List of Mesopotamian dynasties

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Early Dynastic period[edit]

Mesopotamia Early Dynastic period King list
Date Lagash Umma Uruk Ur King of Kish
2500 BC Urnanshe Pabilgaltukh Meskalamdug Meskalamdug
Akurgal Ush Akalamdug
2450 BC Eanatum Enakale Mesannepada
Aannepada
Mesannepada
Eanatum
Enanatum I Urluma Meskiagnuna
2400 BC Entemena Lugalkiginedudu Lugalkiginedudu Lugalkiginedudu
Enanatum II Lugalkisalsi Lugalkisalsi
Enentarsi Gishakidu
U' u
Elili Lugalsilasi
Lugalanda Urzage
Lugal-TAR
Urzage
2350 BC UruKAgina Lugalzagesi Enshakushana Enbi' ishtar
Lugalzagesi Urzababa
Sargon of Akkad

[1]

Late third to mid-second millennium BCE[edit]

Mesopotamia early period king list[2]
Dynasty of Agade
2300 BCE Sargon of Akkad 2334–2279 BCE
Rimush 2278–2270 BCE
Manishtusu 2269–2255 BCE
Naram-Sin 2254–2218 BCE
2200 BCE Sharkalisharri 2217–2193 BCE
King unknown 2192–2190 BCE
Dudu 2189–2169 BCE Gudea (2nd Dynasty of Lagash]])
Shu-Turul 2168–2154 BCE
3rd Dynasty of Ur
Ur-Namma 2112–2095 BCE
2110 BCE Shulgi 2094–2047 BCE
Amar-Sin 2046–2038 BCE
Shu-Sin 2037–2029 BCE
Ibbi-Sin 2028–2004 BCE
Isin-Larsa/Old Babylonian Period
Isin Larsa Babylon Assur
Ishbi-Erra 2017–1985 BCE Naplanum 2025–2005 BCE Ushpia circa 2030 BCE
2000 BCE Emisum 2004–1977 BCE Apiashal
Shu-Ilishu 1984–1975 BCE Sulili
Iddin-Dagan 1974–1954 BCE Samium 1976–1942 BCE
Ishme-Dagan 1953–1935 BCE Zambaja 1941–1933 BCE Kikkiya
Lipit-Ishtar 1934–1924 BCE Gungunum 1932–1906 BCE Akiya
Ur-Ninurta 1923–1896 BCE Puzur-Ashur I circa 1975 BCE
1900 BCE Bur-Sin 1895–1897 BCE Abisare 1905–1895 BCE Shalim-ahum died 1946 BCE
Lipit-Enlil 1873–1869 BCE Sumuel 1894–1866 BCE Sumuabum 1894–1881 BCE Ilu-shumma 1945 - 1906 BCE
Erra-imitti 1868–1861 BCE Nur-Adad 1865–1850 BCE Sumulael 1880–1845 BCE Erishum I 1905–1867 BCE
Enlil-bani 1860–1837 BCE Sin-Iddinam 1849–1843 BCE
Zambiya 1836–1834 BCE Sin-Eribam 1842–1841 BCE Sabium 1844–1831 BCE Ikunun 1867–1860 BCE
Iter-pisha 1833–1831 BCE Sin-Iqisham 1840–1836 BCE Sargon I 1865 BCE
Ur-du-kuga 1830–1828 BCE Silli-Adad 1835 BCE Apil-Sin 1830–1813 BCE Puzur-Assur II
Suen-magir 1827–1817 BCE Warad-Sin 1834–1823 BCE Erishum II 1819–1814 BCE
1800 BCE Damiq-ilishu 1816–1794 BCE Rim-Sin I 1822–1763 BCE Sin-muballit 1812–1793 BCE Shamshi-Adad I 1813–1781 BCE
Hammurapi 1792–1750 BCE Ishme-Dagan 1790 - 1751 BCE
Rim-Sin II Samsuiluna 1749–1712 BCE Mut-Ashkur 1750
1700 BCE Abi-eshuh 1711–1684 BCE Rimush
Ammiditana 1683–1647 BCE Asinum
Ammisaduqa 1646–1626 BCE Adasi 1720 BCE
1600 BCE Samsuditana 1625–1595 BCE
"Dark Age"

