Men's major golf championships

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The men's major golf championships, commonly known as the Major Championships,[1] and often referred to simply as the majors, are the four most prestigious annual tournaments in professional golf. In order of their playing date, the current majors are:

Jack Nicklaus, winner of a record 18 majors.

Importance[edit]

Alongside the biennial Ryder Cup and Presidents Cup team competitions, the majors are golf's marquee events. Elite players from all over the world participate in them, and the reputations of the greatest players in golf history are largely based on the number and variety of major championship victories they accumulate. The top prizes are not actually the largest in golf, being surpassed by The Players Championship, three of the four World Golf Championships events (the HSBC Champions, promoted to WGC status in 2009, has a top prize comparable to that of the majors), and some other invitational events. However, winning a major boosts a player's career far more than winning any other tournament. If he is already a leading player, he will probably receive large bonuses from his sponsors and may be able to negotiate better contracts. If he is an unknown, he will immediately be signed up. Perhaps more importantly, he will receive an exemption from the need to annually re-qualify for a tour card on his home tour, thus giving a tournament golfer some security in an unstable profession. Currently, the PGA Tour gives a five-year exemption to all major winners, while the European Tour gives a ten-year exemption.

Three of the four majors take place in the United States. The Masters is played at the same course, Augusta National Golf Club, every year, while the other three rotate courses (the Open Championship, however, is always played on a links course). Each of the majors has a distinct history, and they are run by four different golf organizations, but their special status is recognized worldwide. Major championship winners receive the maximum possible allocation of 100 points from the Official World Golf Ranking, which is endorsed by all of the main tours, and major championship prize money is official on the three richest regular (i.e. under-50) golf tours, the PGA Tour, European Tour and Japan Golf Tour.

Although the majors are considered prestigious due to their history and traditions, there are still other non-"major" tournaments which prominently feature top players competing for purses meeting or exceeding those of the four traditional majors, such as the World Golf Championships, the European Tour's DP World Tour Championship, Dubai, and the PGA Tour's Players Championship. As The Players has the largest prize fund of any golf event, and is promoted as the tour's flagship tournament, it is frequently considered to be an unofficial "fifth major" by players and critics. After the announcement that the Evian Masters would be recognized as the fifth women's major by the LPGA Tour, players shared objections to the concept of having a fifth men's major, owing to the long-standing traditions that the existing four have established.[2][3]

History[edit]

The majors originally consisted of two British tournaments, The Open Championship and The Amateur Championship, and two American tournaments, the U.S. Open and the U.S. Amateur. With the introduction of the Masters Tournament in 1934, and the rise of professional golf in the late 1940s and 1950s, the term "major championships" eventually came to describe the Masters, the U.S. Open, the Open Championship, and the PGA Championship. It is difficult to determine when the definition changed to include the current four tournaments, although many trace it to Arnold Palmer's 1960 season. After winning the Masters and the U.S. Open to start the season, he remarked that if he could win the Open Championship and PGA Championship to finish the season, he would complete "a grand slam of his own" to rival Bobby Jones's 1930 feat. Until that time, many U.S. players such as Byron Nelson also considered the Western Open and the North and South Open as two of golf's "majors,"[4] and the British PGA Matchplay Championship was as important to British and Commonwealth professionals as the PGA Championship was to Americans.

During the 1950s, the short-lived World Championship of Golf was viewed as a "major" by its competitors, as its first prize was worth almost ten times any other event in the game, and it was the first event whose finale was televised live on U.S. television. The oldest of the majors is The Open Championship, commonly referred to as the "British Open" outside the United Kingdom. Dominated by American champions in the 1920s and 1930s, the comparative explosion in the riches available on the U.S. Tour from the 1940s onwards meant that the lengthy overseas trip needed to qualify and compete in the event became increasingly prohibitive for the leading American professionals. Their regular participation dwindled after the war years Ben Hogan entered just once in 1953 and won, but never returned. Sam Snead won in 1946 but lost money on the trip (first prize was $600) and did not return until 1962.

Golf writer Dan Jenkins - often seen as the world authority on majors since he's attended more (200+) than anyone else - has noted that "the pros didn't talk much about majors back then. I think it was Herbert Warren Wind who starting using the term. He said golfers had to be judged by the major tournaments they won, but it's not like there was any set number of major tournaments."[5]

In 1960, Arnold Palmer entered The Open Championship in an attempt to emulate Hogan's 1953 feat of winning on his first visit. Though a runner-up by a stroke in his first attempt, Palmer returned and won the next two in 1961 and 1962. Scheduling difficulties persisted with the PGA Championship, but more Americans began competing in the 1960s, restoring the event's prestige (and with it the prize money that once again made it an attractive prospect to other American pros). The advent of transatlantic jet travel helped to boost American participation in The Open. A discussion between Palmer and Pittsburgh golf writer Bob Drum led to the concept of the modern Grand Slam of Golf.[6]

Television coverage[edit]

United States[edit]

As none of the majors fall under the direct jurisdiction of tours, broadcast rights for these events are negotiated separately with each sanctioning body; however, except for the Open Championship and early round coverage of The Masters and PGA Championship, they are still primarily broadcast by the PGA Tour's broadcast partners, CBS and NBC

The Masters has been televised by CBS since 1956. Beginning in 1966, ABC obtained the broadcast rights for the other three majors and held them for a quarter century. The PGA Championship moved to CBS in 1991 and the U.S. Open returned to NBC in 1995.[7][8] ABC retained The Open Championship as its sole major, but moved its live coverage on the weekend to sister cable network ESPN in 2010, making it the first major championship in the television era not to be aired live on one of the country's major networks,

The Masters operates under one-year contracts; CBS has been the main TV partner every year since 1956, with ESPN televising the first and second rounds beginning in 2008, replacing USA Network, which had shown the event since the early 1980s.

ESPN and NBC serve as the broadcasters for the U.S. Open. Notably, NBC also provides coverage during all four rounds of the tournament, making it the only golf event in the U.S. where all four rounds are broadcast on an over-the-air network—network coverage is usually only provided during the third and fourth rounds. In August 2013, Fox Sports picked up broadcast rights to the U.S. Open in a 12-year deal, beginning in 2015.

