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Mepivacaine // is a local anesthetic of the amide type. Mepivacaine has a reasonably rapid onset (more rapid than that of procaine) and medium duration of action (shorter than that of procaine) and is marketed under various trade names including Carbocaine and Polocaine.
Mepivacaine became available in the United States in the 1960s.
Mepivacaine is used in any infiltration and regional anesthesia.
Two primary methods of synthesis have been suggested. According to the first, mepivacaine is synthesized by reacting the ethyl ester of 1-methylpiperidine-2-carboxylic acid with 2,6-dimethylanilinomagnesium bromide, which is synthesized from 2,6-xylidine and ethylmagnesium bromide.
According to the second method, 2,6-xylidine is reacted with the acid chloride of α-picolinic acid. Then the aromatic pyridine ring is reduced to piperidine by hydrogen in the presence of a platinum on carbon catalyst. The resulting 2,6-xylidide α-pipecolic acid is methylated to mepivacaine using formaldehyde with simultaneous reduction by hydrogen in the presence of platinum on carbon catalyst.
A third method also exists:
- Porto GG, Vasconcelos BC, Gomes AC, Albert D (January 2007). "Evaluation of lidocaine and mepivacaine for inferior third molar surgery". Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 12 (1): E60–4. PMID 17195831.
- Burm AG, Cohen IM, van Kleef JW, Vletter AA, Olieman W, Groen K (January 1997). "Pharmacokinetics of the enantiomers of mepivacaine after intravenous administration of the racemate in volunteers". Anesth. Analg. 84 (1): 85–9. doi:10.1097/00000539-199701000-00016. PMID 8989005.
- af Ekenstam, Bo (1957). "Local Anesthetics I. N-Alkyl Pyrrolidine and N-Alkyl Piperidine Carboxylic Acid Amides.". Acta Chemica Scandinavica 11: 1183–1190. doi:10.3891/acta.chem.scand.11-1183.
- Rinderknecht, H. (1959). "Neue Lokalanästhetika". Helvetica Chimica Acta 42 (4): 1324–1327. doi:10.1002/hlca.19590420430.
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