Members of the Red Army Faction
The Red Army Faction (RAF) existed in West Germany from 1970 to 1998, committing numerous crimes, especially in the autumn of 1977, which led to a national crisis that became known as "German Autumn". The RAF was founded in 1970 by Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Ulrike Meinhof, Horst Mahler, and others. The first generation of the organization was commonly referred to by the press and the government as the "Baader-Meinhof Gang", a name the group did not use to refer to itself.
The RAF was responsible for 34 deaths, including many secondary targets such as chauffeurs and bodyguards, and many injuries in its almost 30 years of activity. Below is a list of most members of the group.
Eileen MacDonald claimed in Shoot the Women First (1991), that females made up about fifty percent of the membership of the Red Army Faction and about eighty percent of the RAF's supporters. This was higher than other similar groups in West Germany, in which females made up about thirty percent of the membership.
- 1 First generation Red Army Faction (1970–1975)
- 2 Second generation Red Army Faction (1975–1982)
- 3 Third Generation Red Army Faction (1982–1993)
- 4 Footnotes
- 5 References
First generation Red Army Faction (1970–1975)
Founding First Generation Members
|Name||Date of Birth||Date of Death||Main Article|
|Andreas Baader||6 May 1943||18 October 1977||Andreas Baader|
|Andreas Baader was a co-founding member of the RAF. Baader was involved in bank raids and arson. He was arrested and tried at Stammheim Prison alongside Gudrun Ensslin, Ulrike Meinhof and Jan-Carl Raspe, and given three times life imprisonment. He died in Stammheim prison on 18 October 1977. Accounts of his death vary. Some state he committed suicide in prison using a handgun. Others claim he was murdered extrajudicial killing. He and Ensslin were lovers.|
|Gudrun Ensslin||15 August 1940||18 October 1977||Gudrun Ensslin|
|Gudrun Ensslin was a co-founding member of the RAF. She was involved in bank raids and arson. She helped free Baader from police custody on April 30, 1970. Ensslin was given three times life imprisonment when charged at Stammheim. She died in Stammheim prison on 18 October 1977. Accounts of her death vary. Soem state she committed suicide in prison by hanging. Others claim she was murdered extrajudicial killing. She and Baader were lovers.|
|Ulrike Meinhof||7 October 1934||9 May 1976||Ulrike Meinhof|
|Ulrike Meinhof was a co-founding member of the RAF. She was a well-known journalist who wrote for and was editor of konkret. She was married to Klaus Rainer Röhl. She helped free Andreas Baader from police custody on April 30, 1970. She was involved in car theft, arson and bank robbery. She was arrested. Meinhof was given an eight-year prison sentence for freeing Baader. She was found hanged in her prison cell on May 9, 1976. The formal claim was "suicide by hanging", though the autopsy report was controversial.
Other First Generation Members
Petra Schelm joined the Baader-Meinhof group along with her boyfriend Manfred Grashof. She travelled to Jordan alongside the rest of the Gang and trained in urban guerrilla warfare with the PLO in May 1970.
On 15 July 1971, Schelm was driving through Hamburg with Werner Hoppe when she sped her BMW through a police roadblock. The police gave chase and forced her BMW off the road. Schelm and Hoppe ran off in different directions. Hoppe was followed by a police helicopter and was caught and arrested, but Schelm did not surrender. She threw away a jacket she was holding to reveal a handgun and fired at the police, but the police returned fire. Jillian Becker states that Schelm was killed by a burst of gunfire from a submachine gun, but Stefan Aust states that it was a single bullet wound to the head that killed Schelm. Additionally, a closeup photograph of Schelm taken at the scene immediately after her death (probably by a police photographer) clearly shows a single gunshot wound through the eye. Regardless, Schelm died, aged 20.
Some RAF members called for "retribution" for Schelm's death. She was buried at a cemetery in Spandau. At her funeral, fifty or so youths laid a red flag on her grave, though policemen later came and removed it.
|Christa Eckes was arrested on 4 February 1972 when the police raided RAF safehouses simultaneously in Hamburg and Frankfurt together with Helmut Pohl, Ilse Stachowiak, Eberhard Becker, Margrit Schiller, Kay-Werner Allnach and Wolfgang Beer. On 28 September 1977, she was sentenced to seven years in prison.
