Memorials and services for the September 11 attacks

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2004 Tribute in Light memorial

The first memorials to the victims of the September 11, 2001, attacks began to take shape online, as hundreds of webmasters posted their own thoughts, links to the Red Cross, and other rescue agencies, photos and eyewitness accounts. Numerous online September 11 memorials began appearing a few hours after the attacks, although many of these memorials were only temporary.[1]

Around the world, U.S. embassies and consulates became makeshift memorials as people came out to pay their respects. Many U.S. ambassadors have said that they will never forget the outpouring of people as they showed their sympathy to the American people and their opposition to terrorism.[citation needed]

The Tribute in Light was the first major physical memorial at the World Trade Center site. A permanent memorial and museum, the National September 11 Memorial & Museum at the World Trade Center, are being built as part of the design by overall WTC site redevelopment. The Memorial consists of two massive pools set within the original footprints of the Twin Towers with 30-foot (9.1 m) waterfalls cascading down their sides. The names of the victims of the attacks have been inscribed around the edges of the waterfalls.

Permanent memorials are being constructed around the world.

One of the places that saw many memorials and candlelight vigils was Pier A in Hoboken, New Jersey, where many people saw the events of September 11 (Pier A had a good view of the World Trade Center.) There was also a memorial service on March 11, 2002, at dusk on Pier A when the Tribute in Light first turned on, marking the half-year anniversary of the terrorist attack. A permanent September 11 memorial for Hoboken, called Hoboken Island, was chosen in September 2004.

Temporary memorials[edit]

Soon after the attacks, temporary memorials were set up in New York and elsewhere.

  • On October 4, Reverend Brian Jordan, a Franciscan priest, blessed the World Trade Center cross, two broken beams at the crash site which had formed a cross, and then had been welded together by iron-workers.
  • On October 13, the North Charleston Coliseum raised a special banner featuring the retired number of Mark Bavis, who was on United Airlines Flight 175. Bavis had played for the ECHL's South Carolina Stingrays, and his retired number hangs in a special corner, independently from the Stingrays' retired numbers (#14, #24) and awards banners (1997 and 2001 Kelly Cup Championships), with the years he played for the team (1994–96), the date of his death (September 11, 2001), and an American flag.
  • Also on October 13, The September 11 Photo Project was founded. The Project was a not-for-profit community based photo exhibit in response to the September 11 attacks and their aftermath. It toured seven cities over two years, collected photographs from more than 700 participants, and had over 300,000 visitors over its run. The Project provided a venue for the display of photographs accompanied by captions by anyone who wished to participate. The exhibit aimed to preserve a record of the spontaneous outdoor shrines that were being swept away by rain or wind or collected by the city for historical preservation. The Project was also made into a book titled “The September 11 Photo Project" in May of 2002. It has sold over 60,000 copies to date.
  • On March 11, 2002, the damaged Sphere sculpture formerly in the World Trade Center was dedicated by the city as a temporary memorial in Battery Park City.[2]


Permanent memorials[edit]