[3]

Mitanni[edit]

Mitanni king list
Shuttarna I(son of Kirta)
Parattarnar
Saushtatar(son of Parsatatar)
Artatama I
Shuttarna II
Artashumara
Tushratta Artatama II
Shattiwaza Shuttarna III
Shattuara
Wasashatta
Shattuara II

[4]

Mid-second to first millennium BC[edit]

Mesopotamia later period king list
Babylonia Assyria
Kassite Dynasty [5]
Gandaš
Agum Maḫrû
Kaštiliašu I
 ? Abi-Rattaš
 ? Kaštiliašu II
Urzigurumaš
Ḫarba-x, ? Ḫurbazum
 ? Šipta’ulzi
 ? Agum-Kakrime
1500 BC Burna-Buriaš I Puzur-Aššur III 1503 - 1479 BC
 ? Kaštiliašu III
 ? Ulamburiaš
 ? Agum III
 ?
Kara-indaš 1413 BC Aššur-bêl-nišešu 1407 - 1399 BC
1400 BC Kadašman-Ḫarbe I Middle Assyrian Kingdom
Kurigalzu I
Kadašman-Enlil I 1374–1360 BC Aššur-uballiṭ 1363–1328 BC
Burna-Buriaš II 1359–1333 BC
Kara-ḫardaš 1333 BC
Nazi-Bugaš 1333 BC
Kurigalzu II 1332–1308 BC Enlil-nīrāri 1327–1318 BC
Arik-den-ili 1317–1306 BC
1300 BC Nazi-Maruttaš 1307–1282 BC Adad-nīrāri I 1305–1274 BC
Kadašman-Turgu 1281–1264 BC Shalmaneser I 1273–1244 BC
Kadašman-Enlil II 1263–1255 BC
Kudur-Enlil 1254–1246 BC
Šagarakti-Šuriaš 1245–1233 BC Tukulti-Ninurta I 1243–1207 BC
Kaštiliašu IV 1232–1225 BC
Enlil-nādin-šumi 1224 BC
Kadašman-Ḫarbe II 1223 BC
Adad-šuma-iddina 1222–1217 BC
1200 BC Adad-šuma-uṣur 1216–1187 BC Assur-nadin-apli 1206–1203 BC
Assur-nirari III 1202–1197 BC
Enlil-Kudurri-usur 1196–1192 BC
Ninuta-apil-ekur 1191–1179 BC
Meli-Šipak 1186–1172 BC Aššur-dan I 1178–1133 BC
Marduk-apla-iddina I 1171–1159 BC
Zababa-šuma-iddina 1158 BC
Enlil-nādin-aḫi 1157–1155 BC
Post-Kassite Period[2]
Second Dynasty of Isin
Marduk-kabit-ahheshu 1157–1140 BC
Itti-Marduk-balatu 1139–1132 BC Assur-resh-ishi I 1132–1115 BC
Ninurta-nadin-shumi 1131–1126 BC
Nebuchadnezzar I 1125–1104 BC Tiglath-Pileser I 1114–1076 BC
Enlil-nadin-apli 1103–1100 BC
1100 BC Marduk-nadin-ahhe 1099–1082 BC
Marduk-shapik-zeri 1081–1069 BC
Adad-apla-iddina 1068–1047 BC
Marduk-ahhe-eriba 1046 BC
Marduk-zer-X 1045–1034 BC
Nabu-shum-libur 1033–1026 BC
Second Sealand Dynasty
Simbar-shipak 1025–1008 BC
Ea-mukin-zeri 1008 BC
Kashshu-nadin-ahi 1007–1005 BC
Bazi Dynasty 1004–985 BC
1000 BC Eulmash-shakin-shumi 1004–988 BC
Ninurta-kudurri-usur I 987–985 BC
Shirikti-shuqamuna 985 BC
Elamite Dynasty 984–979 BC
Mar-biti-apla-usur 984–979 BC
Various Dynasties 978–626 BC
Nabû-mukin-apli 978–943 BC
Ninurta-kudurri-usur II 943 BC
Mar-biti-ahhe-iddina 942 BC Neo-Assyrian Empire
Shamash-mudammiq
Nabu-shuma-ukin I Assur-dan II 934–912 BC
900 BC Napu-apla-iddina Adad-nirari II 911–891 BC
Marduk-zakir-shumi I Tukulti-Ninurta II 890–884 BC
Marduk-balassu-iqbi 813 BC Assurnasirpal II 883–859 BC
Baba-aha-iddina 812 BC Shalmaneser III 858–824 BC
XNinurta-apl?-[x] Shamshi-Adad V 823–811 BC
800 BC Marduk-bel-zeri Adad-nirari III 810–783 BC
Marduk-apla-usur Shalmaneser IV 782–773 BC
Eriba-Marduk Assur-dan III 772–755 BC
Nabu-shuma-ishkun 760–748 BC Assur-nirari V 754–745 BC
Nabu-nasir 747–734 BC Tiglath-pileser III 744–727 BC
Nabu-nadin-zeri 733–732 BC
Nabu-shuma-ukin II 732 BC
Nabu-mukin-zeri 731–729 BC
Tiglath-pileser III/Pulu 728–727 BC
Shalmaneser V/Ululaju 726–722 BC Shalmaneser V 726–722 BC
Merodach-Baladan II 721–710 BC Sargon II 721–705 BC
Sargon II709–705 BC
Sennacherib 704–703 BC Sennacherib 704–681 BC
Marduk-zakir-shumi 703 BC
Merodach-Baladan II 703 BC
700 BC Bel-ibni 702–700 BC
Assur-nadin-shumi 699–694 BC
Nergal-ushezib 693 BC
Mushezib-Marduk 692–689 BC
Sennacherib 688–681 BC
Esarhaddon 680–669 BC Esarhaddon 680–669 BC
Ashurbanipal 668 BC Ashurbanipal668–627 BC
Shamash-shum-ukin 667–648 BC
Kandalanu 646–627 BC
interregnum Assur-etel-ilani
Sin-shuma-lishir Sin-shuma-lishir
Sin-shar-ishkun Sin-shar-ishkun
Assur-uballit II 611–608 BC
Neo-Babylonian Dynasty
600 BC Nabopolasser 625–605 BC
Nebuchadnezzar II 604–562 BC
Evil-Merodach 561–560 BC
Neriglissar 559–556 BC
Labashi-Marduk 556 BC
Nabonidus 555–539 BC