After her release, she was arrested again on 2 July 1984 in Frankfurt, after several RAF members accidentally discharged a gun into the apartment below their safehouse. The others arrested were Helmut Pohl, Stefan Frey, Ingrid Jakobsmeier, Barbara Ernst and Ernst-Volker Staub.
|Angela Luther was first involved with the Blues-Scene and West Berlin Tupamaros, but in July 1971, she met with some RAF members, and together with Thomas Weissbecker she expressed interest and started working with the RAF.
On 12 May 1972, she participated in the bombing of a police station in Augsburg together with Irmgard Möller, and on 24 May 1972 she was involved in the bombing of the officers club and the Campbell Barracks in Heidelberg.
Second generation Red Army Faction (1975–1982)
By 1972, a large number of the core members of the Baader-Meinhof Gang had been captured and imprisoned. However, there were other young terrorists available to swell the dwindling ranks of the Gang. These revolutionaries mostly had similar backgrounds to the first generation e.g. they were middle class and frequently students. Most of them joined the Gang after their own groups dissolved e.g. the Socialist Patients' Collective (SPK) and Movement 2 June (J2M).
The SPK, the leftist, 'therapy-through-violence' group, dissolved in 1971, and those members who had turned militant forged links and joined with the Baader-Meinhof Gang. Brigitte Mohnhaupt, Klaus Jünschke Carmen Roll and Gerhard Müller had already joined as part of the first generation of the RAF but originally started in SPK.
|Name||Date of Birth||Date of Death||Main Article|
|Siegfried Hausner||24 January 1952||5 May 1975||Siegfried Hausner|
|A leading member of the SPK, Siegfried Hausner was especially involved with explosives. He took part in a bombing of the Axel Springer Verlag in 1971 and was the leader of the West German embassy siege in Stockholm in 1975, when he was fatally injured after TNT wiring the embassy was accidentally detonated.|
|Brigitte Mohnhaupt||24 June 1949||Brigitte Mohnhaupt|
|Brigitte Mohnhaupt became a leader amongst the second generation RAF and was involved in some of their most serious crimes (such as the murder of Jurgen Ponto) and was a key perpetrator during the German Autumn.|
|Sieglinde Hofmann||14 March 1945||Sieglinde Hofmann|
|Sieglinde Hofmann became an important figure of the second generation RAF and was personally involved in the kidnap and murder of Hanns-Martin Schleyer, his driver and three accompanying policemen.|
|Klaus Jünschke||September 1947|
|Klaus Jünschke was a student member of the SPK who managed to escape arrest when police came after certain members of the SPK in 1971. He joined the Red Army Faction with his militant girlfriend Elisabeth Van Dyck and was involved in at least one bank robbery (on December 1971 in Kaiserslautern – alongside Ingeborg Barz and Wolfgang Grundmann).|
|Hanna-Elise Krabbe||October 1945|
|Hanna-Elise Krabbe was born in Bad Bentheim. She was a member of the IZRU (the group which succeeded the SPK) and was the older sister of Friederike Krabbe, another terrorist. Hanna-Elise Krabbe took part in the West German embassy siege in Stockholm. She was the only female terrorist involved in the siege. Her role during the siege was to guard the hostages. She was arrested when the siege failed and was sentenced on 20 July 1977, to twice life imprisonment. She was released from prison in 1996, after serving 21 years.|
|Friederike Krabbe||31 May 1950|
|Friederike Krabbe was born in Bad Bentheim. She is the younger sister of Hanna-Elise Krabbe, another terrorist. Friederike Krabbe studied psychology, pedagogy and sociology in Berlin from 1970 to 1973 and then went on to study medicine for a while in Heidelberg.
She was involved with the SPK and after its dissolution, the RAF. She is believed to have been one of the terrorists who kidnapped Hanns Martin Schleyer. According to Monika Helbing, after Schleyer was executed in 1977, Krabbe fled to Baghdad along with Elisabeth von Dyck. Around this time Krabbe disappeared, and her whereabouts are still unknown today.
|Carmen Roll was a member of the SPK and the RAF. She was especially involved in 'working circle explosives' in which she achieved limited success with Siegfried Hausner when they managed to manufacture a small amount of TNT in December 1970 in the University Institute of Physiology.
