Mesa, Arizona

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Mesa, Arizona
City
City of Mesa
Mesa Bank and Mesa Arts Center building in downtown Mesa
Mesa Bank and Mesa Arts Center building in downtown Mesa
Flag of Mesa, Arizona
Flag
Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona
Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona
Mesa, Arizona is located in USA
Mesa, Arizona
Mesa, Arizona
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 33°24′54″N 111°49′53″W / 33.41500°N 111.83139°W / 33.41500; -111.83139Coordinates: 33°24′54″N 111°49′53″W / 33.41500°N 111.83139°W / 33.41500; -111.83139
Country United States
State Arizona
County Maricopa
Founded 1878
Government
 • Mayor John Giles
Area
 • City 133.13 sq mi (324.2 km2)
 • Land 132.93 sq mi (323.7 km2)
 • Water 0.2 sq mi (0.6 km2)
Elevation 1,243 ft (378 m)
Population (2010)[1]
 • City 439,041
 • Estimate (2013[2]) 457,587
 • Rank US: 38th
 • Density 3,536.6/sq mi (1,365.6/km2)
 • Urban 3,629,114 (US: 12th)
 • Metro 4,398,762 (US: 12th)
Time zone MST (no DST) (UTC-7)
ZIP codes 85200-85299
Area code(s) 480
FIPS code 04-46000
Website http://www.mesaaz.gov/

Mesa (/ˈmɛsə/ MES) is a city in Maricopa County, in the State of Arizona and is a suburb located about 20 miles (32 km) east of Phoenix. Mesa is the central city of the East Valley section of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. It is bordered by Tempe on the west, the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community on the north, Chandler and Gilbert on the south, and Apache Junction on the east. As of the 2010 Census Mesa became Arizona's center of population.

Mesa is the third-largest city in Arizona, after Phoenix and Tucson. and the 38th-largest city in the US. The city is home to 439,041 people as of 2010 according to the Census Bureau. Mesa is home to numerous higher education facilities including Polytechnic campus of Arizona State University.

History[edit]

The history of Mesa dates back at least 2,000 years to the arrival of the Hohokam people. The Hohokam, whose name means "All Used Up" or "The Departed Ones", built the original canal system. The canals were the largest and most sophisticated in the prehistoric New World. Some were up to 90 feet (27 m) wide and ten feet deep at their head gates, extending for as far as 16 miles (26 km) across the desert. By A.D. 1100 water could be delivered to an area over 110,000 acres (450 km2), transforming the Sonoran Desert into an agricultural oasis. By A.D. 1450, the Hohokam had constructed hundreds of miles of canals many of which are still in use today.[3]

After the disappearance of the Hohokam and before the arrival of the early settlers little is known, as explorers did not venture into this area. By the late 19th century near present-day Mesa, U.S. Army troops subdued the Apache opening the way for settlement.

Mormon pioneer Daniel Webster Jones led an expedition to found a Mormon settlement in Arizona. Leaving St. George, Utah in March 1877, Jones and others arrived at Lehi, an area within the northern edge of present-day Mesa. Jones had been asked by Mormon officials to direct a party of people in establishing a settlement in Arizona. This settlement was initially known as Jonesville and Fort Utah and did not receive the name of Lehi until 1883, when it was adopted on the suggestion of Brigham Young, Jr.[4]

At the same time, another group dubbed the First Mesa Company arrived from Utah and Idaho. Their leaders were named Francis Martin Pomeroy, Charles Crismon, George M. Sirrine and Charles I. Robson. Rather than accepting an invitation to settle at Jones' Lehi settlement, they moved to the top of the mesa that serves as the city's namesake. They dug irrigation canals, some of which were over the original Hohokam canals, and by April 1878, water was flowing through them.[5] The Second Mesa Company arrived in 1879 and settled to the west of where the First Mesa Company settled in 1880, due to lack of available farmland. This settlement was called Stringtown.[6]