CBS and TNT have long-term deals for the PGA Championship, through 2019.[9]

United Kingdom & Ireland[edit]

In the United Kingdom, the BBC used to be the exclusive TV home of the Masters Tournament and the Open Championship, however from 2011 onwards Sky Sports has exclusive coverage of the first two days of the Masters, with the weekend rounds shared with the BBC. The U.S. Open and PGA Championship are shown exclusively on Sky Sports.

Distinctive characteristics of majors[edit]

Because each major is developed and is run by a different organization, they each have different characteristics that set them apart. These involve the character of the courses used, the composition of the field, and other idiosyncrasies.

  • The Masters Tournament (also referred to as the U.S. Masters outside of the United States) is the only major that is played at the same course every year (Augusta National Golf Club), being the invitational tournament of that club. The Masters invites the smallest field of the majors, generally under 100 players (although, like all the majors, it now ensures entry for all golfers among the World's top 50 prior to the event), and is the only one of the four majors that does not use "alternates" to replace qualified players who do not enter the event (usually due to injury). Former champions have a lifetime invitation to compete, and also included in the field are the current champions of the major amateur championships, and most of the previous year's PGA Tour winners (winners of "alternate" events held opposite a high-profile tournament do not receive automatic invitations). The traditions of Augusta, such as the awarding of a green jacket to the champion, create a distinctive character for the tournament, as does the course itself, with its lack of rough but severely undulating fairways and greens, and punitive use of ponds and creeks on several key holes on the second nine.
  • The U.S. Open is notorious for being played on difficult courses that have tight fairways, challenging greens, demanding pin positions and thick and high rough, placing a great premium on accuracy, especially with driving and approach play. The U.S. Open is rarely won with a score much under par. The event is the championship of the United States Golf Association, and in having a very strict exempt qualifiers list - made up of recent major champions, professionals currently ranked high in the world rankings or on the previous year's money lists around the world, and leading amateurs from recent USGA events - about half of the 156-person field still enters the tournament through two rounds of open qualification events, mostly held in the U.S. but also in Europe and Japan. The U.S. Open has no barrier to entry for either women or junior players, as long as they are a professional or meet amateur handicap requirements. As of 2013, however, no female golfer has yet qualified for the U.S. Open, although in 2006 Michelle Wie made it to the second qualifying stage. The U.S. Open continues to have an 18-hole playoff if players are tied after four rounds. (The Open and PGA Championships use four- and three-hole aggregate playoffs respectively, followed by sudden death if necessary, and most regular events as well as the Masters only have simple sudden death playoffs.) The Sunday of the Championship has also in recent years fallen on Father's Day (at least as recognized in the US and the UK) which has leant added poignancy to winners' speeches.
  • The Open Championship (also referred to as the British Open outside of the United Kingdom) is organized by The R&A, an offshoot of The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, and is typically played on a links-style course in Scotland or England; future plans may take the championship back to a course in Northern Ireland. It carries the prestige of being the oldest professional golf tournament currently in existence and the original "Open" championship (although the very first event was held only for British professionals). It is respected for maintaining the tradition of links play that dates back to the very invention of the game in Scotland. Links courses are generally typified as coastal, flat and often very windswept, with the fairways cut through dune grass and gorse bushes that make up the "rough", and have deep bunkers. The course is generally not "doctored" to make it more difficult, effectively making the variable weather the main external influence on the field's score. As well as exempting from qualifying recent professional major and amateur champions and leading players from the world rankings, the R&A ensures that leading golfers from around the globe are given the chance to enter by holding qualifying events on all continents, as well as holding final qualifying events around the UK in the weeks prior to the main tournament. Several recent champions have been relatively unknown players who came through one of these qualifying routes. The champion receives (and has his name inscribed on the base of) the famous Claret Jug, a trophy that dates back to 1872 (champions from 1860 until 1871 received instead a championship belt, much like a champion professional boxer's belt nowadays) and the engraving of the champions' name on the trophy prior to them receiving it is, in itself, one of the traditions of the closing ceremony of the championship, as is the award of the silver medal to the leading amateur player to have made the cut to play the last 36 holes.
  • The PGA Championship (also referred to as the U.S. PGA outside of the United States) is traditionally played at a parkland club in the United States, and the courses chosen tend to be as difficult as those chosen for the U.S. Open, with several, such as Baltusrol Golf Club, Medinah Country Club, Oakland Hills Country Club, Oak Hill Country Club, and Winged Foot Golf Club, having hosted both. The PGA generally does not set up the course as difficult as the USGA does. The PGA of America enters into a profit-sharing agreement with the host club (except when the event is hosted by Valhalla Golf Club in Louisville, Kentucky, a club that it owns). As well as inviting recent professional major champions and leading players from the world rankings, the PGA Championship field is completed by qualifiers held among members of the PGA of America, the organization of club and teaching professionals that are separate from the members of the PGA Tour. The PGA Championship is also the only one of the four majors to invite all winners of PGA Tour events in the year preceding the tournament. Amateur golfers do not play in PGA, and could only qualify by winning one of the other three majors or having a high world ranking. The PGA tends to be played in high heat and humidity that characterize the American climate in August, which often sets it apart as a challenge from (in particular) the Open Championship which precedes it, that is often played in cooler and rainy weather.

Major championship winners[edit]

Win number out of total wins is shown in parentheses for golfers with more than one major championship.