In February 1971, Roll, along with Hausner, planned to bomb the President of the Federal Republic's special train in Heidelberg station, but she arrived too late with the explosives, and the plot failed.
On 2 March 1972, Roll was spotted with Tommy Weissbecker outside a hotel in Augsburg. Weissbecker was shot dead and Roll was eventually arrested. Two weeks later she was given a near-fatal dose of ether by prison doctors.
|Lutz Taufer||March 1944|
|Lutz Taufer had links with the SPK, and he protested against the supposed torture of political prisoners in the Federal Republic in 1974. In 1975 he took part in the West German embassy siege in Stockholm and was arrested after the siege failed. He was subsequently imprisoned. In July 1977 he was sentenced to twice life imprisonment for his participation in the siege, by a Düsseldorf Court. He was released in 1996.
Taufer has been living in Brazil with his sister since 1999.
|Elisabeth von Dyck||October 1951||4 May 1979|
|Elisabeth von Dyck (born in Nuremberg) was a member of the SPK and a supposed member of the RAF. She was the girlfriend of Klaus Jünschke and later of lawyer Klaus Croissant. She was involved with the 'committees against torture' in 1974.
In 1975 Von Dyck, along with Siegfried Haag, was arrested on suspicion of smuggling weapons out of Switzerland and served six months in a detention centre in Cologne before being released. However, a warrant went out for her arrest in 1977 stating that she supported a terrorist organisation. Von Dyck went underground, and Monika Helbing stated that around this time she fled to Baghdad for a while with Friederike Krabbe.
Von Dyck returned to West Germany sometime between 1977 and 1979, and on 4 May 1979, Von Dyck entered a Nuremberg house, thought to have been an RAF hideout, which was under police surveillance. The police shot Von Dyck through the back, killing her. A gun was found on her body. Von Dyck was shot even though she was only suspected of being involved with the RAF, and was not a high-priority on the wanted list. However, it was alleged that the police shot her after she first drew a pistol and aimed it at them.
|Ulrich Wessel||9 January 1946||24 April 1975|
|Ulrich Wessel was the son of a rich Hamburg businessman. Wessel was described as a dandy, and he was a millionaire by inheritance. He was involved with the SPK and took part in the West German embassy siege in Stockholm. He died during the siege when the TNT was accidentally exploded; the force of the explosion startled him so much that he dropped a grenade he was holding and it exploded on him. He died soon afterwards.|
|Bernhard Braun had early on come into contact with the RAF via the West Berlin Tupamaros but was also close to the Movement 2 June. On 9 June 1972, Bernhard Braun and Brigitte Mohnhaupt were arrested in West Berlin.|
Former J2M members
Movement 2 June was founded in 1972 and was allied with the RAF but was ideologically anarchist as opposed to the Marxist RAF. In the early 1980s, the movement disbanded and many members then joined the RAF.
|Name||Date of Birth||Date of Death||Main Article|
|Ingrid Barabass was first arrested alongside Sieglinde Hofmann in Paris in 1980 following a raid on a RAF safehouse. She was then again arrested in Frankfurt on 4 July 1985. She had been spotted in Paris shortly before René Audran's assassination by the Action directe, a French ally to the RAF.|
|Ingrid Siepmann||12 June 1944|
|Ingrid Siepmann was in 1974 sentenced to 13 years in prison for robbing a bank in Hamburg on 6 August 1973 together with Ilse Stachowiak. On 3 March 1975, she was released as part of the Peter Lorenz kidnapping and exchange together with Rolf Pohle, Verena Becker, Rolf Heissler and Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann and ended up in South Yemen.
She then lived in a training camp for the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PLFP) and should have been part of the abduction of the Austrian textile industrial Walter Palmers in November 1977 but was not involved when it was put into action. She is believed to have been killed by an Israeli airstrike in 1982 in Lebanon.
|Juliane Plambeck||16 July 1952||25 July 1980|
|Juliane Plambeck was arrested together with members of Movement 2 June Inge Viett and Ralf Reinders on 9 September 1975. They are all suspects in the Peter Lorenz kidnapping.
