220 S Saloon: 55,279
220 S Cabr./Coupé: 3,429
Port Melbourne, Australia 
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||4-door sedan
- See Mercedes-Benz S-Class for a complete overview of all S-Class models.
The Mercedes-Benz W180 is a 6-cylinder sedan, coupé, and convertible made from 1954 to 1959. The models associated with the W180 chassis code were the 220a and 220S. The latter has often been identified as the first E-Class, though Mercedes-Benz did not officially adopt the E-Class nameplate for its midsize line until 1984.
The W180 was one in a series of Mercedes-Benz models to informally receive the "Ponton" nickname. This was in reference to the unibody-type, pontoon-shaped exterior styling which was also featured on the later W128 line.
220a (W180 I)
Introduced in March 1954, the 220a was a more luxurious and up-scale version of the W120 model 180 with a wheelbase stretched by 170 mm (6.7 in). 100 mm (3.9 in) of that increase in length was necessary to accommodate the longer straight-6 engine taken from the W187 model 220, that in this application delivered 85 PS (63 kW; 84 hp) fed by a single carburettor.
The passenger cabin was also lengthened by 70 mm (2.8 in) to provide an increase in the leg room available to rear seat passengers. From the side these six cylinder cars can readily be distinguished from their shorter four cylinder siblings by the extra "quarter light" windows incorporated in each of the rear doors.
220a production ended in April, 1956 with 25,937 units produced.
220S (W180 II)
The 220a was succeeded in March 1956 by the 220S, which was externally almost identical, but had an upgraded version of the 2.2L inline-six (100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp), later 106 PS (78 kW; 105 hp)), due to the use of twin-carburettors.
Visually, the 220S featured a new one piece front bumper, instead of the 3-piece bumper used on the 220a. Also, the twin chrome and rubber strips running under the doors of the 220a were replaced with solid chrome strips. The most obvious difference is the addition of a chrome strip running along the front fenders and doors of the 220S.
The 220S was available with a 4-speed column shift manual transmission, with an optional Hydrak automatic clutch. This made use of small microswitches on the gear selector that automatically disengaged the clutch when the driver changed gears. Many cars have subsequently been converted to use a regular manual clutch, due to the high maintenece costs of continuing to use the Hydrak clutch.
Also introduced with the 220S was the W105 219, which from the a-pillar forward was essentially a single-carburettor 220a, but rearward from the a-pillar it used the shorter body of the W120/W121 180/190 models.
In July 1956 a Cabriolet (two doors, four seats) joined the line-up, and in October 1956 a Coupé version followed suit. Some Cabriolets were finished with folding rear seats to accommodate additional luggage.
Until October 1959, 55,279 220S saloons and 3,429 Cabriolets and Coupés were built.
|Mercedes-Benz||220a (W180 I)||220 S (W180 II)||220 S Cabriolet/Coupé (W180 II)|
|Engine:||6-cylinder-inline engine (four-stroke), front-mounted|
|Bore x Stroke:||80 mm x 72.8 mm|
|Max. Power @ rpm:||85 PS (63 kW; 84 hp) @ 4800||100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp) @ 4800
from August 1957: 106 PS (78 kW; 105 hp) @ 5200
|Max. Torque @ rpm:||157 N·m (116 lb·ft) @ 2400||162 N·m (119 lb·ft) @ 3500 from August 1957: 171.5 N·m (126.5 lb·ft) @ 3500|
|Compression Ratio:||7.6: 1||7.6: 1
from August 1957: 8.6: 1
|Fuel feed:||Single 2-bbl Solex 32 PAJTA||Dual 2-bbl Solex 32 PAJTA|
|Fuel tank capacity:||64 L (16.9 US gal; 14.1 imp gal)|
|Valvetrain:||SOHC, duplex chain|
|Gearbox:||4-speed manual w/ column shifter
rear wheel drive, standard axle ratio 4.11:1 (later 4.10:1)
|Electrical system:||12 volt|
|Front suspension:||Double wishbones, coil springs, stabilising bar|
|Rear suspension::||Swing axle, radius arms, coil springs|
|Brakes:||Drum brakes (Ø 230 mm), power assisted|
|Steering:||Recirculating ball steering|
|Body structure:||Sheet steel, monocoque (unibody) construction|
|Dry weight:||1,300 kg (2,900 lb)||1,350 kg (2,980 lb)||Cabriolet A/C: 1,450 kg (3,200 lb)
Coupé: 1,410 kg (3,110 lb)
|Loaded weight:||1,730 kg (3,810 lb)||1,790 kg (3,950 lb)||1,815 kg (4,001 lb)|
|1,430 mm (56 in) / 1,470 mm (58 in)|
|Wheelbase:||2,820 mm (111 in)||2,700 mm (110 in)|
|Length:||4,715 mm (185.6 in)||4,750 mm (187 in)||4,760 mm (187 in)|
|Width:||1,740 mm (69 in)||1,740 mm (69 in)||1,765 mm (69.5 in)|
|Height:||1,560 mm (61 in)||1,560 mm (61 in)||1,530 mm (60 in)|
|Tyre/Tire sizes:||6.70 x 13|
|Top speed:||150 km/h (93 mph)||160 km/h (99 mph)||160 km/h (99 mph)|
|Fuel Consumption (estimate):||13.5 litres per 100 kilometres (20.9 mpg-imp; 17.4 mpg-US)||13.5 litres per 100 kilometres (20.9 mpg-imp; 17.4 mpg-US)||13.5 litres per 100 kilometres (20.9 mpg-imp; 17.4 mpg-US)|
$ 4,175 
- Oswald, Werner (2001). Deutsche Autos 1945-1990, Band 4. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-613-02131-5.
- An Australian Mercedes-Benz? - www.mbspares.com.au Retrieved on 1 November 2012
- Jeff Miller. "Mercedes-Benz Ponton Overview and Production Data © www.mbzponton.org". Mbzponton.org. Retrieved 2011-11-27.
- US prices: Mike Covello: Standard Catalog of Imported Cars 1946-2002, Krause Publication, Iola 2002, ISBN 0-87341-605-8, p. 528-529
- Werner Oswald: Deutsche Autos 1945-1990, vol. 4. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-613-02131-5, p. 31-38.
|« previous — Mercedes-Benz road car timeline, 1946–1970s — next »|
|4-cylinder||Sedan||W136 / W191||W120 / W121||W110||W115||W123|
|6-cylinder||Sedan||W187||W105 / W180 / W128||W111||W114||W123|
|Coupé||W187||W180 / W128||W111||C107|
|Large car||Sedan||W111 (until 1968)||(began 1965) W108 / W109||W116|
|Limousine||W186 / W189||W100 (600)|