Bronze wall mural dedicated to the fallen firefighters, South of the WTC site
To the Struggle Against World Terrorism, a memorial given to the U.S. from Russia.
Series of hand-painted tiles, dedicated to the victims of the September 11 attacks, on the fence of a car-lot in New York City
Flight 93 temporary memorial in Pennsylvania
View of a Memorial from Jersey City, New Jersey, that faces the former location of the Twin Towers
Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery for victims of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the Pentagon.
September 11 Memorial at the Texas State Cemetery with two girders removed from the WTC wreckage
Steel from the World Trade Center is poured for construction of USS New York (LPD-21)
Steel recovered from the World Trade Center displayed on USS New York (LPD-21)
Monroe Community College September 11 Memorial
Logan Airport September 11 memorial in Boston
Myrtle Beach 9/11 Unity Memorial
Memorial in Ocean City, Maryland honoring the New York City firefighters who lost their lives in the attacks, complete with a piece of the World Trade Center
  • The FDNY memorial wall, a 56-foot-long (17 m) bronze wall of cast bas-relief bronze that honors the 343 firefighters who gave their lives in service to the public during the attacks. Commissioned by FDNY and unveiled in 2006 as a memorial to the fallen firefighters, it lists all of the fallen firefighters names, and is installed in the west wall of Engine Company 10 – Ladder Company 10 on Greenwich Street between Albany Street and Liberty Street, just across from Ground Zero.[7][8][9]
  • A commuter bus that was heavily damaged in the collapse of the World Trade Center was repainted with a special American flag scheme on its sides and rear.[10]
  • Colts Neck, New Jersey, which lost five members of their community,[11] commissioned sculptor Jim Gary, a lifetime resident, to create a memorial garden featuring his central sculpture of brass, copper, and stained glass—where each victim is represented by a colorful butterfly among plants in a water garden. The contemplative garden was dedicated at the municipal center of Colts Neck on November 10, 2002.[12][13]
  • The Texas State Cemetery has a memorial to the September 11 victims. It is composed to symbolize the damaged Twin Towers, made with two twisted iron girders that had been part of the WTC and salvaged from the Ground Zero wreckage.[19][20]
  • The city of Coral Springs, Florida has its own memorial dedicated to the victims of the attacks. It is located outside the Northwest Regional Library, the city's only public library.[21]
  • The Garden of Reflection 9-11 Memorial is located in Memorial Park in Lower Makefield Township, Pennsylvania. Designed by Yardley architect Liuba Lashchyk, it is intended to symbolize light that follows darkness.[22]
  • The LeRoy W. Homer Jr. Foundation, established in memory of United 93 First Officer LeRoy Homer by his widow Melodie Homer. The Foundation awards up to three scholarships annually from applicants ages 16 – 23 residing within the United States as citizens or resident aliens. The scholarship program is funded through private donations, corporate contributions and grant requests. The Foundation also promotes awareness of aviation as a career choice, with a focus on providing information to women and minorities who are underrepresented in the US pilot population.[24]
  • On November 12, 2009, a 9/11 Living Memorial monument was dedicated in Israel, in Jerusalem's Arazim Park. Designed by Israeli artist Eliezer Weishoff, the 30-foot high bronze sculpture is composed of a waving American flag transformed into a memorial flame, which rests upon a base of gray granite, part of which is from the original Twin Towers. The sculpture is surrounded by a circular, crater-like plaza and reflection area tiled in stone. As of November 2009, it is the only monument outside of New York which lists the names of all of the victims. U.S. Ambassador to Israel James Cunningham and U.S. Congressman Erik Paulsen led a U.S. delegation attending the ceremony dedicating the monument. They were joined by Israeli Cabinet ministers, Knesset members, families of the victims.[25][26]
  • In Union City, New Jersey, which lost four of its residents during the attacks, the first 9/11 memorial was a sculpture placed in Doric Park, in whose courtyard citizens gathered on September 11, 2001 to view the attacks' aftereffects.[29] On September 11, 2007, the city dedicated its Liberty Plaza to commemorate the event. The Plaza, which serves as a transit hub through which commuters pass on their way to and from Manhattan, includes two memorial markers.[30][31] In subsequent years, citizens of neighboring towns have been honored at Liberty Plaza, including North Bergen resident David Lemagne, a Port Authority police officer who grew up in Union City, and perished during the attacks.[32] Doric Park was later rebuilt as Firefighters Memorial Park, which opened in August 2009. A new memorial to local firefighters who gave their lives in the line of duty now stands in the entrance to the park's entrance,[33] whose popularity has attracted visitors from Manhattan and Staten Island.[34]
  • In September 2008, a $3.5 million 9/11 memorial in the form of a glass cube was dedicated at Logan International Airport in Boston. The two jets that destroyed the World Trade Center had departed from Logan, and the memorial commemorates the 147 innocent victims aboard those flights.[35]
  • In July 2004, a Boston Memorial to the 206 citizens of Massachusetts that died on September 11, 2001, was dedicated at the Arlington & Newbury St. entrance to the Boston Public Garden.
Clyde, NC WTC monument
  • In September 2011, the Firefighters from Clyde, NC, unveiled a monument dedicated to the victims of the attacks. It is composed of sections of steel from the World Trade Center, with fencework designed to look like the lobbies in 1 and 2 WTC. It is located in front of the Clyde, NC fire department.
  • On September 11, 2013 The City of Yuma, Arizona unveiled a memorial at Yuma Fire Station No.1. The memorial composed a section of steel I-beam from one of the towers of the World Trade Center and on the base holding the steel beam has 4 plaques remembering the victims of 9/11[36]

