Merthyr Tydfil

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Coordinates: 51°44′34″N 3°22′41″W / 51.742892°N 3.3780491°W / 51.742892; -3.3780491

Merthyr Tydfil
Welsh: Merthyr Tudful
Merthyr Tydfil arms.png
Merthyr Tydfil’s coat of arms, with its motto: Nid cadarn ond brodyrdde (meaning 'Only brotherhood is strong' in Welsh).[1]
Merthyr Tydfil is located in Merthyr Tydfil
Merthyr Tydfil
Merthyr Tydfil
 Merthyr Tydfil shown within Merthyr Tydfil
Population 30,483 
OS grid reference SO 04951 05809
Principal area Merthyr Tydfil
Ceremonial county Mid Glamorgan
Country Wales
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town MERTHYR TYDFIL
Postcode district CF47
Dialling code 01685
Police South Wales
Fire South Wales
Ambulance Welsh
EU Parliament Wales
UK Parliament Merthyr Tydfil and Rhymney
Welsh Assembly Merthyr Tydfil and Rhymney
List of places
UK
Wales
Merthyr Tydfil

Merthyr Tydfil (/ˈmɜrθər ˈtɪdvɪl/;[2] Welsh: Merthyr Tudful [ˈmɛrθɨr ˈtɨːdvɨ̞l]) is a town in Wales, with a population of about 30,000, situated approximately 23 miles (37 km) north of Cardiff. Once the largest town in Wales, it is now the 14th largest urban area in Wales. It is in the historic county of Glamorgan and is currently the main town in Merthyr Tydfil County Borough administered by Merthyr Tydfil County Borough Council. Both the town and the county borough are often referred to as 'Merthyr'.

According to legend, the town is named after Saint Tydfil, a daughter of King Brychan of Brycheiniog. According to her legend she was slain at Merthyr by pagans around 480; the place was subsequently named Merthyr Tydfil in her honour.[3] Although the usual meaning of the word merthyr (from the Latin martyrium) in modern Welsh is 'martyr', it is probable that the meaning here is "church (in memory of a saint or on his/her grave)." Similar examples, all from south Wales, include Merthyr Cynog, Merthyr Dyfan and Merthyr Mawr. The Cornish and Breton language equivalents, in place names, are merther and merzher.[4]

History[edit]

Pre-history[edit]

Peoples migrating north from Europe had lived in the area for many thousands of years. The archaeological record starts from about 1000 BCE by the 'Celts' (although the 'Celtic Movement' may be seen as a gradual spreading of ideas rather than an invasion of a particular people). From their language, the Welsh language may have developed. Hillforts were built during the Iron Age and the tribe that inhabited them in the South Wales area were called the Silures, according to Tacitus, the Roman historian of the Roman invaders.

The Roman invasion[edit]

The Romans arrived in Roman Wales by about 47-53 CE and established a network of forts, with roads to link them. They had to fight hard to consolidate their conquests, and in 74 CE they built an auxiliary fortress at Penydarren, overlooking the River Taff. It covered an area of about three hectares, and formed part of the network of roads and fortifications; remains were found underneath the football ground where Merthyr Tydfil FC play. A road ran north–south through the area, linking the southern coast with Mid Wales and Watling Street via Brecon. Parts of this and other roads, including Sarn Helen, can be traced and walked.

The Silures resisted this invasion fiercely from their mountain strongholds, but the Romans eventually prevailed. In time, relative peace was established and the Penydarren fortress was abandoned by about 120 CE. This had an unfortunate effect upon the local economy, which had come to rely upon supplying the fortress with beef and grain, and imported items such as oysters from the coast. Intermarriage with local women had occurred and many auxiliary veterans had settled locally on farms.

