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Toxodon platensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Eutheria
Superorder: Laurasiatheria ?
(unranked): Meridiungulata
McKenna 1975

Meridiungulata is an extinct clade with the rank of cohort or superorder, containing the South American ungulates Pyrotheria (possibly including Xenungulata), Astrapotheria, Notoungulata and Litopterna. It is not known if it is a natural group; it was erected to distinguish the ungulates of South America from other ungulates. Relationships between the orders inside Meriungulata remain unresolved and it could well be a 'wastebasket' taxon.

Meridiungulata may have originated in South America from a North American condylarth ancestor,[1] and they may be members of the clade Laurasiatheria, related to other ungulates, including artiodactyls and perissodactyls.[2] It is, however, entirely possible the Meridiungulata are actually part of a different macro-group of placental mammals called Atlantogenata.[3]

Much of the evolution of meridiungulates occurred in isolation from other ungulates, a great example of convergent evolution. However, the argument that meridiungulates are related to artiodactyls and perissodactyls will remain tenuous unless DNA is found to confirm this relationship. Some paleontologists have also challenged the monophyly of Meridiungulata by suggesting that the pyrotheres may be more closely related to other mammals, such as Embrithopoda (an African order that may be related to elephants), than to other South American ungulates.[4]

Most litopterns and notoungulates died out following the invasion of South America by North American ungulates and predators during the Great American Interchange; a few species from both orders survived until the end-Pleistocene extinctions.


The following classification is from Rose 2006:

  • Meridiungulata