[6]

Eclipse and Venus observation records[edit]

Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa

Base on an Assyria record of Eclipse on June 15, 763 BC, and the related date documents between Assyria and Babylonia, the dates after 1400 BC are reliable. According to the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, a record of astronomical observations of Venus in Old Babylonian Empire king Ammisaduqa (1646–1626 BC), the rough date can be concluded. But about the accuracy date, the Historians have different opinions, in high chronology the finish date of Old Babylonian is 1651 BC, in middle chronology the finish date of Old Babylonian is 1595 BC,and in low chronology the finish date of Old Babylonian is 1531 BC. In this article we use the middle chronology, same as most of the books about Mesopotamia, but there are many evidence support the low chronology (even extreme low chronology).[7]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The University of Pennsylvania Museum & Beijing World Art Museum 2007, p. 153
  2. ^ a b J. A. Brinkman (1977). "Appendix: Mesopotamian Chronology of the Historical Period". In A. L. Oppenheim. Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization. Chicago. pp. 335–348. 
  3. ^ The University of Pennsylvania Museum & Beijing World Art Museum 2007, pp. 154–155
  4. ^ The University of Pennsylvania Museum & Beijing World Art Museum 2007, p. 156
  5. ^ J. A. Brinkman (1976). "A Chronology of the Kassite Dynasty". Materials for the Study of Kassite History, Vol. I. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. pp. 26–27. 
  6. ^ The University of Pennsylvania Museum & Beijing World Art Museum 2007, pp. 157–159
  7. ^ The University of Pennsylvania Museum & Beijing World Art Museum 2007, pp. 27–28

Bibliography[edit]

  • The University of Pennsylvania Museum; Beijing World Art Museum (Feb 2007). Mesopotamia (in Chinese) (1st ed.). Beijing: Heritage Press. ISBN 978-7-5010-2112-3.