With the Decline of the Roman Empire, Roman legions were withdrawn around 380 CE. By 402 CE, the army in Britain comprised mostly Germanic troops and local recruits, and the cream of the army had been withdrawn across to the continent of Europe. Sometime during this period, Irish Dalriadan (Scots) and Picts attacked and breached Hadrian's Wall. During the 4th and 5th centuries the coasts of Cambria (Wales) had been subject to the raids of Irish pirates, in much the same way as the south and east coasts of Britain had been raided by Saxon pirates from across the North Sea. Around the middle of the 5th century, Irish settlements had been established around Swansea and the Gower Peninsula and in Pembrokeshire and eventually petty kingdoms were establish as far inland as Brecon. By about 490 CE hordes of Saxons invaded and settled in the east or "lowland" Britain and the locals were left to their own devices to fight off these new invaders.

The coming of Christianity[edit]

The Latin language and some Roman customs and culture became established before the withdrawal of the Roman army. The Christian religion was introduced throughout much of Wales by the Romans, but locally it may have been introduced later by monks from Ireland and France, who made their way into the region following rivers and valleys.

Local legends[edit]

Local tradition holds that a girl called Tydfil, daughter of a local chieftain named Brychan, was an early local convert to Christianity, and was pursued and murdered by a band of marauding Picts and Saxons while traveling to Hafod Tanglwys in Aberfan, a local farm that is still occupied. The girl was considered a martyr after her death in approximately 480AD. "Merthyr" translates to "Martyr" in English, and tradition holds that, when the town was founded, the name was chosen in her honour. A church was eventually built on the traditional site of her burial. Images of that church are on the Merthyr History website.

The Normans arrive[edit]

The valley through which the River Taff flowed was heavily wooded, with a few scattered farms on the mountain slopes, and this situation persisted for several hundred years. Norman barons moved in after the Norman Conquest of England, but by 1093 they occupied only the lowlands and the uplands remained in the hands of the local Welsh rulers. The effect on the locals was probably minimal. There were conflicts between the barons and the families descended from the Welsh princes, and control of the land passed to and fro in the Welsh Marches. During this time Morlais Castle was built a couple of miles north of the town.

Early modern Merthyr[edit]

No permanent settlement was formed until well into the Middle Ages. People continued to be self-sufficient, living by farming and later by trading. Merthyr was little more than a village. An ironworks existed in the parish in the Elizabethan period, but it did not survive beyond the early 1640s at the latest. In 1754, it was recorded that the valley was almost entirely populated by shepherds. Farm produce was traded at a number of markets and fairs, notably the Waun Fair above Dowlais.[5]

The Industrial Revolution[edit]

Influence and growth of iron industry[edit]

Merthyr was close to reserves of iron ore, coal and limestone and to water, making it an ideal site for ironworks. Small-scale iron working and coal mining had been carried out at some places in South Wales since the Tudor period, but in the wake of the Industrial revolution the demand for iron led to the rapid expansion of Merthyr's iron operations. Neighbouring Dowlais Ironworks was founded by what would become the Dowlais Iron Company in 1759, making it the first major works in the area. It was followed in 1765 by the Cyfarthfa Ironworks. The Plymouth Ironworks were initially in the same ownership as Cyfarthfa, but passed after the death of Anthony Bacon to Richard Hill in 1788. The fourth ironworks was Penydarren built by Francis Homfray and Samuel Homfray after 1784.

The demand for iron was fuelled by the Royal Navy, which needed cannon for its ships, and later by the railways. In 1802, Admiral Lord Nelson visited Merthyr to witness cannon being made.

Several railway companies established routes linking Merthyr with ports and other parts of Britain. They included the Brecon and Merthyr Railway, Vale of Neath Railway, Taff Vale Railway and Great Western Railway. They often shared routes to enable access to coal mines and ironworks through rugged country, which presented great engineering challenges. In 1804, the world’s first railway steam locomotive, "The Iron Horse", developed by the Cornish engineer Richard Trevithick, pulled 10 tons of iron on the new Merthyr Tramroad from Penydarren to Abercynon.[6][7] A replica of this is in the National Waterfront Museum in Swansea. The tramway passed through what is arguably the oldest railway tunnel in the world, part of which can be seen alongside Pentrebach Road at the lower end of the town.

