The Mesabi Iron Range is a vast deposit of iron ore and the largest of four major iron ranges in the region collectively known as the Iron Range of Minnesota. Discovered in 1866, it is the chief deposit of iron ore in the United States. The deposit is located in northeast Minnesota, largely in Itasca and Saint Louis counties. It was extensively worked in the earlier part of the 20th century. Extraction operations declined throughout the mid-1970s but rebounded in 2005. China's growing demand for iron, along with the falling value of the US dollar versus other world currencies, have made taconite production profitable again, and some mines that had closed have been reopened, while current mines have been expanded.[dead link]
The Mesabi Range was known to the local Ojibwe as Misaabe-wajiw', meaning "Giant mountain". Throughout the Mesabi Range, "Mesaba" and "Missabe" spelling variations are found along with places containing "Giant" in their names.
Most of the world's iron ore, including that contained in the Mesabi Iron Range, was formed during the middle Precambrian period. During this period, erosion leveled mountains. This erosion released iron and silica into the waters of a new sea. Marine algae living in this new sea raised the level of atmospheric oxygen. This oxygen catastrophe caused the eroded iron to precipitate into the banded iron formations found in the Mesabi Iron Range and other members of the Animikie Group.
Iron ore is currently mined only from open pits, although some mines operated underground early on. The mined ore is then transported away, primarily by the Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway to the ports of Two Harbors and Duluth. In the early years of mining from the late 19th century until the 1950s, mining focus was on high grade ore (hematite) that could be processed into steel without much change. However, when that supply dried up, focus shifted to lower-grade ore (taconite), which requires extensive processing at large mining-processing facilities before moving to port. At Duluth, trains of up to eighty 100-ton open cars are moved out on massive ore docks to be dumped into "lakers" of up to 60,000 tons weight for movement to steel mills in Indiana and Ohio.
Much of the softer ore was formed close to the surface, allowing mining operations to be conducted via the open pit mines. The world's biggest open pit iron ore mine is the Hull-Rust-Mahoning Open Pit Iron Mine in Hibbing. Open pit mines that are no longer worked are a common feature along the iron range. Some of these sites have been redeveloped for other uses. For instance, the Virginia Pilot is a project which focuses on redeveloping the grounds adjacent to the old mines into low- to moderate-income residential space. The Hill-Annex Mine is now a state park and offers tours to visitors who wish to learn about mine operations. Tours are guided by former mine workers.
Currently, there are six mining-processing facilities in operation on the Iron Range. Cliffs Natural Resources owns and operates Northshore Mining, which has mining operations in Babbitt and crushing, concentrating (grinding) and pelletizing operations in Silver Bay, along with United Taconite which has mining operations in Eveleth and crushing, concentrating and pelletizing operations in Forbes. Arcelor Mittal owns and operates the Minorca Mine and Plant with mining operations near Biwabik and Gilbert and a crushing, concentrating and pelletizing facility near Virginia ( ). United States Steel owns and operates both KeeTac ( ) and Minntac ( ) with mining and processing facilities in Keewatin and Mountain Iron respectively. The last facility is Hibbing Taconite which operates a mine and plant between the cities of Hibbing and Chisholm. Although Arcelor Mittal owns a majority stake in Hibbing Taconite, the operating agent is actually a minority owner, Cliffs Natural Resources. United States Steel is also a minority stakeholder in Hibbing Taconite.
In addition, Essar Steel is building a mine/plant near Nashwauk that has plans to not only mine and process the taconite, but eventually to produce steel on-site ready for shipment around the world. Steel Dynamics and Kobe Steel own Mesabi Nugget ( ) near Hoyt Lakes which does not yet mine its own material, but does produce high-iron content nuggets. Magnetation, Inc. is another company currently working the Iron Range, but their focus is reclaiming leftover iron from ore dumps with company-designed high-power magnetic separators to produce concentrate to sell and ship throughout the world.
Notable natives and residents
- Joe Bretto, professional hockey player, Chicago Black Hawks.
- Vincent Bugliosi, prosecutor of Charles Manson.
- Bruce Carlson, United States Air Force general, Director of the National Reconnaissance Office.
- Steve Deger, nonfiction author.
- Bob Dylan (born Robert Zimmerman in Duluth), musician, singer-songwriter, Rock and Roll Hall of Famer and Pulitzer Prize winner. The song "North Country Blues" is about the decline of mining in the Mesabi Range, and its effect on miners and their families.
- Steve Enich, professional football player.