On July 17, 1878, Mesa City was registered as a 1-square-mile (2.6 km2) townsite. The first school was built in 1879. In 1883, Mesa City was incorporated with a population of 300 people. Dr. A. J. Chandler, who would later go on to found the city of Chandler, worked on widening the Mesa Canal in 1895 to allow for enough flow to build a power plant. In 1917, the city of Mesa purchased the utility company. The revenues from the company provided enough for capital expenditures until the 1960s. During the Great Depression, WPA funds provided paved streets, a new hospital, a new town hall and a library.[7]

With the opening of Falcon Field and Williams Field in the early 1940s, more military personnel began to move into the Mesa area. With the advent of air conditioning and the rise of tourism, population growth exploded in Mesa as well as the rest of the Phoenix area. Industry—especially early aerospace companies—grew in the 1950s and 1960s. As late as 1960, half of the residents of Mesa made a living with agriculture, but this has declined substantially as Mesa's suburban growth continued on track with the rest of the Phoenix metro area.[8]

In 1990, the Census Bureau reported city's population as 10.9% Hispanic and 84.9% non-Hispanic white.[9]

Geography[edit]

Defining east and west Mesa[edit]

Due to Mesa's extremely long east to west travel distance, in excess of 18 miles (29 km)[10] and large land area 133.13 square miles (344.8 km2), locations in Mesa are often referred to as residing within either East Mesa or West Mesa.[11][12][13]

Commonly accepted boundaries[edit]

Center St[edit]

Mesa employs a grid system for street numbering that is different from that used in Phoenix and other portions of the metropolitan area. Center Street, running north to south bisects Mesa into eastern and western halves and serves as the east and west numbering point of origin within Mesa. Streets west of Center St., such as W. University Drive or W. Main St. are considered to be in West Mesa; whereas, streets east of Center St., such as E. University or E. Main St. are considered to be in East Mesa.[14]

Mesa Drive[edit]

Mesa Drive, running north to south and bisecting Mesa into east and west sections, is located 0.5 miles (800 m) east of Center Street, and serves as the zip code boundary between the 85281, 85201, 85202, and 85210 zip codes of Western Mesa and the 85203, 85204, 85205, 85206, 85207, 85208, 85209, 85212, 85213, 85215, 85220, and 85242 zip codes of Eastern Mesa.[15]

Country Club Drive[edit]

Country Club Drive, running north to south and bisecting Mesa into east and west sections, is located 0.5 miles (800 m) west of Center St, and serves as the jurisdictional boundary between Arizona's 5th and 6th congressional districts.[16] Note that that this same road (as Arizona Avenue) serves as the official east and west numbering point of origin within the city of Chandler, located south of Mesa.

Climate[edit]

Located in the Sonoran Desert, Mesa has a desert climate (Köppen: BWh), with mild winters and very hot summers. The hottest month is July, with an average high of 106 °F (41 °C) and an average low of 77 °F (25 °C). The coldest month is January, with an average high of 67 °F (19 °C) and an average low of 41 °F (5 °C).[17]

Climate data for Mesa, Arizona
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 89
(32)
95
(35)
99
(37)
106
(41)
118
(48)
116
(47)
119
(48)
115
(46)
113
(45)
107
(42)
97
(36)
86
(30)
119
(48)
Average high °F (°C) 67
(19)
71
(22)
77
(25)
85
(29)
94
(34)
104
(40)
106
(41)
104
(40)
99
(37)
89
(32)
75
(24)
67
(19)
86.5
(30.2)
Average low °F (°C) 41
(5)
45
(7)
49
(9)
54
(12)
61
(16)
70
(21)
77
(25)
76
(24)
70
(21)
59
(15)
47
(8)
40
(4)
57.4
(13.9)
Record low °F (°C) 15
(−9)
19
(−7)
24
(−4)
30
(−1)
37
(3)
43
(6)
54
(12)
51
(11)
40
(4)
30
(−1)
22
(−6)
17
(−8)
15
(−9)
Precipitation inches (mm) 1.01
(25.7)
1.03
(26.2)
1.19
(30.2)
0.33
(8.4)
0.17
(4.3)
0.06
(1.5)
0.89
(22.6)
1.14
(29)
0.89
(22.6)
0.81
(20.6)
0.77
(19.6)
0.98
(24.9)
9.27
(235.6)
Source: The Weather Channel[17]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1900 722
1910 1,692 134.3%
1920 3,036 79.4%
1930 3,711 22.2%
1940 7,224 94.7%
1950 16,790 132.4%
1960 33,772 101.1%
1970 63,049 86.7%
1980 152,404 141.7%
1990 288,104 89.0%
2000 396,375 37.6%
2010 439,041 10.8%
Est. 2013 457,587 4.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[18]
2013 Estimate[19]