The Cyfarthfa Castle, commissioned in 1824 by the ironmaster William Crawshay II

The 1801 census recorded the population of Merthyr as 7705, the most populous parish in Wales (the built-up area of Swansea, covering several parishes, exceeded 10,000). By 1851 Merthyr had overtaken Swansea to become the largest town in Wales, with 46,378 inhabitants. By this time, Irish immigrants made up 10% of the population, and there were substantial numbers of English, with some Spaniards and Italians.[5] A Jewish community was established some time after 1841, and by 1851 they were able to establish a small prayer hall. The charming Merthyr Synagogue was consecrated in 1875 and a cemetery at Cefn-Coed was established in the 1860s.

During the first few decades of the 19th century, the ironworks at Cyfarthfa (and neighbouring Dowlais) continued to expand and at their peak were the most productive ironworks in the world. 50,000 tons of rails left just one ironworks in 1844, to enable expansion of railways across Russia to Siberia. The companies were mainly owned by two dynasties, the Guest and Crawshay families. The families supported the establishment of schools for their workers.

Thomas Carlyle visited Merthyr in 1850, writing that the town was filled with such "unguided, hard-worked, fierce, and miserable-looking sons of Adam I never saw before. Ah me ! It is like a vision of Hell, and will never leave me, that of these poor creatures broiling, all in sweat and dirt, amid their furnaces, pits, and rolling mills."[8]

The Merthyr Rising[edit]

Main article: Merthyr Rising

The Merthyr Rising of 1831 was precipitated by a combination of the ruthless collection of debts, frequent wage reductions when the value of iron periodically fell, and the imposition of truck shops. Some workers were paid in specially minted coins or credit notes, known as "truck", which could be exchanged only at shops owned by their employers. Many of the workers objected to both the price and quality of the goods sold in these shops.

Between 7,000 and 10,000 workers marched and for four days magistrates and ironmasters were under siege in the Castle Hotel, with the protesters effectively controlling the whole town.[5] Soldiers, called in from Brecon, clashed with the rioters, and several on both sides were killed. Despite the hope that they could negotiate with the owners, the skilled workers lost control of the movement.

Several of the supposed leaders of the riots were arrested. One of them, Richard Lewis, popularly known as Dic Penderyn, was hanged for stabbing a soldier named Donald Black in the leg. Lewis became known as the first local working-class martyr.

Alexander Cordell's low-brow novel The Fire People is set in this period. A more serious political history of these events, The Merthyr Rising, was written by the Merthyr-born Marxist writer Professor Gwyn A. Williams in 1978.

The rising helped create the momentum that led to the Reform Act of 1832. The Chartism movement, which did not consider these reforms extensive enough, was subsequently active in Merthyr.

The decline of coal and iron[edit]

The abandoned Cyfarthfa Ironworks blast furnaces

The population of Merthyr reached 51,949 in 1861, but went into decline for several years thereafter. As the 19th century progressed, Merthyr's inland location became increasingly disadvantageous for iron production. Penydarren closed in 1859 and Plymouth in 1880; thereafter some ironworkers migrated to the United States or even Ukraine, where Merthyr engineer John Hughes established an ironworks in 1869, creating the new city of Donetsk in the process.[5]

In the 1870s the advent of coal mining to the south of the town gave renewed impetus to the local economy and population growth. New mining communities developed at Merthyr Vale, Treharris and Bedlinog, and the population of Merthyr rose to a peak of 80,990 in 1911. The growth of the town led to its grant of county borough status in 1908.[5]

The steel and coal industries began to decline after World War I, and by the 1930s they had all closed. By 1932, more than 80% of men in Dowlais were unemployed; Merthyr experienced an out-migration of 27,000 people in the 1920s and 1930s, and a Royal Commission recommended that the town's county borough status should be abolished.[5] The fortunes of Merthyr revived temporarily during World War II, as war-related industry was established in the area. In the post-war years the local economy became increasingly reliant on light manufacturing, often providing employment for women rather than men.

In 1987, the iron foundry, all that remained of the former Dowlais ironworks, finally closed, marking the end of 228 years continuous production on the site.