Performances and benefits[edit]

2001 events[edit]

The Raoul Wallenberg Award was given to New York City in 2001 "For all of its citizens who searched for the missing, cared for the injured, gave comfort to loved ones of the missing or lost, and provided sustenance and encouragement to those who searched through the rubble at Ground Zero."

2002 and later events[edit]

On February 3, 2002, during the Halftime Show of Super Bowl XXXVI, rock group U2 performed Where the Streets Have No Name, while the names of the victims were projected onto banners. Bono opened his jacket to reveal a U.S. flag pattern sewn in the inside lining.

On February 23, 2003, the 45th Annual Grammy Awards were held at Madison Square Garden and paid tribute to those who died during the 9/11 attacks, to whom the ceremony was dedicated. Ceremony host Bruce Springsteen performed "The Rising" at the Awards.

American country singer Darryl Worley paid tribute to the people with his 2003 single, "Have You Forgotten?" from the album of the same name.

Newark International Airport was renamed "Newark Liberty International Airport".[37][38]

On September 11, 2002, representatives from over 90 countries came to Battery Park City as New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg lit an eternal flame to mark the first anniversary of the attacks. Leading the dignitaries were Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan, Bloomberg, and Secretary of State Colin Powell. The same day, the Victims of Terrorist Attack on the Pentagon Memorial was dedicated at Arlington National Cemetery near the Pentagon. The memorial is dedicated to the five individuals at the Pentagon whose remains were never found, and the partial remains of another 25 victims are buried beneath the memorial.[39] The names of the 184 victims of the Pentagon attack are inscribed on the memorial's side.

10th anniversary memorial services[edit]

Many organizations held memorial services and events for the 10th anniversary of the attacks.

  • The official New York City observance of the 10th anniversary of September 11 took place at the World Trade Center site at 8:40am – 12:30pm Sunday, September 11, 2011. Zuccotti Park, Liberty Street between Broadway and Church Streets. Four moments of silence were observed to commemorate the times when each plane hit and each tower fell, starting at 8:46 a.m.
  • At sunset, the "Tribute in Light" dual search light lit the skies above New York City for the night of 9/11/11.
  • Liquid Church[40] held Memorial worship services in three cities in New Jersey: Montclair, Morristown, and New Brunswick on 9/11/11 at 9:30am and 11:30am in each city. The church also commissioned and recorded a tribute song written by Dave Pettigrew & Frank Di Minno called, "There is Hope."
  • In Radcliff Kentucky at the Kentucky Veteran's Cemetery Central, a committee of local citizens worked on a memorial effort taking only 8 weeks from the time of receipt of a piece of steel from the World Trade Center to the Tenth Anniversay remembrance ceremony. In that time they developed a concept design, found companies willing to donate time, labor, technical expertise, and material, and began a fund raising effort which allowed a memorial to be erected solely on private funding. This memorial completed phase I in these 8 weeks and now enters phase II. Hundreds of citizens assembled during the remembrance ceremony held for the Tenth Anniversay on Sunday, September 11.

Annual commemorations[edit]

Every year on September 11 a commemoration is held at the National September 11 Memorial. Family members read the names of victims of the attacks, as well as victims of the 1993 World Trade Center truck bombing.[41] Elected officials and other dignitaries attend, but since the 2012 event they have not given speeches.[42]

  • The Tribute in Light project consists of 88 searchlights placed next to the site of the World Trade Center created two vertical columns of light. The tribute began in 2001, and is now made every year on September 11.[43][44][45]

Memorial flags[edit]

The National 9/11 Flag was made from a tattered remains of a 30-foot (9.1 m) American flag found by recovery workers in the early morning of September 12, 2001. It was hanging precariously from some scaffolding at a construction site next to Ground Zero. Because of safety reasons the flag could not be taken down until late October 2001. Charlie Vitchers, a construction superintendent for the Ground Zero cleanup effort, had a crew recover the flag. It was placed in storage for seven years.[46]