Year Masters Tournament[10] U.S. Open[11] The Open Championship[12] PGA Championship[13]
2015 April 9–12, Augusta National G.C. June 18–21, Chambers Bay July 16–19, St Andrews August 13–16, Whistling Straits
2014 United States Bubba Watson (2/2) Germany Martin Kaymer (2/2) Northern Ireland Rory McIlroy (3/4) Northern Ireland Rory McIlroy (4/4)
2013 Australia Adam Scott England Justin Rose United States Phil Mickelson (5/5) United States Jason Dufner
2012 United States Bubba Watson (1/2) United States Webb Simpson South Africa Ernie Els (4/4) Northern Ireland Rory McIlroy (2/4)
2011 South Africa Charl Schwartzel Northern Ireland Rory McIlroy (1/4) Northern Ireland Darren Clarke United States Keegan Bradley
2010 United States Phil Mickelson (4/5) Northern Ireland Graeme McDowell South Africa Louis Oosthuizen Germany Martin Kaymer (1/2)
2009 Argentina Ángel Cabrera (2/2) United States Lucas Glover United States Stewart Cink South Korea Yang Yong-eun
2008 South Africa Trevor Immelman United States Tiger Woods (14/14) Republic of Ireland Pádraig Harrington (2/3) Republic of Ireland Pádraig Harrington (3/3)
2007 United States Zach Johnson Argentina Ángel Cabrera (1/2) Republic of Ireland Pádraig Harrington (1/3) United States Tiger Woods (13/14)
2006 United States Phil Mickelson (3/5) Australia Geoff Ogilvy United States Tiger Woods (11/14) United States Tiger Woods (12/14)
2005 United States Tiger Woods (9/14) New Zealand Michael Campbell United States Tiger Woods (10/14) United States Phil Mickelson (2/5)
2004 United States Phil Mickelson (1/5) South Africa Retief Goosen (2/2) United States Todd Hamilton Fiji Vijay Singh (3/3)
2003 Canada Mike Weir United States Jim Furyk United States Ben Curtis United States Shaun Micheel
2002 United States Tiger Woods (7/14) United States Tiger Woods (8/14) South Africa Ernie Els (3/4) United States Rich Beem
2001 United States Tiger Woods (6/14) South Africa Retief Goosen (1/2) United States David Duval United States David Toms
2000 Fiji Vijay Singh (2/3) United States Tiger Woods (3/14) United States Tiger Woods (4/14) United States Tiger Woods (5/14)
1999 Spain José María Olazábal (2/2) United States Payne Stewart (3/3) Scotland Paul Lawrie United States Tiger Woods (2/14)
1998 United States Mark O'Meara (1/2) United States Lee Janzen (2/2) United States Mark O'Meara (2/2) Fiji Vijay Singh (1/3)
1997 United States Tiger Woods (1/14) South Africa Ernie Els (2/4) United States Justin Leonard United States Davis Love III
1996 England Nick Faldo (6/6) United States Steve Jones United States Tom Lehman United States Mark Brooks
1995 United States Ben Crenshaw (2/2) United States Corey Pavin United States John Daly (2/2) Australia Steve Elkington
1994 Spain José María Olazábal (1/2) South Africa Ernie Els (1/4) Zimbabwe Nick Price (2/3) Zimbabwe Nick Price (3/3)
1993 Germany Bernhard Langer (2/2) United States Lee Janzen (1/2) Australia Greg Norman (2/2) United States Paul Azinger
1992 United States Fred Couples United States Tom Kite England Nick Faldo (5/6) Zimbabwe Nick Price (1/3)
1991 Wales Ian Woosnam United States Payne Stewart (2/3) Australia Ian Baker-Finch United States John Daly (1/2)
1990 England Nick Faldo (3/6) United States Hale Irwin (3/3) England Nick Faldo (4/6) Australia Wayne Grady
1989 England Nick Faldo (2/6) United States Curtis Strange (2/2) United States Mark Calcavecchia United States Payne Stewart (1/3)
1988 Scotland Sandy Lyle (2/2) United States Curtis Strange (1/2) Spain Seve Ballesteros (5/5) United States Jeff Sluman
1987 United States Larry Mize United States Scott Simpson England Nick Faldo (1/6) United States Larry Nelson (3/3)
1986 United States Jack Nicklaus (18/18) United States Raymond Floyd (4/4) Australia Greg Norman (1/2) United States Bob Tway
1985 Germany Bernhard Langer (1/2) United States Andy North (2/2) Scotland Sandy Lyle (1/2) United States Hubert Green (2/2)
1984 United States Ben Crenshaw (1/2) United States Fuzzy Zoeller (2/2) Spain Seve Ballesteros (4/5) United States Lee Trevino (6/6)
1983 Spain Seve Ballesteros (3/5) United States Larry Nelson (2/3) United States Tom Watson (8/8) United States Hal Sutton
1982 United States Craig Stadler United States Tom Watson (6/8) United States Tom Watson (7/8) United States Raymond Floyd (3/4)
1981 United States Tom Watson (5/8) Australia David Graham (2/2) United States Bill Rogers United States Larry Nelson (1/3)
1980 Spain Seve Ballesteros (2/5) United States Jack Nicklaus (16/18) United States Tom Watson (4/8) United States Jack Nicklaus (17/18)
1979 United States Fuzzy Zoeller (1/2) United States Hale Irwin (2/3) Spain Seve Ballesteros (1/5) Australia David Graham (1/2)
1978 South Africa Gary Player (9/9) United States Andy North (1/2) United States Jack Nicklaus (15/18) United States John Mahaffey
1977 United States Tom Watson (2/8) United States Hubert Green (1/2) United States Tom Watson (3/8) United States Lanny Wadkins
1976 United States Raymond Floyd (2/4) United States Jerry Pate United States Johnny Miller (2/2) United States Dave Stockton (2/2)
1975 United States Jack Nicklaus (13/18) United States Lou Graham United States Tom Watson (1/8) United States Jack Nicklaus (14/18)
1974 South Africa Gary Player (7/9) United States Hale Irwin (1/3) South Africa Gary Player (8/9) United States Lee Trevino (5/6)
1973 United States Tommy Aaron United States Johnny Miller (1/2) United States Tom Weiskopf United States Jack Nicklaus (12/18)
1972 United States Jack Nicklaus (10/18) United States Jack Nicklaus (11/18) United States Lee Trevino (4/6) South Africa Gary Player (6/9)
1971 United States Charles Coody United States Lee Trevino (2/6) United States Lee Trevino (3/6) United States Jack Nicklaus (9/18)
1970 United States Billy Casper (3/3) England Tony Jacklin (2/2) United States Jack Nicklaus (8/18) United States Dave Stockton (1/2)
1969 United States George Archer United States Orville Moody England Tony Jacklin (1/2) United States Raymond Floyd (1/4)
1968 United States Bob Goalby United States Lee Trevino (1/6) South Africa Gary Player (5/9) United States Julius Boros (3/3)
1967 United States Gay Brewer United States Jack Nicklaus (7/18) Argentina Roberto DeVicenzo United States Don January
1966 United States Jack Nicklaus (5/18) United States Billy Casper (2/3) United States Jack Nicklaus (6/18) United States Al Geiberger
1965 United States Jack Nicklaus (4/18) South Africa Gary Player (4/9) Australia Peter Thomson (5/5) United States Dave Marr
1964 United States Arnold Palmer (7/7) United States Ken Venturi United States Tony Lema United States Bobby Nichols
1963 United States Jack Nicklaus (2/18) United States Julius Boros (2/3) New Zealand Bob Charles United States Jack Nicklaus (3/18)
1962 United States Arnold Palmer (5/7) United States Jack Nicklaus (1/18) United States Arnold Palmer (6/7) South Africa Gary Player (3/9)
1961 South Africa Gary Player (2/9) United States Gene Littler United States Arnold Palmer (4/7) United States Jerry Barber