- Roger Enrico, Chairman/CEO of PepsiCo from 1996 to 2001, and Chairman of DreamWorks Animation SKG Inc from 2004 to 2012. Board of Directors of the National Geographic Society, the Environmental Defense Fund and the American Film Institute.
- Philip Falcone, billionaire Wall Street investor.
- Dick Garmaker, professional basketball player.
- Robert Rowe Gilruth, first director of NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center, later renamed the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.
- Gus Hall, former leader of the Communist Party USA and four-time U.S. presidential candidate.
- Jeff Halper, professor of anthropology, author, lecturer, political activist and co-founder of Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions.
- John Harrington, right wing on 1980 "Miracle on Ice" gold medal olympic team.
- Chi Chi LaRue, American film director
- Roger Maris, professional baseball player, former single-season home run record holder.
- John Mariucci, NHL hockey player, hockey coach for the University of Minnesota, and 1956 US Olympic hockey coach.
- Kevin McHale, professional basketball player, 3 NBA titles with the Boston Celtics, former Minnesota Timberwolves Vice President. Current coach of Houston Rockets.
- Bethany McLean, co-author of Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room.
- Joe Micheletti, professional hockey player, television Olympics & NHL hockey analyst in NYC.
- Pat Micheletti, professional hockey player.
- Robert Mondavi, American wine entrepreneur.
- Marie Myung-Ok Lee, novelist and essayist.
- Carol J. Oja, music historian at Harvard University.
- Jeno Paulucci, founder of Jeno's Pizza and Chun King Foods brands.
- Mark Pavelich, center on 1980 "Miracle on Ice" gold medal olympic team.
- Rudy Perpich, Minnesota governor, former town dentist.
- Christopher Michael Pratt, actor.
- Gary Puckett, musician.
- Buzz Schneider, LW on 1980 "Miracle on Ice" gold medal olympic team.Member of 1976 olympic team.
- John P. Sheehy, internationally known architect.
- Carl Wickman, founder and longtime CEO of Greyhound Lines.
- John (Jack) Petroske, member of the 1956 men's U.S. Olympic Hockey Team, winning a silver medal.
Bob Dylan memorialized the Iron Range in the 1963 song North Country Blues, a lament portraying hard times in the region. Presented in his 1964 album The Times They Are a-Changin', it includes such lines as:
- So the mining gates locked and the red iron rotted
- And the room smelled heavy from drinking
- When the sad, silent song made the hour twice as long
- As I waited for the sun to go sinking 
The Mesabi Range was brought to public attention by the 2005 film North Country, which depicts a fictionalized version of the events surrounding Jenson v. Eveleth Taconite Co., a sexual harassment, class-action lawsuit that female miners brought against a Mesabi Range mining company.
- From the Monongahela valley, to the Mesabi Iron Range –
- To the coal mines of Appalachia, the story's always the same.
Bruce lifted the two lines of the above lyric from the opening voice-over by Gregory Peck in the 1945 movie The Valley of Decision set in a Pennsylvania steel town .
"Mesabi" is the title song of a 2011 album by Tom Russell: "Some things never change on the Mesabi iron range . . . Bethlehem of the Troubadour Kid" (referring to Bob Dylan — see above).
- Duluth News Tribune
- The Ojibwe peoples dictionary. Minnesota Geographic Names. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society (Minnesota Historical Society: St. Paul, 1920), page 504. Available in fulltext at Google Book Search.
- John D. Nichols and Earl Nyholm. A Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe. University of Minnesota Press (University of Minnesota: Minneapolis, 1995) ISBN 0-8166-2427-5
- Iron Range - The Mining Frontier. Macalester College.
- Leith, Charles Kenneth (1903). The Mesabi Iron-bearing District of Minnesota. U.S. Geological Survey Monograph 43. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office.
- Stacy, Francis N. (September 1904). "The Iron Mines That Give Us Leadership: The Most Extraordinary Deposits In The World In The Mesabi Range". The World's Work: A History of Our Time VIII: 5235–5243. Retrieved 2009-07-10. Includes numerous photos of c. 1904 Mesabi iron works.
- Beck, J. Robert. Well, Here We Are! The Hansons and the Becks. Lincoln, Nebraska: iUniverse, 2005.—A history of a Swedish-Finnish immigrant family from the Mesabi Iron Range, which details the social (and socialist) conditions of the area during its heyday.
- George, Harrison. "The Mesaba Iron Range," International Socialist Review, vol. 17, no. 6 (December 1916), pp. 329–332.
- George, Harrison. "Victory on the Mesaba Range," International Socialist Review, vol. 17, no. 7 (January 1917), pp. 429–431.