The flag has made a number appearances across the country including a Boston Red Sox Game, a New York Giants Home Opener, and the USS New York Commissioning Ceremony. It also appeared on the CBS Evening News and on ABC World News Tonight "Persons of the Week."[47]

The flag began a national tour on Flag day, which was on June 14, 2009. It will visit all 50 states where service heroes, veterans, and other honorees will each add stitching and material from other retired American flags in order to restore the original 13 stripes of the flag. The flag will have a permanent home at the National September 11 Memorial and Museum.[48]

The 9-11 Remembrance Flag was created to be a permanent reminder of the thousands of people lost in the September 11 attacks. The purpose of keeping the memories of September 11 alive is not to be forever mourning, but for "learning from the circumstances and making every effort to prevent similar tragedies in our future." The flag is also meant to be a reminder of how the people of this country came together to help each other after the attacks. The red background of the flag represents the blood shed by Americans for their country. The stars represent the lost airplanes and their passengers. The blue rectangles stand for the twin towers and the white pentagon represents the Pentagon building. The blue circle symbolizes the unity of this country after the attacks.

The 9/11 National Remembrance Flag was designed by Stephan and Joanne Galvin soon after September 11, 2001. They wanted to do something to help and were inspired by a neighbor's POW/MIA flag. They wanted sell the flag so people would remember the September 11 attacks and in order to raise money for relief efforts. The blue represents the colors of the state flags that were involved in the attacks. The black represents sorrow for innocent lives lost. The four stars stand for the four planes that crashed and the lives lost, both in the crash and in the rescue efforts, as well as the survivors. The blue star is a representation of American Airlines Flight 77 and the Pentagon. The two white stars represent American Airlines flight 11 and United Airlines flight 175, as well as the twin towers. The red star stands for United Flight 93 that crashed in Shanksville, Pennsylvania and all those who sacrifice their lives to protect the innocent. The colors of the stars represent the American flag. The four stars are touching each other and the blue parts of the flag in order to symbolize the unity of the people of the United States.

The National Flag of Honor and the National Flag of Heroes were created by John Michelotti for three main reasons: (1)"To immortalize the individual victims that were killed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001." (2)"To give comfort to the families left behind knowing that their loved one will be forever honored and remembered." (2)"To create an enduring symbol, recognized by the world, of the human sacrifice that occurred on September 11, 2001."

The Flag of Honor and the Flag of Heroes are based on the American flag. They both have the names of all the innocent people who were killed in the September 11 attacks printed on the red and white stripes of the American Flag. Both flags have a white space across the bottom with the name of the flag and a description printed in black. The Flag of Honor reads: "This flag contains the names of those killed in the terrorist attacks of September 11. Now and forever it will represent their immortality. We shall never forget them" The Flag of Heroes reads: " This flag contains the names of the emergency service personnel who gave their lives to save others in the terrorist attacks of September 11. Now and forever it will represent their immortality. We shall never forget them."

The Flag of Honor and the Flag of Heroes were featured at the NYC 9/11 Memorial Field 5th Anniversary in Manhattan's Inwood Hill Park September 8–12, 2006. There 3,000 flags which represented those who died in the September 11 attacks.[49] The flags were also featured on the msnbc Today Show[50] and on ABC 13 News, Norfolk, VA.[51]

The Remembrance Flag has a white background with large, black Roman numerals IX/XI in the center and four black stars across the top. The IX/XI are the Roman numerals for 9/11. The four stars represent World Trade Center North, World Trade Center South, the Pentagon, and Shanksville, PA.

The 10th Anniversary September 11 Memorial Flag was designed by Carrot-Top Industries, a privately owned company in Hillsborough, NC. The exclusive 9/11 memorial flag was designed with the two World Trade Towers set inside a pentagon decorated with a ribbon to commemorate all of the Americans that lost their lives on September 11, 2001.