1960 United States Arnold Palmer (2/7) United States Arnold Palmer (3/7) Australia Kel Nagle United States Jay Hebert
1959 United States Art Wall, Jr. United States Billy Casper (1/3) South Africa Gary Player (1/9) United States Bob Rosburg
1958 United States Arnold Palmer (1/7) United States Tommy Bolt Australia Peter Thomson (4/5) United States Dow Finsterwald
1957 United States Doug Ford (2/2) United States Dick Mayer South Africa Bobby Locke (4/4) United States Lionel Hebert
1956 United States Jack Burke, Jr. (1/2) United States Cary Middlecoff (3/3) Australia Peter Thomson (3/5) United States Jack Burke, Jr. (2/2)
1955 United States Cary Middlecoff (2/3) United States Jack Fleck Australia Peter Thomson (2/5) United States Doug Ford (1/2)
1954 United States Sam Snead (7/7) United States Ed Furgol Australia Peter Thomson (1/5) United States Chick Harbert
1953 United States Ben Hogan (7/9) United States Ben Hogan (8/9) United States Ben Hogan (9/9) United States Walter Burkemo
1952 United States Sam Snead (6/7) United States Julius Boros (1/3) South Africa Bobby Locke (3/4) United States Jim Turnesa
1951 United States Ben Hogan (5/9) United States Ben Hogan (6/9) England Max Faulkner United States Sam Snead (5/7)
1950 United States Jimmy Demaret (3/3) United States Ben Hogan (4/9) South Africa Bobby Locke (2/4) United States Chandler Harper
1949 United States Sam Snead (3/7) United States Cary Middlecoff (1/3) South Africa Bobby Locke (1/4) United States Sam Snead (4/7)
1948 United States Claude Harmon United States Ben Hogan (3/9) England Henry Cotton (3/3) United States Ben Hogan (2/9)
1947 United States Jimmy Demaret (2/3) United States Lew Worsham Northern Ireland Fred Daly Australia Jim Ferrier
1946 United States Herman Keiser United States Lloyd Mangrum United States Sam Snead (2/7) United States Ben Hogan (1/9)
1945 Not held due to World War II Not held due to World War II Not held due to World War II United States Byron Nelson (5/5)
1944 United States Bob Hamilton
1943 Not held due to World War II
1942 United States Byron Nelson (4/5) United States Sam Snead (1/7)
1941 United States Craig Wood (1/2) United States Craig Wood (2/2) United States Vic Ghezzi
1940 United States Jimmy Demaret (1/3) United States Lawson Little United States Byron Nelson (3/5)
1939 United States Ralph Guldahl (3/3) United States Byron Nelson (2/5) England Dick Burton United States Henry Picard (2/2)
1938 United States Henry Picard (1/2) United States Ralph Guldahl (2/3) England Reg Whitcombe United States Paul Runyan (2/2)
1937 United States Byron Nelson (1/5) United States Ralph Guldahl (1/3) England Henry Cotton (2/3) United States Denny Shute (3/3)
1936 United States Horton Smith (2/2) United States Tony Manero England Alf Padgham United States Denny Shute (2/3)
1935 United States Gene Sarazen (7/7) United States Sam Parks, Jr. England Alf Perry United States Johnny Revolta
1934 United States Horton Smith (1/2) United States Olin Dutra (2/2) England Henry Cotton (1/3) United States Paul Runyan (1/2)
1933 Not yet founded United States Johnny Goodman United States Denny Shute (1/3) United States Gene Sarazen (6/7)
1932 United States Gene Sarazen (5/7) United States Gene Sarazen (4/7) United States Olin Dutra (1/2)
1931 United States Billy Burke ScotlandUnited States Tommy Armour (3/3) United States Tom Creavy
1930 United States Bobby Jones (7/7) United States Bobby Jones (6/7) ScotlandUnited States Tommy Armour (2/3)
1929 United States Bobby Jones (5/7) United States Walter Hagen (11/11) United States Leo Diegel (2/2)
1928 United States Johnny Farrell United States Walter Hagen (10/11) United States Leo Diegel (1/2)
1927 ScotlandUnited States Tommy Armour (1/3) United States Bobby Jones (4/7) United States Walter Hagen (9/11)
1926 United States Bobby Jones (3/7) United States Bobby Jones (2/7) United States Walter Hagen (8/11)
1925 Scotland Willie MacFarlane England Jim Barnes (4/4) United States Walter Hagen (7/11)
1924 England Cyril Walker United States Walter Hagen (5/11) United States Walter Hagen (6/11)
1923 United States Bobby Jones (1/7) England Arthur Havers United States Gene Sarazen (3/7)
1922 United States Gene Sarazen (1/7) United States Walter Hagen (4/11) United States Gene Sarazen (2/7)
1921 England Jim Barnes (3/4) ScotlandUnited States Jock Hutchison (2/2) United States Walter Hagen (3/11)
1920 Jersey Ted Ray (2/2) Scotland George Duncan ScotlandUnited States Jock Hutchison (1/2)
1919 United States Walter Hagen (2/11) Not held due to World War I England Jim Barnes (2/4)
1918 Not held due to World War I Not held due to World War I
1917
1916 United States Chick Evans England Jim Barnes (1/4)
1915 United States Jerome Travers Not yet founded
1914 United States Walter Hagen (1/11) Jersey Harry Vardon (7/7)
1913 United States Francis Ouimet England John Henry Taylor (5/5)
1912 United States John McDermott (2/2) Jersey Ted Ray (1/2)
1911 United States John McDermott (1/2) Jersey Harry Vardon (6/7)
1910 Scotland Alex Smith (2/2) Scotland James Braid (5/5)
1909 England George Sargent England John Henry Taylor (4/5)
1908 Scotland Fred McLeod Scotland James Braid (4/5)
1907 Scotland Alec Ross France Arnaud Massy
1906 Scotland Alex Smith (1/2) Scotland James Braid (3/5)
1905 Scotland Willie Anderson (4/4) Scotland James Braid (2/5)
1904 Scotland Willie Anderson (3/4) Scotland Jack White
1903 Scotland Willie Anderson (2/4) Jersey Harry Vardon (5/7)
1902 Scotland Laurie Auchterlonie Scotland Sandy Herd
1901 Scotland Willie Anderson (1/4) Scotland James Braid (1/5)
1900 Jersey Harry Vardon (4/7) England John Henry Taylor (3/5)
1899 Scotland Willie Smith Jersey Harry Vardon (3/7)
1898 Scotland Fred Herd Jersey Harry Vardon (2/7)
1897 England Joe Lloyd England Harold Hilton (2/2)
1896 Scotland James Foulis Jersey Harry Vardon (1/7)
1895 England Horace Rawlins England John Henry Taylor (2/5)
1894 Not yet founded England John Henry Taylor (1/5)
1893 Scotland Willie Auchterlonie
1892 England Harold Hilton (1/2)
1891 Scotland Hugh Kirkaldy
1890 England John Ball, Jnr
1889 Scotland Willie Park, Jr. (2/2)
1888 Scotland Jack Burns
1887 Scotland Willie Park, Jr. (1/2)
1886 Scotland David Brown
1885 Scotland Bob Martin (2/2)
1884 Scotland Jack Simpson
1883 Scotland Willie Fernie
1882 Scotland Bob Ferguson (3/3)
1881 Scotland Bob Ferguson (2/3)
1880 Scotland Bob Ferguson (1/3)
1879 Scotland Jamie Anderson (3/3)
1878 Scotland Jamie Anderson (2/3)
1877 Scotland Jamie Anderson (1/3)
1876 Scotland Bob Martin (1/2)
1875 Scotland Willie Park, Sr. (4/4)
1874 Scotland Mungo Park
1873 Scotland Tom Kidd
1872 Scotland Young Tom Morris (4/4)
1871 Not played
1870 Scotland Young Tom Morris (3/4)
1869 Scotland Young Tom Morris (2/4)
1868 Scotland Young Tom Morris (1/4)
1867 Scotland Old Tom Morris (4/4)
1866 Scotland Willie Park, Sr. (3/4)
1865 Scotland Andrew Strath
1864 Scotland Old Tom Morris (3/4)
1863 Scotland Willie Park, Sr. (2/4)
1862 Scotland Old Tom Morris (2/4)
1861 Scotland Old Tom Morris (1/4)
1860 Scotland Willie Park, Sr. (1/4)