According to the 2010 Census, the racial composition of Mesa was as follows:[20]

As of the census of 2010, there were 439,041 people, 146,643 households, and 99,863 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,171.3 people per square mile (1,224.4/km²). There were 175,701 housing units at an average density of 1,405.7 per square mile (542.8/km²).

The racial make-up of the city was 81.6% White, 2.4% Black or African American, 2.2% Native American, 2.00% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 9.3% from other races, and 1.30% from two or more races. 24.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 146,643 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.9% were non-families. 24.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.20.

The age distribution was 27.3% under 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, and 13.3% who were 65 or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $42,817, and the median income for a family was $49,232. Males had a median income of $35,960 versus $27,005 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,601. About 6.2% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.7% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. Mesa's residents exhibit a great deal of economic diversity,[citation needed] with low-income areas constructed somewhat close to high-scale neighborhoods with expensive custom homes. The neighborhood "Marlborough Mesa" has won a community award.[citation needed]

Economy[edit]

Top employers[edit]

According to the City's 2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[21] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Banner Health System 9,573
2 Mesa Public Schools 8,770
3 Boeing 4,086
4 City of Mesa 3,485
5 Maricopa County Government 2,644
6 Walmart 2,533
7 Mesa Community College 1,951
8 Fry's Food and Drug 1,210
9 Gilbert Public Schools 1,087
10 Aviall Inc. 842

Cultural attractions[edit]

LDS Mesa Arizona Temple with Christmas lights

Historic properties in Mesa[edit]

There are numerous properties in the city of Mesa which are considered to be historical and have been included either in the National Register of Historic Places[22] or the listings of the Mesa Historic Properties. The following are images of some of these properties with a short description of the same.

