — Delphi — stoich. — c.475 BC —
  8. ^ If citizens of Berge, it suggests that it became Athenian colony after 429/8 BC, the last report of Bergaioi in the lists
  9. ^ An inventory of archaic and classical poleis By Mogens Herman Hansen, Thomas Heine Nielsen Page 978ISBN 0-19-814099-1 (2004)
  10. ^ Not to be confused with Paros island, which is listed under the ethnic Parioi in the Insular phoros
  11. ^ Attica IG I³ 89
  12. ^ IG I³ 117
  13. ^ IG I³ 12
  14. ^ IG I³ 54
  15. ^ Attica IG I³ 53
  16. ^ Attica IG I³ 83

Primary sources[edit]

IG I³ 259 454/3 BC, IG I³ 269 443/2 BC, IG I³ 270 442/1 BC, IG I³ 271 441/0 BC, IG I³ 272 440/39 BC, IG I³ 273 439/8 BC, IG I³ 277 435/4 BC, IG I³ 279 433/2 BC, IG I³ 282 429/8 BC, IG I³ 71 425/4 BC, IG I³ 270 422/1 BC, IG I³ 100 410/09 BC.

Secondary sources[edit]

  • The Athenian Tribute Lists by Benjamin D. Meritt, H. T. Wade-Gery, Malcolm F. McGregor ISBN 978-0-87661-913-1 (1939-1953)
  • The Athenian Empire Restored: Epigraphic and Historical Studies by Harold B Mattingly, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, ISBN 0-472-10656-2
  • The power of money: coinage and politics in the Athenian Empire By Thomas J. Figueira
  • Epigraphic geography: the tribute quota fragments assigned to 421/0-415/4 B.C by Lisa Kallet
  • Charles F. Edson, "Notes of the Thracian phoros," CP 42 (1947)
  • Thrace By Anna Avramea, Greece. Genikē Grammateia Periphereias Anat. Makedonias-Thrakēs Page 107 ISBN 960-85609-1-8 (1994)
  • Mogens Herman Hansen and Thomas Heine Nielsen, An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis (Oxford University Press, 2004: ISBN 0-19-814099-1)