Major champions by nationality[edit]

The table below shows the number of major championships won by golfers from various countries. Tallies are also shown for major wins by golfers from Europe and from the "Rest of the World" (RoW), i.e. the world excluding Europe and the United States. The United States plays Europe in the Ryder Cup and an International Team representing the Rest of the World in the Presidents Cup. The table is complete through the 2014 U.S. PGA Championship.

Decade Total ARG AUS CAN ENG FIJ FRA GER JER KOR NZL NIR IRE SCO RSA ESP USA WAL ZIM EUR RoW
Total 431 3 16 1 34 3 1 4 9 1 2 7 3 55 22 7 259 1 3 121 51
2010s 20 - 1 - 1 - - 2 - - - 6 - - 3 - 7 - - 9 4
2000s 40 2 1 1 - 2 - - - 1 1 - 3 - 4 - 25 - - 3 12
1990s 40 - 4 - 4 1 - 1 - - - - - 1 2 2 21 1 3 9 10
1980s 40 - 2 - 2 - - 1 - - - - - 2 - 4 29 - - 9 2
1970s 40 - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - 4 1 33 - - 2 5
1960s 40 1 2 - 1 - - - - - 1 - - - 4 - 31 - - 1 8
1950s 40 - 4 - 1 - - - - - - - - - 4 - 31 - - 1 8
1940s 26 - 1 - 1 - - - - - - 1 - - 1 - 22 - - 2 2
1930s 36 - - - 6 - - - - - - - - - - - 30 - - 6 -
1920s 30 - - - 4 - - - 1 - - - - 2 - - 23 - - 7 -
1910s 15 - - - 3 - - - 3 - - - - 2 - - 7 - - 8 -
1900s 20 - - - 3 - 1 - 2 - - - - 14 - - - - - 20 -
1890s 15 - - - 7 - - - 3 - - - - 5 - - - - - 15 -
1880s 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 - - - - - 10 -
1870s 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - 9 - - - - - 9 -
1860s 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 - - - - - 10 -

Scoring records[edit]

Scoring records - aggregate[edit]

The aggregate scoring records for each major are tabulated below. Green indicates an outright record and yellow indicates a shared record.

Date Tournament Player Country Rounds Score To par
Jul 18, 1993 The Open Championship Greg Norman  Australia 66-68-69-64 267 –13
Apr 13, 1997 Masters Tournament Tiger Woods  United States 70-66-65-69 270 –18
Aug 19, 2001 PGA Championship David Toms  United States 66-65-65-69 265 –15
Jun 19, 2011 U.S. Open Rory McIlroy  Northern Ireland 65-66-68-69 268 –16

Scoring records - to par[edit]

The scoring records to par for each major are tabulated below. Green indicates an outright record and yellow indicates a shared record.

Date Tournament Player Country Rounds Score To par Finish
Apr 13, 1997 Masters Tournament Tiger Woods  United States 70-66-65-69 270 –18 Won
Jul 23, 2000 The Open Championship Tiger Woods  United States 67-66-67-69 269 –19 Won
Aug 20, 2000 PGA Championship Tiger Woods  United States 66-67-70-67 270 –18 Won
Aug 20, 2000 PGA Championship Bob May  United States 72-66-66-66 270 –18 2nd
Aug 20, 2006 PGA Championship Tiger Woods  United States 69-68-65-68 270 –18 Won
Jun 19, 2011 U.S. Open Rory McIlroy  Northern Ireland 65-66-68-69 268 –16 Won

Single round records[edit]

The single round scoring record for all four majors is 63.[14] This has occurred 26 times by 24 golfers between 1973 and 2013. Greg Norman and Vijay Singh are the only golfers to record two rounds of 63 in the majors. Johnny Miller was the first golfer to shoot 63 in a major and remains the only golfer to shoot 63 in the final round to win a major.