Historic Mesa, Arizona
(NRHP = National Register of Historic Places)
(MHP = Mesa Historic Properties)[23]
Replica of the original Lehi School built in 1880 (MHP). 
Sirrine House, built in 1896 (NRHP) Historic Significance: Architecture/Engineering, Architect, builder, or engineer: Sirrine, Joel E., Architectural Style: Queen Anne, Area of Significance: Architecture, Period of Significance: 1900-1924, 1875-1899. 
Angulo-Hostetter House, built in 1902 (NRHP) Historic Significance: Architecture/Engineering, Architectural Style: Colonial Revival, Queen Anne, Area of Significance: Architecture, Period of Significance: 1925-1949, 1900-1924. 
Strauch-Fuller House, built in 1906 (NRHP) Historic Significance: Architecture/Engineering, Architect, builder, or engineer: Unknown, Architectural Style: Mission/Spanish Revival, Area of Significance: Architecture, Period of Significance: 1900-1924. 
The Robert Scott House was built in 1909 and is located at 2230 E. Grandview St. in Mesa. The residence belonged to Robert Scott, a wealthy Mesa sheep farmer and large landowner, who was a co-founder of the Salt River Bank. The Scott House originally stood within the original Mesa townsite on the corner of First and Sirrine Streets, and when completed was among the few large formal residences in Mesa. Commercial expansion and downtown redevelopment projects during the past twenty years have changed the character of the townsite area. The original site of the Scott House was sold for commercial development in 1972, and the house was subsequently moved six miles to a residential subdivision where it is now located. The property was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on July 8, 1982, reference #82002079. 
Lehi School, built in 1913 (NRHP) Historic Significance: Architecture/Engineering, Event, Architect, builder, or engineer: WPA, Architectural Style: Moderne, Mission/Spanish Revival, Area of Significance: Architecture, Community Planning And Development, Entertainment/Recreation, Education. Period of Significance: 1950-1974, 1925-1949, 1900-1924. 
Spangler-Wilbur House, built in 1915, (NRHP) Historic Significance: Architecture/Engineering, Architect, builder, or engineer: Home Builders Inc., Architectural Style: Colonial Revival, Mission/Spanish Revival, Area of Significance: Architecture, Period of Significance: 1900-1924. 
James A. Macdonald House, built in 1916-1918 (MHP). 
Dr. Lucius Charles Aston House, built in 1920 (NRHP). The Dr. Lucius Charles Alston House is associated with the history of the development of the African American community in Mesa. The house served as Dr. Alston’s office while practicing medicine in Mesa. 
The historic Alhambra Hotel was originally built in 1893 and reconstructed in 1922. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on July 31, 1991. 
Mesa Journal--Tribune FHA Demonstration Home. Also known as Charles A. Mitten Home. Area of Significance: Commerce, Community Planning And Development; Period of Significance: 1925-1949 (NRHP). 
Mesa Women's Club, built in 1931 (NRHP) Historic Significance: Event, Area of Significance: Social History, Period of Significance: 1925-1949. 
Irving School was built in 1936 and it is located at 155 N. Center St. The Irving School is a rare surviving example of Federal Modern style architecture applied to an elementary school. The school was listed in the National Register of Historic Places om November 8, 2000, reference number 00001323. 
The Buckhorn Baths Motel was built in 1939 and is located at 5900 Main St. in Mesa. The Buckhorn Baths Motel is a complex consisting of fourteen buildings including a bathhouse, a main office building, and individual room units. The motel was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on May 10, 2005, reference number #05000421. 
Some of the individual room units of The Buckhorn Baths Motel which was built in 1939 and is located at 5900 Main St. in Mesa. The Buckhorn Baths Motel was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on May 10, 2005, reference number #05000421. 
Williams Air Force Base (now part of Phoenix–Mesa Gateway Airport) in Mesa, Arizona
(NRHP = National Register of Historic Places)
(MHP = Mesa Historic Properties)
Housing Storage Supply Warehouse at Williams Air Force Base (now Arizona State University at the Polytechnic campus). The housing supply warehouse was constructed in December 1941 by Del E. Webb Construction Company. The housing supply warehouse is significant for its association with the initial development and construction at Williams Air Force Base. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places – 1995. Reference 95000746 
Water Tower at Williams Air Force Base (now Arizona State University at the Polytechnic campus). The water tower was constructed in the winter of 1941-1942 by the Del E. Webb Construction Company. The water tower possesses the associative quality that connects it to the history of Williams Air Force Base. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places – 1995. Reference 95000745 
The Flagpole was built in December 1941, the Base Flagpole is significant as an object for its important symbolic and traditional associations with the origins and history of Williams Air Force Base (now Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport). The pole was erected by Del E. Webb Construction Company. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places – 1995 Reference 95000744. 
Marker of the historic flagpole. 
Demountable Hangar located at the North Apron, Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport (formally Williams AFB), Mesa, Arizona. Built in 1925 and designed by Webb, Del E., Construction Company to resemble an enlisted aviator badge of the Army Air Force. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1995, ref. #95000743. 
Ammo Bunker (S-1007), SW of Vosler Dr. (formerly Alaska Dr.), at Arizona State University at the Polytechnic campus (Formally Williams AFB), Mesa, Arizona. Built in 1925 by Webb, Del E., Construction Company. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places ref: 95000748. 
Sealed entrance of Ammo Bunker (S-1007)
Ammo Bunker (S-1008), SW of Vosler Dr. (formerly Alaska Dr.) , at Arizona State University at the Polytechnic campus (Formally Williams AFB), Mesa, Arizona. Built in 1925 by Webb, Del E., Construction Company. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places ref: 95000759. 
Sealed entrance of Ammo Bunker (S-1008)
Civil Engineering Maintenance Shop also known as S-735, located in Unity Ave. (Jct. of 11th and A Sts.), at Arizona State University at the Polytechnic campus (Formally Williams AFB), Mesa, Arizona. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1995, ref: #95000747. 