Virtual memorials[edit]

The growing popularity of virtual worlds such as Secondlife has led to the construction of permanent virtual memorials and exhibits. Examples include:

  • Celestial Requiem NYC (SecondLife) [52] is a virtual recreation of a submitted physical memorial proposal:

    On September 11, 2007, a virtual reality World Trade Center Memorial will be presented to the people of the world. The location is in Second Life, on the island we have named after the original design: Celestial Requiem NYC. We have built this memorial because, to be blunt, the world needed it done years ago, and the two years longer to await the completion of the "Reflected Absence" memorial in New York city (by Michael Arad and Peter Walker) was in our opinion two years too long.[53]

  • World Trade Center Memorial (SecondLife) [54] is focused on the victims of 9/11, reminiscent of the Memorial Wall of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

Planned September 11 memorials[edit]

  • Palm Harbor 9/11 Memorial, Palm Harbor, Florida – This memorial broke ground on March 30, 2012. It will be designed around a 150-pound piece of World Trade Center steel provided (and still owned) by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.[55]
  • Huntington Beach 9/11 Memorial, Huntington Beach, California – A design plan has been selected for this Memorial which is currently in the fundraising stage. The Memorial was built outside the Huntington Beach City Hall building and was dedicated on September 11, 2013. The Memorial design features two stainless steel towers and will incorporate two girders from the World Trade Center provided by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The words “We Will Never Forget” will be etched along the base of the memorial.[56]