# Player Country Major Date Rnd To par Finish
1 Johnny Miller  United States U.S. Open Jun 17, 1973 4 –8 1
2 Bruce Crampton  Australia PGA Championship Aug 8, 1975 2 –7 2
3 Mark Hayes  United States The Open Championship Jul 7, 1977 2 –7 T9
4 Tom Weiskopf  United States U.S. Open Jun 12, 1980 1 –7 37
5 Jack Nicklaus  United States U.S. Open Jun 12, 1980 1 –7 1
6 Isao Aoki  Japan The Open Championship Jul 19, 1980 3 –8 T12
7 Raymond Floyd  United States PGA Championship Aug 5, 1982 1 –7 1
8 Gary Player  South Africa PGA Championship Aug 17, 1984 2 –9 T2
9 Nick Price  Zimbabwe Masters Tournament Apr 12, 1986 3 –9 5
10 Greg Norman  Australia The Open Championship Jul 18, 1986 2 –7 1
11 Paul Broadhurst  England The Open Championship Jul 21, 1990 3 –9 T12
12 Jodie Mudd  United States The Open Championship Jul 21, 1991 4 –7 T5
13 Nick Faldo  England The Open Championship Jul 16, 1993 2 –7 2
14 Payne Stewart  United States The Open Championship Jul 18, 1993 4 –7 12
15 Vijay Singh  Fiji PGA Championship Aug 13, 1993 2 –8 4
16 Michael Bradley  United States PGA Championship Aug 10, 1995 1 –8 T54
17 Brad Faxon  United States PGA Championship Aug 13, 1995 4 –8 5
18 Greg Norman  Australia Masters Tournament Apr 11, 1996 1 –9 2
19 José María Olazábal  Spain PGA Championship Aug 19, 2000 3 –9 T4
20 Mark O'Meara  United States PGA Championship Aug 17, 2001 2 –7 T22
21 Vijay Singh  Fiji U.S. Open Jun 13, 2003 2 –7 T20
22 Thomas Bjørn  Denmark PGA Championship Aug 13, 2005 3 –7 T2
23 Tiger Woods  United States PGA Championship Aug 10, 2007 2 –7 1
24 Rory McIlroy  Northern Ireland The Open Championship Jul 15, 2010 1 –9 T3
25 Steve Stricker  United States PGA Championship Aug 11, 2011 1 –7 T12
26 Jason Dufner  United States PGA Championship Aug 9, 2013 2 –7 1

'Player of the Year' in major championships[edit]

There is no official award presented to the player with the best overall record in the four majors, although the PGA's Player of the Year system favors performances in the major championships. Since 1984, world ranking points have been assigned to finishes in the majors, which has allowed a calculation of which player has earned the most ranking points in majors in a season - in almost every year since, one of the year's major winners has either won two of them, or has been the only player to win one and record a high finish in another (like Lucas Glover in 2009, David Duval in 2001 or Justin Leonard in 1997), enough to finish top of such a merit table in those years. The single exception was Nick Faldo in 1988, whose finishes of 2nd, 3rd and 4th earned him more world ranking points than any of that year's champions achieved during the season.

Tables are occasionally constructed for interest showing the overall scoring records for those players who have completed all 288 holes in the majors during a season. In the 1970s, Jack Nicklaus led such a table in 1970–73, 1975 and 1979, with Gary Player leading in 1974, Raymond Floyd in 1976, and Tom Watson in 1977 and 1978. In the 1980s a notable leader was in 1987, when Ben Crenshaw was top of this compilation after finishing 4th, 4th, 4th and 7th in the four majors. In total Crenshaw took 1,140 strokes, only 12 more than the sum total of the four respective champions' scores of 1,128. Recent 'winners' of this accolade are Pádraig Harrington in 2008, Ross Fisher in 2009, Phil Mickelson in 2010, Charl Schwartzel in 2011, and Adam Scott in 2012. In 2013 Scott and fellow Australian Jason Day tied for this accolade with a cumulative score of +2. Rickie Fowler led in 2014 with −32 after top five finishes in all four tournaments.

Consecutive victories at a major championship[edit]

Nationality Player Major # Years
 Scotland Tom Morris, Jr. The Open Championship 4 1868, 1869, 1870, 1872[a]
 United States Walter Hagen PGA Championship 4 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927
 Scotland Jamie Anderson The Open Championship 3 1877, 1878, 1879
 Scotland Bob Ferguson The Open Championship 3 1880, 1881, 1882
 Scotland Willie Anderson U.S. Open 3 1903, 1904, 1905
 Australia Peter Thomson The Open Championship 3 1954, 1955, 1956
 Scotland Tom Morris, Sr. The Open Championship 2 1861, 1862
 Jersey Harry Vardon The Open Championship 2 1898, 1899
 Scotland James Braid The Open Championship 2 1905, 1906
 England John Henry Taylor The Open Championship 2 1894, 1895
 United States John McDermott U.S. Open 2 1911, 1912
 England Jim Barnes PGA Championship 2 1916, 1919[a]
 United States Gene Sarazen PGA Championship 2 1922, 1923
 United States Bobby Jones The Open Championship 2 1926, 1927
 United States Walter Hagen The Open Championship 2 1928, 1929
 United States Leo Diegel PGA Championship 2 1928, 1929
 United States Bobby Jones U.S. Open 2 1929, 1930
 United States Denny Shute PGA Championship 2 1936, 1937
 United States Ralph Guldahl U.S. Open 2 1937, 1938
 South Africa Bobby Locke The Open Championship 2 1949, 1950
 United States Ben Hogan U.S. Open 2 1950, 1951
 United States Arnold Palmer The Open Championship 2 1961, 1962
 United States Jack Nicklaus Masters Tournament 2 1965, 1966
 United States Lee Trevino The Open Championship 2 1971, 1972
 United States Tom Watson The Open Championship 2 1982, 1983
 United States Curtis Strange U.S. Open 2 1988, 1989
 England Nick Faldo Masters Tournament 2 1989, 1990
 United States Tiger Woods PGA Championship 2 1999, 2000
 United States Tiger Woods Masters Tournament 2 2001, 2002
 United States Tiger Woods The Open Championship 2 2005, 2006
 United States Tiger Woods PGA Championship (2) 2 2006, 2007
 Ireland Pádraig Harrington The Open Championship 2 2007, 2008

a These are consecutive because no tournaments were played in between at The Open Championship in 1871 or at the PGA Championship in 1917 and 1918.

Wire-to-wire major victories[edit]

Players who have led or been tied for the lead after each round of a major.