On 7 July 1976, she along with RAF member Monika Berberich and J2M members Gabriele Rollnick and Inge Viett overpowered a guard and scaled the wall, escaping from the Lehrter Women's Prison in West Berlin.
On 25 July 1980, Plambeck, then a RAF member, and Wolfgang Beer were killed in a traffic accident outside of Bietigheim-Bissingen. In the car several weapons, one of which had been used in the abduction of Hanns Martin Schleyer, are found next to fake identification documents and vehicle registration.
|Rolf Heissler||3 June 1948|
|Rolf Heissler became acquainted with Brigitte Mohnhaupt in the late 1960s and first became a member of the Munich Tupamaros and later joined the RAF together with his ex-wife Mohnhaupt, but he was also closely acquainted with the Movement 2 June. On 13 April 1971 he was involved in a bank robbery in Munich but was arrested. In 1972 he was sentenced to a six-year imprisonment.
On 3 March 1975, he was released as part of the Peter Lorenz kidnapping and exchange together with Rolf Pohle, Verena Becker, Ingrid Siepmann and Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann and ended up in South Yemen.
In October 1976 he returned undetected to Germany and on 1 November 1978 he and Adelheid Schulz shot two Dutch customs officers, Dionysius de Jong and Johannes Goemans, at a passport control in Kerkrade and seriously injured two more. de Jong died instantly, and Goemans died on 14 November 1978. When he was arrested on 9 June 1979 in Frankfurt am Main, Heissler was seriously injured by a shot in the head but survived.
|Rolf Pohle||4 January 1942||7 February 2004|
|Rolf Pohle was first arrested on 17 December 1971 when he attempted to buy thirty-two firearms in a gun shop in Neu-Ulm which the police claimed were meant for the RAF. In 1974 he was sentenced to four years in prison because of membership in a criminal organisation, weapon possession and support activities for the RAF.
On 3 March 1975, he was released as part of the Peter Lorenz kidnapping and exchange together with Rolf Heissler, Verena Becker, Ingrid Siepmann and Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann and ended up in South Yemen.
On 21 July 1976, he was arrested again in Athens but first extradited to Germany on 1 October after a lengthly negotiation with the Greeks. On top of his original conviction he was given a further three years and three months. He was released in 1982 and returned to Greece two years later.
Until the outbreak of cancer, he worked as a teacher and translator. Pohle himself continued to deny any profound relations with the RAF. He died on 7 February 2004.
The Haag/Mayer Group
The Haag/Mayer Group was a minor group of members within the second generation of the RAF. They were recruited by Siegfried Haag, who organised the regrouping of the RAF in the mid 1970s together with Roland Mayer before Brigitte Mohnhaupt took over the leadership after their arrest in 1976. Knut Folkerts from SPK and Verena Becker from J2M was also part of this group.
|Name||Date of Birth||Date of Death||Main Article|
|Siegfried Haag||March 1945||Siegfried Haag|
|A sympathetic lawyer for the first generation of the RAF turned terrorist in late 1972. Siegfried Haag became something of a leader amongst the second generation RAF until he was arrested together with Roland Mayer on 30 November 1976 on the Frankfurt-Kassel highway.
On 19 December 1979 he was sentenced to 15 years of imprisonment. In detention, he distanced himself from the RAF. In February 1987 the rest of his punishment to the probation was suspended because he was seriously ill.