Picture gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ For an assessment of the response of webloggers to the attacks, see When blogging came of age
  2. ^ "Memorial Plaque at Battery Park, beneath "The Sphere" Sculpture, now a Temporary Memorial". photo. Flickr. May 11, 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Beverly Hills 9/11 Memorial Garden". Retrieved May 28, 2012.
  4. ^ "Seaford 9/11 Memorial". Retrieved May 28, 2012.
  5. ^ Clay, Joanna (September 9, 2011). "Remembering always". Laguna Beach Coastline Pilot.
  6. ^ "September 11 Memorial Park Committee, Inc." Westfield Today. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
  7. ^ The FDNY memorial wall "The Environment". The FDNY Memorial Wall. accessed September 15, 2011.
  8. ^ "The Design". The FDNY Memorial Wall. accessed September 15, 2011.
  9. ^ "Visitor Resources". National September 11 Memorial & Museum. accessed September 15, 2011.
  10. ^ "MTA New York City Transit (Bus): MCI 102-DLW3SS / D4500'. The Bergen Network. accessed September 15, 2011.
  11. ^ "9/11 anniversary events throughout New Jersey". NJ.com. September 9, 2011
  12. ^ Benz, Kafi. "Artist Jim Gary — news, links, and more photographs". Kafi Benz Productions. December 12, 2010
  13. ^ Terry, Ellen. "COLTS NECK HISTORICAL PRESERVATION COMMITTEE". August 15, 2006
  14. ^ http://www.lawa.org/welcome_lax.aspx?id=1612
  15. ^ Defense Intelligence Agency Memorial. accessed September 7, 2011.
  16. ^ USS New York (LPD 21) Brief History. Navy.mil
  17. ^ "Future USS Arlington Launched". Navy News Service. United States Navy. November 24, 2010. Retrieved November 28, 2010. 
  18. ^ "9/11 steel poured for USS Somerset", Kirk Swauger, The Tribune-Democrat, August 6, 2008
  19. ^ "Monuments". Texas State Cemetery. accessed September 15, 2011.
  20. ^ O'Connor, Hollie. "Perry honors 9/11 victims, responders". My San Antonio. September 11, 2011
  21. ^ http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/2011-09-08/news/fl-cspf-sept11-0908-20110908_1_scholarship-winners-world-trade-center-attacks
  22. ^ "10th Year Commemoration Information". The Garden of Reflection 9/11 Memorial, accessed September 15, 2011.
  23. ^ [1][dead link]
  24. ^ The LeRoy Homer Foundation. accessed September 7, 2011.
  25. ^ "9/11 monument dedicated in Jerusalem". Jewish Telegraph Agency. November 12, 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2010. 
  26. ^ Julian, Hana Levi. "Jerusalem Monument to 9/11 Victims Unveiled by JNF". Israel National News. November 12, 2009
  27. ^ "The Rising: Westchester County's September 11th Memorial". WestchesterGov.com. accessed September 15, 2011.
  28. ^ Mercogliano, Ann. "Thousands Dedicate 'Empty Sky' Memorial In Liberty State Park". CBS News. September 11, 2011
  29. ^ Rosero, Jessica. "Remembering 9/11". The Union City Reporter. September 12, 2004. Pages 1 & 23
  30. ^ "9/11 commemorations begin tomorrow morning". Jersey Journal/NJ.com. September 8, 2007
  31. ^ Lucio Fernandez and Gerard Karabin. Union City in Pictures. Book Press NY. 2010. Pages 24 and 25.
  32. ^ Roberts, Carolina. "'Patriots Day'". The Union City Reporter. page 1 and 12
  33. ^ Zeitlinger, Ron. "Union City limits use of Firefighters park pool". Hudson Dispatch. July 15, 2010. Pages 1 & 3
  34. ^ Zeitlinger, Ron. "Union City limits use of Firefighters park pool". Hudson Dispatch. July 15, 2010. Pages 1 and 3
  35. ^ deLuzuriaga, Tania (September 9, 2008). "Memorial to be unveiled at Logan to those lost on 9/11 flights". Boston Globe (Boston). Retrieved February 11, 2012. 
  36. ^ http://www.yumasun.com/sections/slideshow/?id=19168941
  37. ^ Wilson, Michael (August 22, 2002). "Governors Seek a Name Change for Newark Airport". The New York Times. Retrieved March 14, 2010. 
  38. ^ Smothers, Ronald (August 30, 2002). "Port Authority Extends Lease of a Renamed Newark Airport". The New York Times. Retrieved March 13, 2010. 
  39. ^ Cass, Connie. "Cremated Remains of Pentagon Victims Are Laid to Rest at National Cemetery. Associated Press. September 13, 2002.
  40. ^ liquidchurch.com
  41. ^ Daily News (New York) http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/9-11-commemoration-ceremony-limit-access-world-trade-center-area-article-1.1451136 |url= missing title (help). 
  42. ^ Oh, Inae (September 10, 2013). "12 Years Later". Huffington Post. 
  43. ^ Chan, Sewell (September 11, 2007). "Will Tribute in Light Go Dark After ’08?". New York Times. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  44. ^ " "September 11th Tribute Lights Up Again". NY1.com. 
  45. ^ Dunlap, David W. (September 10, 2010). "‘Tribute in Light’ Will Keep Shining, This Year and the Next". New York Times. Retrieved Sep 11, 2010. 
  46. ^ Shapiro, Julie. "Patchwork Flag Symbolizing 9/11 Recovery Unfurled Over Ground Zero". DNAinfo.com. Retrieved December 8, 2010. 
  47. ^ "Flag Facts". The National 9/11 Flag. September 11, 2008. Retrieved December 8, 2010. 
  48. ^ Andrew Beam (September 11, 2001). "All 50 states helping to repair 9/11 flag". Legislativegazette.com. Retrieved December 8, 2010. 
  49. ^ "FDNY – Powered by Chris A. Kenner & DAEMAG". NYC 911 Memorial Field. Retrieved December 8, 2010. 
  50. ^ 3:59pm, EDT. "allDAY – TODAY's Talk: Remembering 9/11, flags of honor and what makes a good friend?". Allday.msnbc.msn.com. Retrieved December 8, 2010. 
  51. ^ "Va. Beach couple raises money for Flight 93 national memorial | 13NEWS / WVEC.com | Raw | wvec.com | News for Hampton Roads, Virginia". wvec.com. Retrieved December 8, 2010. 
  52. ^ "Celestial Requiem NYC, 11, 120, 21". 
  53. ^ "Announcement of Celestial Requiem NYC". 
  54. ^ "World Trade Center Memorial, World Trade Center 181, 76, 26". 
  55. ^ Horchy, Eric. "Groundbreaking for planned Palm Harbor 9/11 Memorial". The Suncoast News. Retrieved March 22, 2012. 
  56. ^ Katapodis, Jim. "Huntington Beach 9/11 Memorial". 

External links[edit]