Nationality Player Year Major
 Scotland Willie Anderson 1903 U.S.
 Scotland Alex Smith 1906 U.S.
 Jersey Ted Ray 1912 Open
 United States Walter Hagen 1914 U.S.
 United States Chick Evans 1916 U.S.
 England Jim Barnes 1921 U.S.
 United States Bobby Jones 1927 Open
 United States Gene Sarazen 1932 Open
 England Henry Cotton 1934 Open
 United States Craig Wood 1941 Masters
 United States Ben Hogan 1953 U.S.
 United States Tommy Bolt 1958 U.S.
 United States Arnold Palmer 1960 Masters
 United States Arnold Palmer 1964 Masters
 United States Bobby Nichols 1964 PGA
 United States Raymond Floyd 1969 PGA
 England Tony Jacklin 1970 U.S.
 United States Jack Nicklaus 1972 Masters
 United States Jack Nicklaus 1972 U.S.
 United States Tom Weiskopf 1973 Open
 United States Raymond Floyd 1976 Masters
 United States Hubert Green 1977 U.S.
 Spain Seve Ballesteros 1980 Masters
 United States Jack Nicklaus 1980 U.S.
 United States Raymond Floyd 1982 PGA
 United States Hal Sutton 1983 PGA
 United States Payne Stewart 1991 U.S.
 United States Tiger Woods 2000 U.S.
 United States Tiger Woods 2000 PGA
 South Africa Retief Goosen 2001 U.S.
 United States Tiger Woods 2002 U.S.
 United States Tiger Woods 2005 Open
 South Africa Trevor Immelman 2008 Masters
 Northern Ireland Rory McIlroy 2011 U.S.
 Germany Martin Kaymer 2014 U.S.
 Northern Ireland Rory McIlroy 2014 Open

Top ten finishes in all four modern majors in one season[edit]

It was rare, before the early 1960s, for the leading players from around the world to have the opportunity to compete in all four of the 'modern' majors in one season, because of the different qualifying criteria used in each at the time, the costs of traveling to compete (in an era when tournament prize money was very low, and only the champion himself would earn the chance of ongoing endorsements), and on occasion even the conflicting scheduling of the Open and PGA Championships. In 1937, the U.S. Ryder Cup side all competed in The Open Championship, but of those who finished in the top ten of that event, only Ed Dudley could claim a "top ten" finish in all four of the majors in 1937, if his defeat in the last-16 round of that year's PGA Championship (then at matchplay) was considered a "joint 9th" position.

Following 1960, when Arnold Palmer's narrowly failed bid to add the Open Championship to his Masters and U.S. Open titles (and thus emulate Hogan's 1953 "triple crown") helped to establish the concept of the modern professional "Grand Slam", it has become commonplace for the leading players to be invited to, and indeed compete in, all four majors each year. Even so, those who have recorded top-ten finishes in all four, in a single year, remains a small and select group.

Three majors won in calendar year that the top ten was completed  #
Two majors won in calendar year that the top ten was completed  ‡
One major won in calendar year that the top ten was completed  †
No majors won in calendar year that the top ten was completed  ^
Never won a regular tour major championship in his career  *
Nationality Player Year Wins Major championship results Lowest
placing
Masters U.S. Open Open Ch. PGA Ch.
 United States Ed Dudley  * 1937 0 3rd 5th 6th R16 R16
 United States Arnold Palmer  ‡ 1960 2 1 1 2nd T7 T7
 South Africa Gary Player  ^ 1963 0 T5 T8 T7 T8 T8
 United States Arnold Palmer (2)  ^ 1966 0 T4 2nd T8 T6 T8
 United States Doug Sanders  * 1966 0 T4 T8 T2 T6 T8
 United States Miller Barber  * 1969 0 7th T6 10th T5 10th
 United States Jack Nicklaus  † 1971 1 T2 2nd T5 1 T5
 United States Jack Nicklaus (2)  † 1973 1 T3 T4 4th 1 T4
 United States Jack Nicklaus (3)  ^ 1974 0 T4 T10 3rd 2nd T10
 South Africa Gary Player (2)  ‡ 1974 2 1 T8 1 7th T8
 United States Hale Irwin  ^ 1975 0 T4 T3 T9 T5 T9
 United States Jack Nicklaus (4)  ‡ 1975 2 1 T7 T3 1 T7
 United States Tom Watson  † 1975 1 T8 T9 1 9th T9
 United States Jack Nicklaus (5)  ^ 1977 0 2nd T10 2nd 3rd T10
 United States Tom Watson (2)  ‡ 1977 2 1 T7 1 T6 T7
 United States Tom Watson (3)  ‡ 1982 2 T5 1 1 T9 T9
 United States Ben Crenshaw  ^ 1987 0 T4 T4 T4 T7 T7
 United States Tiger Woods  # 2000 3 5th 1 1 1 5th
 Spain Sergio García  * 2002 0 8th 4th T8 10th 10th
 South Africa Ernie Els  ^ 2004 0 2nd T9 2nd T4 T9
 United States Phil Mickelson  † 2004 1 1 2nd 3rd T6 T6
 Fiji Vijay Singh  ^ 2005 0 T5 T6 T5 T10 T10
 United States Tiger Woods (2)  ‡ 2005 2 1 2nd 1 T4 T4
 United States Rickie Fowler  * 2014 0 T5 T2 T2 T3 T5

On 13 of the 24 occasions the feat has been achieved, the player in question did not win a major that year - indeed, three of the players (Dudley, Sanders and Barber) failed to win a major championship in their careers (although Barber would go on to win five senior majors), and García and Fowler have also yet to win one (as of the end of the 2014 season).

Multiple majors victories in a calendar year[edit]

Four[edit]

  • 1930: United States Bobby Jones; The Open Championship, U.S. Open, U.S. Amateur Championship, The Amateur Championship

Three[edit]

  • 1953: United States Ben Hogan; Masters Tournament, U.S. Open, and The Open Championship
  • 2000: United States Tiger Woods; U.S. Open, The Open Championship, and The PGA Championship

Two[edit]

Masters and U.S. Open[edit]

Masters and Open Championship[edit]

Masters and PGA Championship[edit]

  • 1949: United States Sam Snead
  • 1956: United States Jack Burke, Jr
  • 1963: United States Jack Nicklaus
  • 1975: United States Jack Nicklaus

U.S. Open and Open Championship[edit]

U.S. Open and PGA Championship[edit]

  • 1922: United States Gene Sarazen
  • 1948: United States Ben Hogan
  • 1980: United States Jack Nicklaus

Open Championship and PGA Championship[edit]

Consecutive major victories (including over multiple years)[edit]

Four[edit]

  • 1868-72: Scotland Young Tom Morris '68 Open, '69 Open, '70 Open, '72 Open (No Open Championship played in 1871)
  • 1930: United States Bobby Jones '30 Amateur, '30 Open, '30 U.S. Open, '30 U.S. Amateur
  • 2000-01: United States Tiger Woods '00 U.S. Open, '00 Open, '00 PGA, '01 Masters

Three[edit]

Two[edit]

Note: The order in which the majors were contested was inconsistent between 1895 and 1953. Since 1954, the majors have been played in their modern order (Masters, U.S. Open, Open Championship, PGA), except 1971, when the PGA was played prior to the Masters.