Parks and Recreation[edit]

Mesa has over 2,280 acres of parkland in the city limits. Mesa's largest park is Red Mountain Park which spans 1,146 acres. It includes a lake, playgrounds, a basketball court and a cement volleyball court.[24]

Golf[edit]

Mesa is home to numerous championship golf courses, including the original course in town, Mesa Country Club (www.mesacountryclub.com). This course was founded in the late 1940s by the original leaders of the town, and "Country Club Drive" - the most prominent street in Mesa - was at one point the modest entrance to the club.

West Mesa[edit]

Main articles: Fiesta Mall and Mesa Riverview

The Fiesta Mall is located in West Mesa, and owned by Westcor. The mall's anchors are Dillard's, Sears, Best Buy, and Dick's Sporting Goods. It is located near several shopping centers, Mesa's Bank of America,[25] and other retail stores, banks, and restaurants. An expansion of Fiesta Mall has been planned.[26]

Mesa Riverview is a new outdoor destination retail center in the northwestern corner of the city, near Loop 202 and Dobson Road. At build-out the center will include of 1,300,000 square feet (120,000 m2) of retail space.[27] The anchors include Bass Pro Shops, Cinemark Theaters, Wal-Mart, and Home Depot. Mesa Riverview also includes restaurants and specialty stores, such as Toby Keith's I Love This Bar & Grill.

East Mesa[edit]

The Superstition Springs Center is a shopping mall in East Mesa also owned by Westcor. It features an outdoor amphitheatre and fountain which convert to a stage. Anchor stores at the mall are Dillard's, JCPenney, Macy's, and Sears.

Education[edit]

Almost all of the city of Mesa is served by public schools operated by Mesa Public Schools; however, a small southern portion is served by the Gilbert Public Schools, and a small western portion is served by the Tempe Elementary School District and the Tempe Union High School District.

Mesa is also home to Mesa Community College, the largest of the Maricopa Community Colleges, which enrolls over 24,000 full and part-time students. In addition, the Polytechnic campus of Arizona State University lies in southeast Mesa. This satellite campus enrolls over 6,000 undergraduate and graduate students in scientific and engineering fields. In addition, A. T. Still University operates an Osteopathic Medical School in Mesa. The aviation school CAE Global Academy Phoenix is also located in Mesa.

After launching a higher education initiative, Mesa became home to branch campuses of Albright College, Benedictine University, Upper Iowa University and Wilkes University.[28]

Transportation[edit]

Mesa City Hall in downtown Mesa

Several area freeways serve the Mesa area, such as U.S. Route 60, locally known as the Superstition Freeway, which runs between Apache Junction and Phoenix. It is also served by SR 87 and bypass loops Loop 101, which skirts the western city limits as the Price Freeway, and Loop 202, which bypasses the city on the north and east. Public transportation is provided by Valley Metro with most buses running Monday through Saturday only; until July 2008, Mesa was the largest U.S. city with no public transit service on Sundays. West Mesa is connected to the METRO Light Rail line at the Dobson Road station incongruously called Main and Sycamore (Sycamore being a minor one-block-long street).

Air service in the city is provided by two airports. Falcon Field, located in the northeastern part of the area, was established as a training field for British RAF pilots during World War II and was transferred to the city at the end of the war. Falcon Field has 605 aircraft based there.[29] Boeing builds the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter at a facility adjoining Falcon Field. Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport is located in the far southeastern area of the city, and provides alternate but limited air service to Sky Harbor International Airport. Phoenix-Mesa Gateway was formerly Williams Gateway Airport, and before that, Williams Air Force Base, which closed in 1993. Williams Gateway was announced as a new Focus City for Allegiant Air. Service started October 25, 2007.