|Roland Mayer helped Siegfried Haag regroup the RAF when most of the first generation had been arrested and imprisoned. He was arrested with Haag on 30 November 1976 on the Frankfurt-Kassel highway. He was later sentenced to 12 years of imprisonment.|
|Günter Sonnenberg||21 July 1954|
|Günter Sonnenberg participated in the murder of Siegfried Buback and his two companions on 7 April 1977. On 3 May 1977, he and Verena Becker were captured in Singen. The arrest ended in a shoot out with the police and Sonnenberg was seriously injured and suffered brain damage. On 26 April 1978 he was sentenced to twice life imprisonment. In May 1992 he was released on probation.|
|Uwe Folkerts was arrested on 5 May 1977 together with Johannes Thimme in connection with the Siegfried Buback assassination. In late 1978 he was found guilty of lending his car to Adelheid Schulz and Sabine Schmitz and sentenced to sixteen months imprisonment.|
|Waltraud Boock was arrested on 13 December 1976 following an unsuccessful bank raid in Vienna together with Sabine Schmitz. On 4 February 1977 she was sentenced to 15 years.|
Other Second Generation Members
|Name||Date of Birth||Date of Death||Main Article|
|Sigrid Sternebeck||19 June 1949|
|Sigrid Sternebeck moved to Hamburg in 1971 and met Susanne Albrecht, Silke Maier-Witt, Karl-Heinz Dellwo, Monika Helbing and Bernhard Rössner. In 1977 she joined the RAF and went underground. In 1980 she left the RAF and received asylum and a new identity in East Germany. She was arrested on 15 June 1990 in Schwedt together with her husband, Ralf Baptist Friedrich. After her arrest she cooperated with the police and prosecutors and in 22 June 1992 sentenced to half a year in prison due to her participation in a murder attempt on Alexander Haig and the assassination of Hanns Martin Schleyer. Today she lives under a different name in Northern Germany.|
|Silke Maier-Witt||21 January 1950|
|Silke Maier-Witt only had a minor involvement in the kidnap of Hanns-Martin Schleyer and broke away from the RAF in 1979. She escaped into East Germany to avoid arrest and lived there until her capture in 1990. She served five years in jail before going on to work as a peace activist in Kosovo.|
|Volker Speitel and his wife Angelika Speitel both joined the RAF in the 1970s. He worked in Klaus Croissant's office. Where his wife was an active member, he was more of a supporter of the RAF. He was arrested in 1977 together with Rosemarie Preiss on a train in Puttgarden and cooperated with the police and prosecutors. He was sentenced to three years and two months for supporting a terrorist organisation, and he was released from prison in 1979.|
|Willi-Peter Stoll||12 June 1950||6 September 1978|
|An RAF member who was one of the men directly involved with the kidnap of Hanns-Martin Schleyer. He was said to have changed mentally after the event, and he became depressed and withdrew from the RAF. On 6 September 1978, Stoll was having dinner in a Chinese restaurant in the Red Light District in Düsseldorf when he was approached by police. He drew his gun and a shoot-out followed that resulted in Stoll's death.|
|Monika Helbing||16 November 1953|
|Monika Helbing joined the RAF in 1974 and was involved in the occupation of the Amnesty International offices in Hamburg. In 1976 she went underground and with Christian Klar and other members form the "Southern German cell" of the RAF. She was involved in the preparation and follow-up of the kidnapping of Hanns Martin Schleyer in Fall, 1977.
In 1980 she left the RAF and received asylum and a new identity in East Germany. She was arrested on 14 June 1990 in Frankfurt an der Oder and later on 24 February 1992 she was sentenced to seven years in prison. After her arrest she cooperated with the police and prosecutors and testified extensively. She was released in 1995 and today lives under a different name.
|Christof Wackernagel||27 August 1951|
|Christof Wackernagel joined the RAF in 1977, and on 11 November 1977 he was arrested together with Gert Schneider in Amsterdam. A year later they were extradited to West Germany and Wackernagel charged with participation in the Zweibrücken courthouse bombing amongst other things. On 5 September 1980 he was sentenced to 15 years in prison but released in 1987.|
|Hans-Peter Konieczny was recruited by lawyer Jörg Lang and had just joined the RAF in February 1972, when he on 7 July the same year was cornered by the police in Offenbach. He was persuaded to cooperate and set up Klaus Jünschke and Irmgard Möller, who was easily captured by the police. Konieczny was released from custody two months later.|
|Johannes Thimme became affiliated with support scene of the RAF in 1977 and served several prison sentences. In 1985 he was killed and Claudia Wannersdorfer seriously injured when a bomb he was helping to plant at the Association for the Development of Air and Space Industries in Stuttgart exploded prematurely.|
Third Generation Red Army Faction (1982–1993)
This generation was active mostly throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. Tom Vague describes them as more vicious than their predecessors and says that they perhaps didn't have as much cause as the earlier generations to rebel.