  • 1861-62: Scotland Old Tom Morris '61 Open, '62 Open
  • 1894-95: England J.H. Taylor '94 Open, '95 Open
  • 1920-21: Scotland Jock Hutchison '20 PGA, '21 Open (The Open Championship was the first major contested in 1921)
  • 1921-22: United States Walter Hagen '21 PGA, '22 Open (The Open Championship was the first major contested in 1922)
  • 1922: United States Gene Sarazen '22 U.S. Open, '22 PGA
  • 1924: United States Walter Hagen '24 Open, '24 PGA
  • 1926: United States Bobby Jones '26 Open, '26 U.S. Open (The Open Championship was played before the U.S. Open in 1926)
  • 1927-28: United States Walter Hagen '27 PGA, '28 Open (The Open Championship was the first major contested in 1928)
  • 1930-31: Scotland Tommy Armour '30 PGA, '31 Open (The Open Championship was the first major contested in 1931)
  • 1932: United States Gene Sarazen '32 Open, '32 U.S. Open (The Open Championship was the first major contested in 1932, followed by the U.S. Open)
  • 1941: United States Craig Wood '41 Masters, '41 U.S. Open
  • 1948: United States Ben Hogan '48 PGA, '48 U.S. Open (The PGA was played between the Masters and U.S. Open in 1948)
  • 1949: United States Sam Snead '49 Masters, '49 PGA (As in 1948, the '49 PGA was played between the Masters and U.S. Open)
  • 1951: United States Ben Hogan '51 Masters, '51 U.S. Open
  • 1953: United States Ben Hogan; '53 Masters, '53 U.S. Open (The 1953 Open Championship, also won by Hogan, was actually concluded after the '53 PGA)
  • 1960: United States Arnold Palmer '60 Masters, '60 U.S. Open
  • 1971: United States Lee Trevino '71 U.S. Open, '71 Open
  • 1972: United States Jack Nicklaus '72 Masters, '72 U.S. Open (The 1971 PGA, also won by Nicklaus, was not consecutive due to being played prior to the Masters in 1971)
  • 1982: United States Tom Watson '82 U.S. Open, '82 Open
  • 1994: Zimbabwe Nick Price '94 Open, '94 PGA
  • 2002: United States Tiger Woods '02 Masters, '02 U.S. Open
  • 2005-06: United States Phil Mickelson '05 PGA, '06 Masters
  • 2006: United States Tiger Woods '06 Open, '06 PGA
  • 2008: Republic of Ireland Pádraig Harrington '08 Open, '08 PGA
  • 2014: Northern Ireland Rory McIlroy '14 Open, '14 PGA

Runners-up finishes in major championships[edit]

For the purposes of this section a runner-up is defined as someone who either (i) tied for the lead after 72 holes (or 36 holes in the case of the early championships) but lost the playoff or (ii) finished alone or in a tie for second place. In a few instances players have been involved in a playoff for the win or for second place prize money and have ended up taking the third prize (e.g. 1870 Open Championship, 1966 Masters Tournament). These players are still regarded as being runners-up. For match play PGA Championships up to 1957 the runner-up is the losing finalist.

Along with his record 18 major victories, Jack Nicklaus also holds the record for most runners-up finishes in major championships, with 19, including a record 7 at the Open Championship. Arnold Palmer had 10 second places, including three in the major he never won, the PGA Championship. As of August 2014 Phil Mickelson is in third place with 9 runners-up finishes, which includes a record 6 runners-up finishes at the U.S. Open, the one major he has never won. As of August 2014, there have been three golfers with 8 runners-up finishes - Sam Snead, Tom Watson, and Greg Norman. Norman shares the distinction of having lost playoffs in each of the four majors with Craig Wood (who lost the 1934 PGA final - at matchplay - on the second extra hole).

Players with most runners-up finishes but no major victories[edit]

a Crampton was second to Jack Nicklaus on each occasion.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Official World Golf Ranking – How The System Works". OWGR. January 1, 2013. Retrieved August 14, 2013. 
  2. ^ Crouse, Karen (May 7, 2013). "Men's Fifth Major May Remain Mythical". The New York Times. Retrieved June 27, 2013. 
  3. ^ Burke, Monte (May 9, 2012). "The Players Championship Is Not The "5th Major," But It's Still A Great Tournament". Forbes. Retrieved June 27, 2013. 
  4. ^ Cronin, Tim. "Nelson's Magnificent Seven". Chicago District Golf Association. Retrieved August 14, 2013. 
  5. ^ Newport, John Paul (July 15, 2009). "What Makes the Majors Major". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 14, 2013. 
  6. ^ Harig, Bob (April 7, 2008). "Golf's professional Grand Slam has developed over time". ESPN. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  7. ^ "NBC gets U.S. Open golf". The New York Times. June 2, 1994. Retrieved July 23, 2012. 
  8. ^ Stewart, Larry (July 21, 1995). "ABC getting a major chance with British Open coverage". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 23, 2012. 
  9. ^ "PGA Championship to stay on CBS through 2019". Sports Media Watch. January 28, 2011. Retrieved July 23, 2012. 
  10. ^ "Masters – Past Winners & Results". The Masters. Retrieved June 1, 2013. 
  11. ^ "U.S. Open – History". USGA. Retrieved June 1, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Open Champions". The Open Championship. Retrieved June 1, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Past Winners of the PGA Championship". PGA of America. Retrieved June 1, 2013. 
  14. ^ Fields, Bill (June 15, 2009). "The Magic Number". Golf World. pp. 52–59. Retrieved August 7, 2009. 

External links[edit]