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Mesa has five sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-06-18. 
  2. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-06-18. 
  3. ^ "Hohokam", A Brief History of Mesa, Arizona, Mesalibrary.org (City of Mesa Library), July 2003, retrieved 2012-03-13 
  4. ^ Jenson, Andrew (1941), Encyclopedic History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City: Deseret News Publishing Company, p. 426 
  5. ^ "First Mesa Company", A Brief History of Mesa, Arizona, Mesalibrary.org (City of Mesa Library), July 2003, retrieved 2012-03-13 
  6. ^ "Second Mesa Company", A Brief History of Mesa, Arizona, Mesalibrary.org (City of Mesa Library), July 2003, retrieved 2012-03-13 
  7. ^ "Mesa City - 1878 to Depression", A Brief History of Mesa, Arizona, Mesalibrary.org (City of Mesa Library), July 2003, retrieved 2012-03-13 
  8. ^ "World War II to Present", A Brief History of Mesa, Arizona, Mesalibrary.org (City of Mesa Library), July 2003, retrieved 2012-03-13 
  9. ^ "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. 
  10. ^ Yahoo maps[unreliable source?]
  11. ^ "Search: west mesa", City of Mesa – Search Page, Mesaaz.gov, retrieved 2010-07-02 [unreliable source?]
  12. ^ "West Mesa Park-and-ride Project No. 06-045-001", Transportation Advisory Board Report, City of Mesa, April 21, 2009 
  13. ^ West Mesa crime spree ends in arrest, Mesaaz.gov (City of Mesa), archived from the original on 2010-05-28, retrieved 2010-07-02 
  14. ^ http://maps.yahoo.com/#mvt=m&lat=33.414824&lon=-111.831545&zoom=15&q1=mesa%2C%20az[unreliable source?]
  15. ^ Mesa ZIP codes (PDF), mesaaz.gov (City of Mesa), 2009-10-15, retrieved 2012-03-13 
  16. ^ Arizona’s 5th Congressional District & Map, govtrack.us (GovTrack), 2011-01-03, retrieved 2012-03-13 
  17. ^ a b Monthly Averages for Mesa, AZ (85202), Weather.com, retrieved 2012-03-13 
  18. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  19. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". Retrieved June 18, 2014. 
  20. ^ Factfinder2.census.gov, United States Census Bureau 
  21. ^ "Statistical Section" (PDF). "City of Mesa 2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report". City of Mesa. 2014-06-18. p. 166. Retrieved 2014-06-18. 
  22. ^ National Register of Historic Places
  23. ^ Mesa Historic Properties
  24. ^ "Red Mountain Park" City of Mesa, Arizona. Retrieved on 9 July 2013.
  25. ^ Boyle, Tim (April 2001), A Big Bang in Downtown, or The History of the Financial Plaza, retrieved 2012-03-13 
  26. ^ Fiesta Mall – Center Redevelopment, archived from the original on 2008-12-20, retrieved 2008-04-06 
  27. ^ Mesa Riverview – Center Information, archived from the original on 2008-03-12, retrieved 2008-04-06 
  28. ^ Higher Education Initiative
  29. ^ "KFFZ: Falcon Field Airport, Mesa, Arizona, USA", Airport Information, airnav.com (AirNav, LLC) 
  30. ^ "98 players born in Arizona". Baseball-Reference.com. Archived from the original on July 5, 2014. Retrieved September 3, 2014. 
  31. ^ a b Leatherman, Benjamin (Aug 6, 2014). "The 15 Biggest Rock Stars Who Live in Arizona". Phoenix New Times. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved September 15, 2014. 
  32. ^ "Austin Gibbs Releases His Monumental 'EP' through 101 Distribution". PR Web. April 30, 2009. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. Retrieved September 16, 2014. 
  33. ^ "HAYDEN, Carl Trumbull, (1877 - 1972)". United States Congress. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2014. 
  34. ^ "87 Jamar Hunt". University of Texas, El Paso. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. 
  35. ^ "Albie Lopez". Baseball-Reference.com. Archived from the original on July 3, 2014. Retrieved September 2, 2014. 
  36. ^ "Carolyn Morris". Baseball-Reference.com. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved September 2, 2014. 

External links[edit]