Third Generation Members
|Name||Date of Birth||Date of Death||Main Article|
|Ernst-Volker Staub is one out of three former members of RAF still on Germany's most-wanted list together with Daniela Klette and Burkhard Garweg.|
|Daniela Klette is one out of three former members of RAF still on Germany's most-wanted list together with Ernst-Volker Staub and Burkhard Garweg.|
|Burkhard Garweg||1 September 1968|
|Burkhard Garweg is one out of three former members of RAF still on Germany's most-wanted list together with Ernst-Volker Staub and Daniela Klette.|
- Paige Whaley Eager. From Freedom Fighters to Terrorists: Women and Political Violence, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2008, ISBN 0-7546-7225-5, ISBN 978-0-7546-7225-8, pp. 54,55 Cites MacDonald, Shoot the Women First 1991, p. 200 & Neidhardt 1992, p. 216. Eager gives no other information but probably Friedhelm Neidhardt, 1992. "Left-wing and Right-wing Terrorist Groups: A Comparison for the German Case." International Social Movement Research 4:215–235
- "Terrorism: The Red Army Faction". independent.co.uk. 18 February 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 587.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 325.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 607.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 616.
- Stefan Aust, Der Baader-Meinhof Komplex, RM-Buch-und-Medien-Vertrieb, 2008, p. 252 (in German)
- J. Smith, André Moncourt, Bill Dunne, "The Red Army Faction: a documentary history", Kersplebedeb, 2009, p. 171
- Axel Schildt,Detlef Siegfried, Between Marx and Coca-Cola, p. 365
- Wolfgang Kraushaar, "Die RAF und der linke Terrorismus", Hamburger Edition, 2006, Volume 1, p. 473
- "Case study 1. The kidnapping/assassination of Hanns Martin Schleyer". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- Barry M. Rubin,Judith Colp Rubin, Chronologies of Modern Terrorism, p. 40
- J. Smith,André Moncourt,Bill Dunne, The Red Army Faction: a documentary history, Kersplebedeb, 2009, p. 566
- J. Smith,André Moncourt,Bill Dunne, The Red Army Faction: a documentary history, Kersplebedeb, 2009, p. 565
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 171.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 339.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 613.
- Dartnell 1995, p. 88, 153.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 328-330.
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- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 64.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 611-612.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 615.
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- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 453-454.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 573.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 455.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 472.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 473, 567, 605.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 455, 603.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 435, 474, 527, 576, 606, 614, 620, 622.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 576, 608, 611.
- Boock 2002, p. 117.
- "The Perils of Power". egamegazette.net. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 568, 614, 620-621.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 528, 577, 609, 613.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 591.
- Smith & Moncourt 2009, p. 576, 617.
- "Meistgesuchte Personen" (in German). bka.de. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- Aust, Stefan (2008). Baader-Meinhof Complex. Vintage. ISBN 1-84792-045-4.
- Becker, Jillian (1981). "The Red Army Faction: Another final battle on the stage of history". Terrorism: An International Journal 5 (1/2): 1–4. Retrieved November 2008.
- Becker, Jillian (1998). Hitler's Children: Story of the Baader-Meinhof Terrorist Gang. DIANE Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7881-5472-9.
- Boock, Peter-Jürgen (2002). Die Entführung und Ermordung des Hanns-Martin Schleyer (in German). Eichborn. ISBN 3-8218-3976-7.
- Dartnell, Michael York (1995). Action directe: ultra-left terrorism in France, 1979-1987. Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-4566-4.
- Vague, Tom (1994). Televisionaries: The Red Army Faction Story, 1963-1993. Rev Update edition (August 1994). AK Press. ISBN 1-873176-47-3.
- Smith, J.; Moncourt, André (2009). The Red Army Faction, a Documentary History: Volume 1: Projectiles for the People, Bind 1. PM Press. ISBN 1-60486-029-4.
- Strassner, Alexander (2003). Die dritte Generation der "Roten Armee Fraktion": Entstehung, Struktur, Funktionslogik und Zerfall einer terroristischen Organisation (in German). VS Verlag. ISBN 3-531-14114-7.