Post-Second World War[edit]

Immediately following the Second World War several large companies set up in Merthyr. In October 1948 the American-owned Hoover Company opened a large washing machine factory and depot in the village of Pentrebach, a few miles south of the town. The factory was purpose-built to manufacture the Hoover Electric Washing Machine, and at one point Hoover was the largest employer in the borough. Later the Sinclair C5 was built in the same factory.

Several other companies built factories, including the aviation components company Teddington Aircraft Controls, which opened in 1946 and closed in the early 1970s. The Merthyr Tydfil Institute for the Blind, founded in 1923, is the oldest active manufacturer in the town.[9]

Cyfarthfa, the former home of the ironmaster William Crawshay II, an opulent mock-castle, is now a museum. It houses a number of paintings of the town, a large collection of artefacts from the town's Industrial Revolution period, and a notable collection of Egyptian tomb artefacts, including several sarcophagi.

In 1992, while testing a new angina treatment in Merthyr Tydfil, researchers discovered that the new drug had erection-stimulating side effects for some of the healthy volunteers in the trial study. This discovery formed the basis for Viagra.[10]

In 2006 inventor Howard Stapleton, based in Merthyr Tydfil, developed the technology that gave rise to the recent mosquitotone or Teen Buzz phenomenon.[11]

The Welsh language[edit]

At the time of the 1891 Census, 68.4% of the population of Merthyr— 75, 067 inhabitants out of a total of 110, 569— spoke Welsh (Edwards, 2001: 131). By the time of the 1911 Census that figure had fallen to 50.9%, or 37, 469 inhabitants out of a total of 74, 596 (ibid.). The 2011 Census indicates that currently 8.9% of the population of Merthyr speaks Welsh. [12]

Industrial legacy[edit]

Merthyr has a long and varied industrial heritage, and was one of the seats of the industrial revolution (see history above). Since the end of the Second World War, much of this has declined, with the closure of long-established near by coal mining collieries, and both steel and ironworks. Despite recent improvements, some parts of the town remain economically disadvantaged, and there is a significant proportion of the community who are long-term unemployed.[13][14] A Channel 4 series ranked Merthyr the third-worst place to live in Britain in 2006.[15] In the 2007 edition of the same series, Merthyr had improved to fifth-worst.[16]

Open cast mining[edit]

In 2006, a large open cast coal mine, which will extract 10 million tonnes of coal over 15 years, was authorised just east of Merthyr as part of the Ffos-y-fran open cast mine.

Government[edit]

Merthyr Tydfil County Borough Council is the governing body for the town and the County Borough, which streaches as far south as Treharris. The Member of Parliament for the Merthyr Tydfil and Rhymney constituency is Dai Havard, and the Welsh Assembly member is Huw Lewis AM.

Religion[edit]

St Tydfil's Church

Merthyr was regarded as a nonconformist stronghold in the nineteenth century but the chapels declined rapidly from the 1920s onwards and most are now closed.

The Anglican Church did, however, seek to counterbalance the influence of nonconformity in the nineteenth century and Merthyr had a succession of inflential clergymen as parish priests. Among the most notable was John Griffith, rector of Merthyr from 1858 until his death in 1885. Griffith had previously been the incumbent at Aberdare where he had created controversy for his evidence to the commissioners preparing the 1847 Education Reports. His views became more tempered over time however. Griffith's move to Merthyr Tydfil saw him take over a much larger and more established parish than Aberdare. He became less than popular with the church authorities, however, as a result of his support for disestablishment. In July 1883, he stated that ‘I have been for years convinced that nothing but Disestablishment, the separation of the Church from the State, can ever reform the Church in Wales.’[17]

Griffith's funeral was said to have been attended by between 12,000 and 15,000 people[18] 'I venture to declare', wrote one correspondent, ' no man in this part of the kingdom could be more popular in his day and generation than the Rev. John Griffith.' Among the nonconformist ministers present at the funeral was his old rival, Dr Thomas Price of Aberdare.[19]

Culture[edit]

