Peaceful harmony in the Syrian Jewish community deteriorated in the late 1930s, as unrest in Palestine resulted in increased hostility towards Zionism and Jews in general. The political and economic instability paved way for the Syrian independence in 1946. So, anti-Western and Arab nationalist fervour took on an increasingly anti-Jewish tone. After the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Jews in Syria faced greater discrimination as the government obstructed them. During this period, Jews and their property became the target of numerous attacks, which includes the Aleppo Pogrom attacks of 1947.
On Friday night, August 5, 1949, several hand grenades were thrown into the Menarsha Synagogue in Damascus, which took a dozen lives and injuring thirty. The attack was planned to synchronize with the Lausanne Conference, which was signed between Israel and Syria on July 20, 1949. A simultaneous attack, carried out at the Great Synagogue in Aleppo also ruined several souls.
The police accredited the attack to an underground movement functioning under the label Arab Redemption Suicide Phalange, and held numerous suspects. On August 9, a seventeen-year-old Syrian veteran of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War confessed that he and two friends were behind the attack. President al-Za'im ordered the execution of those accused, but a few days later the coup of Colonel Sami Hinnawi took place and al-Za'im himself was executed. In 1950, the suspects of the attack were acquitted due to lack of evidence.