Mesoscale meteorology is the study of weather systems smaller than synoptic scale systems but larger than microscale and storm-scale cumulus systems. Horizontal dimensions generally range from around 5 kilometers to several hundred kilometers. Examples of mesoscale weather systems are sea breezes, squall lines, and mesoscale convective complexes.
Vertical velocity often equals or exceeds horizontal velocities in mesoscale meteorological systems due to nonhydrostatic processes such as buoyant acceleration of a rising thermal or acceleration through a narrow mountain pass.
Mesoscale Meteorology is divided into these subclasses:
- Meso-gamma 2–20 km, deals with phenomena like thunderstorm convection, complex terrain flows (at the edge to microscale, also known as storm-scale)
- Meso-beta 20–200 km deals with phenomena like sea breezes, lake effect snow storms
- Meso-alpha 200–2000 km fronts, deals with phenomena like squall lines, mesoscale convective systems (MCS), tropical cyclones at the edge of synoptic scale
As a note, tropical and subtropical cyclones are classified by National Hurricane Center as synoptic scale rather than mesoscale.
As in synoptic frontal analysis, literature about mesoscale analysis uses cold, warm, and occluded fronts on the mesoscale to help describe phenomena. On weather maps mesoscale fronts are depicted as smaller and with twice as many bumps or spikes as the synoptic variety. In the United States, opposition to the use of the mesoscale versions of fronts on weather analyses, has led to the use of an overarching symbol (a trough symbol) with a label of outflow boundary as the frontal notation.
- Microscale meteorology
- Misoscale meteorology
- POLYGON experiment
- Storm scale
- Surface weather analysis
- Synoptic scale meteorology
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