The Old Town Hall after its renovation in 2014 to become REDHOUSE - Hen Neuadd Y Dref / Old Town Hall

The town has held many cultural events. Local poets and writers hold poetry evenings in the town, and music festivals are organised at Cyfarthfa Castle and Park. With this in mind, Menter Iaith Merthyr Tudful (the Merthyr Tydfil Welsh Language Initiative) has successfully transformed the Zoar Chapel and the adjacent vestry building in Pontmorlais into a community arts venue, Canolfan Soar and Theatr Soar, which run a whole programme of performance events and activities in both Welsh and English, together with a cafe and book shop, specialising in local interest and Welsh language books and CDs.[20] Also on Pontmorlais, Merthyr Tydfil Housing Association was successful in a number of funding bids to develop the Old Town Hall into a new cultural centre, working in partnership with Canolfan a Theatr Soar to turn the Pontmorlais area into a cultural quarter. The Old Town Hall facility was launched on Saint David's Day 2014. With references to the 1831 Merthyr Rising and the building's red bricks, the venue has been named REDHOUSE - Hen Neuadd Y Dref / Old Town Hall.[21] Merthyr Tydfil College's Arts and Media departments occupy part of the building, holding occasional professional performances at REDHOUSE's Dowlais Theatre and providing opportunities for students to perform dance, musicals, plays, and instrumental and vocal concerts.

Merthyr has several historical and heritage groups:

The Merthyr Tydfil Heritage Regeneration Trust, which has as its aim - "To preserve for the benefit of the residents of Merthyr Tydfil and of the Nation at large whatever of the Historical, Architectural and Constructional Heritage may exist in and around Merthyr Tydfil in the form of buildings and artefacts of particular beauty or of Historical, Architectural or Constructional interest and also to improve, conserve and protect the environment thereto."[22]

The Merthyr Tydfil Historical Society, which has as its aim - "To advance the education of the public by promoting the study of the local history and architecture of Merthyr Tydfil".[23]

The Merthyr Tydfil Museum and Heritage Groups, which has as its aim - "To advance the education of the public by the promotion, support and improvement of the Heritage of Merthyr Tydfil and its Museums."[24]

Merthyr's Central Library, which is in a prominent position in the centre of the town, is a Carnegie library.

Merthyr hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1881 and 1901 and the national Urdd Gobaith Cymru Eisteddfod in 1987.

Merthyr, like nearby Aberdare, is known for its thriving music scene. The town has produced several bands that have achieved national success, including The Blackout and Midasuno. Since 2011 the town has been the home of the Merthyr Rock Festival.[25]

Tourism[edit]

The town is in a South Wales Valleys environment just south of the Brecon Beacons National Park, and this, along with its rich history, means it has huge potential for tourism. National Cycle Route 8 passes through the town. The Brecon Mountain Railway is easily accessible by cycle and car.

Transport[edit]

Roads[edit]

Road improvements mean the town is increasingly a commuter location and has shown some of the highest house price growth in the UK.[26][27]

Public transport[edit]

Regular trains operate from Merthyr Tydfil railway station to Cardiff Queen Street and Cardiff Central. Public transport links to Cardiff are being improved.[28]

Employment[edit]

Merthyr relies on a combination of public sector and manufacturing and service sector companies to provide employment. The Welsh Assembly Government has recently opened a major office in the town[29] near a large telecommunications call centre(T-Mobile & EE). Hoover (now part of the Candy Group) has its Registered Office in the town and remained a major employer until it transferred production abroad in March 2009, with the loss of 337 jobs after the closure of its factory.

Sports and leisure[edit]

Boxing
Sculpture of boxer Eddie Thomas in Bethesda Gardens

Merthyr is particularly known for its boxers, both amateur and professional. Famous professional pugilists from the town include Johnny Owen, Howard Winstone, and Eddie Thomas.

Football

Merthyr is widely recognised for its football team, Merthyr Town. 'The Martyrs' compete in the Evostick Southern Football League and play home games at Penydarren Park. The town was home to the professional Football League club Merthyr Town F.C., which folded in the 1930s; Merthyr Tydfil AFC was founded in 1945. In 1987 they won the Welsh Cup and qualified for the European Cup Winners' Cup. In the first round, they won 2–1 against Italian football team Atalanta in the first leg at Penydarren Park. However, the lost the return leg, losing 3-1 on aggregate. 2008 marked the centenary of football having been played at Penydarren Park. After going into liquidation in 2010, the club dropped down three divisions, reverted to the name of Merthyr Town and made Rhiw Dda’r their new home ground. Following promotion[30] the club moved back to Penydarren Park in July 2011.[31]

Rugby union

The local rugby union club, Merthyr RFC, is known as 'the Ironmen'. It was one of the 12 founding clubs of the Welsh Rugby Union in 1881.

Rugby league

Merthyr is home to the Tydfil Wildcats Rugby League team, which played at The Cage in Troedyrhiw until September 2010. Merthyr Tydfil was one of the first rugby league sides in Wales in 1907 and beat the first touring Australian side in 1908.

Mountain Biking

Bikepark Wales, the UK's first purpose-built mountain biking centre, is located at Gethin Woods, Merthyr Tydfil.

Education[edit]

Merthyr Tydfil College is the main further education provider in the area.

Notable people[edit]

See Category:People from Merthyr Tydfil

Among those born in Merthyr are:

Other notable residents have included poet and author Mike Jenkins (his son Ceiran mentioned above) and daughter Plaid Cymru politician Bethan Jenkins, poet, journalist and Welsh Nationalist Harri Webb, General Secretary of the PCS trade union Mark Serwotka, poet, author and Welsh language activist Meic Stephens, poet, author and journalist Grahame Davies. Sam Hughes began his career as a noted player of the ophicleide in the Cyfarthfa Brass Band. One of the first two Labour MPs to be elected to parliament was the Scot Keir Hardie, for Merthyr Tydfil constituency.

Notable descendants of Merthyr include the singer-songwriter Katell Keineg, whose mother is a native of Merthyr; the "Chariots of Fire" athlete Harold Abrahams' mother Esther Isaacs; and the grandfather of Rolf Harris. The 1970s juvenile group The Osmonds have traced their ancestry to Merthyr.[37]

References in art and literature[edit]

  • Horatio Clare's retelling of one of the Mabinogion tales, The Prince's Pen (Seren) refers to Merthyr as being "declared an insurgent zone", and that people would refer to "'what happened at Merthyr' for years to follow".[38]
  • In the third episode of the 1978 BBC sitcom Going Straight, Merthyr is referred to as having ".. more pubs.. than anywhere else in Britain, and they're all shut Sundays."
  • In Jasper Fforde's Thursday Next series (set in an alternate history), begun in 2001, Merthyr is the capital of an independent People's Republic of Wales.
  • Australian poet Les Murray references his experiences in the town in his poem, "Vindaloo in Merthyr Tydfil".
  • Canadian songwriter Jane Siberry uses "the slags of Merthyr Tydfil" as an image in her song "You Don't Need", from the 1984 album No Borders Here.

Twinnings[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gwyn A. Williams, 'Romanticism in Wales', in Roy Porter and Mikuláš Teich (ed), Romanticism in National Context (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1988), p. 35.
  2. ^ Wells, John (12 January 2010). "Merthyr". John Wells's phonetic blog. Retrieved 5 March 2010. 
  3. ^ Farmer, David Hugh. (1978). "Tydfil". In The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
  4. ^ University of Wales Dictionary, vol. III, page 2436.
  5. ^ a b c d e f The Welsh Academy Encyclopedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 2008.
  6. ^ Pembrokeshire-wales.info
  7. ^ Trevithick2004.co.uk
  8. ^ James Anthony Froude, Thomas Carlyle: A History of his Life in London 1834-1881, Longmans, vol 2, 1855, p. 52.
  9. ^ MTIB.co.uk
  10. ^ Staff (4 September 2007). "Blue wonder: Happy birthday Viagra". independent.co.uk. Retrieved 28 February 2012. 
  11. ^ "Firm's ringtone 'next Crazy Frog'". BBC News. 14 June 2006. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  12. ^ "Cyfrifiad 2011: canlyniadau a newidiadau er 2001" (in Welsh). Welsh Language Commissioner. Retrieved 21 May 2014. 
  13. ^ 'Third worst place in UK' — but Valleys town disputes claims — icWales
  14. ^ "Ten reasons to love 'worst town'". BBC News. 10 August 2005. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  15. ^ Merthyr Tydfil: Best and Worst Places to Live in the UK 2006 from channel4.com
  16. ^ Channel4.com
  17. ^ "Welsh Biography Online". Retrieved 7 November 2013. 
  18. ^ "Death of the Rector of Merthyr". Aberdare Times. 2 May 1885. Retrieved 7 November 2013. 
  19. ^ "The Funeral". Weekly Mail. 2 May 1885. Retrieved 7 November 2013. 
  20. ^ fkcreate. "Merthyr Tudful". Theatr Soar. Retrieved 2014-05-22. 
  21. ^ http://www.redhousecymru.com/
  22. ^ MTHT.co.uk
  23. ^ MTHS.co.uk
  24. ^ MTHT.co.uk
  25. ^ http://merthyrrock.com/
  26. ^ "Merthyr named UK's house hotspot". BBC News. 16 October 2004. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  27. ^ "House price boom as market grows". BBC News. 8 August 2006. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  28. ^ "£19m for Merthyr-Cardiff trains". BBC News. 8 February 2007. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  29. ^ "Assembly building in valleys town". BBC News. 30 November 2006. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  30. ^ Merthyr Town promoted
  31. ^ Match Report: Merthyr Town 1 – 9 Llanelli
  32. ^ "Gareth Abraham". Post War English & Scottish Football League A - Z Player's Database. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  33. ^ "South East Wales Arts - Laura Ashley". BBC. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  34. ^ "Gareth Jamie Bevan, Man Who Trashed Conservative MP's Office Over S4C, Jailed". Huff Post Politics. Retrieved 29 September 2012. 
  35. ^ "Nathan Craze". hockeyDB.com. Retrieved 29 September 2012. 
  36. ^ "John Edward Jones". Find A Grave. Retrieved 29 September 2012. 
  37. ^ BBC — South East Wales Merthyr — Donny Osmond Coming Home
  38. ^ Horatio Clare (2011-10-18). "The Prince's Pen". Seren Books. Retrieved 2014-05-22. 
  39. ^ "http://www.welshicons.org.uk/html/merthyr_tydfil1.php." Retrieved on 12 January 2012.
  40. ^ "http://www.francemag.com/france-travel-travel-guide-and-information-twin-towns--211." Retrieved on 12 January 2012.

The population given as 38,000 is for the parishes around the town centre: the population of the County Borough at the 2011 census was 58,800.

References[edit]

  • A Brief History of Merthyr Tydfil by Joseph Gross. The Starling Press. 1980
  • The Merthyr Rising by Gwyn A Williams. University of Wales Press,
  • The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press,
  • People, Protest and Politics, case studies in C19 Wales By David Egan, Gomer 1987
  • Cyfres y Cymoedd: Merthyr a Thaf, edited by Hywel Teifi Edwards. Gomer, 2001
  • Civilizing the Urban: Popular culture and Urban Space in Merthyr, c. 1870-1914 by Andy Croll. University of Wales Press.

2000.

  • Methyr Tydfil A.F.C. 1945-1954: The Glory Years By Philip Sweet. T.T.C. Books. 2008
  • The Eccles, Antiquities of the Cymry; or The Ancient British Church by John Williams (1844), p116.
  • Noteworthy Merthyr Tydfil Citizens by Keith L. Lewis-Jones. Merthyr Tydfil Heritage Trust 2008.mtht.co.uk
  • Merthyr Historian volumes 1 - 21, Merthyr Tydfil Historical Society. mths.co.uk

External links[edit]