Messerschmitt Me 410
|Me 410 A-1/U2, RAF Cosford|
Hungarian Air Force
|Produced||May 1943-August 1944|
|Developed from||Me 210|
The Messerschmitt Me 410 Hornisse ("Hornet") was a German heavy fighter and Schnellbomber used by the Luftwaffe during World War II. Though essentially a straightforward modification of the Me 210, it was designated the Me 410 to avoid association with its notoriously flawed predecessor.
Design and development
Development of the Me 210 had been underway since 1939, but the aircraft proved extremely unstable and was never considered for full-scale production. Modifications to the layout produced the Me 210C and 210D, which proved somewhat superior. As studies progressed on the Me 210D, it was instead decided to introduce a "new" model, the Me 410.
The major change between the Me 210 and 410 was the introduction of the larger (at 44.5 litre, 2,715 in3 displacement) and more powerful Daimler-Benz DB 603A engines, which increased power to 1,750 PS (1,730 hp, 1,290 kW) compared to the 1,475 PS DB 605s used on the Me 210C. The engine performance increased the Me 410's maximum speed to 625 km/h (388 mph), greatly improved rate of climb, service ceiling, and most notably the cruise speed, which jumped to 579 km/h (360 mph). It also improved payload capability to the point where the aircraft could lift more war load than could fit into the bomb bay under the nose. To address this, shackles were added under the wings for four 50 kg (110 lb) bombs. The changes added an extra 680 kg (1,500 lb) to the Me 210 design, but the extra engine power more than made up for the difference.
The new version included a lengthened fuselage and new, automatic leading edge slats, both of which had been tested on Me 210s and were found to dramatically improve handling. The slats had originally been featured on the earliest Me 210 models, but had been removed on production models due to poor handling. When entering a sharp turn, the slats had a tendency to open, due in part to the turn causing a drop in air pressure at the leading edge of the wings, analogous to the low pressure activation the slats were designed for in a slow landing approach (this problem was first observed on the prototype Bf 109E), which added to the problems keeping the aircraft flying smoothly. However, when the problems with the general lateral instability were addressed, this was no longer a real problem. The wing panels of the earlier Me 210 had been designed with a planform geometry that placed the aerodynamic center in a rearwards direction in comparison to the earlier Bf 110, giving the outer sections of the wing's planform beyond each engine nacelle a slightly greater, 12.6° leading edge sweepback angle than the inner panels' 6.0° leading edge sweep angle. This resulted in unreasonable handling characteristics in flight for the original Me 210 design. The new Me 410's outer wing panels had their planform geometry revised to bring the aerodynamic center further forwards in comparison to the Me 210, thus making the leading edge sweepback of the outer panels identical to the inner wing panels with both having identical 5.5° sweepback angles, and improving in-flight handling.
Deliveries began in January 1943, two years later than the original plan had called for, and continued until September 1944, by which point a total of 1,160 of all versions had been produced by Messerschmitt Augsburg and Dornier München. When it arrived, it was liked by its crews, even though its improved performance was not enough to protect it from the swarms of high performance Allied fighters they faced.
The Me 410 night bomber proved to be an elusive target for the RAF night fighters. The first unit to operate over the UK was V./KG 2, which lost its first Me 410 on the night of 13–14 July 1943 when it was shot down by a de Havilland Mosquito of No. 85 Squadron.
The Me 410 was also used as a bomber destroyer against the daylight bomber streams of the USAAF, upgraded through the available Umrüst-Bausätze factory conversion kits, all bearing a /U suffix, for the design. The Me 410 A-1/U2 was fitted with two additional 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons in the undernose weapons bay, while the A-1/U4 was equipped with a Bordkanone series 50 mm (2 in) BK 5 cannon instead. For breaking up the bomber formations, many Me 410s also had four underwing tubes firing converted 21 cm (8 in) Werfer-Granate 21 mortar rockets. Two Geschwader, Zerstörergeschwader 26 and 76, were thus equipped with the Me 410 by late 1943.
They were moderately successful against unescorted bombers, with a considerable number of kills against USAAF day bomber formations being achieved. Unfortunately for the Luftwaffe, the Me 410 was no match in a dogfight with the lighter Allied single-engine fighters such as the P-51 Mustang and Spitfire. In the spring of 1944, the Me 410 formations encountered swarms of Allied fighters protecting the bomber streams, usually flying far ahead of the combat box formations as an air supremacy move in clearing the skies of any Luftwaffe opposition, resulting in the Me 410's previous successes against escorted bombers now often being offset by their losses. An example of this on 6 March 1944 during an attack on Berlin by some 750 8th AF heavy bombers, saw 16 Me 410s shot down in return for eight B-17s and four P-51s (which were destroyed by Bf 109 and Fw 190 fighters escorting the Me 410s). The following month on 11 April, with 8th AF raids hitting Sorau, Rostock and Oschersleben, II.ZG 26's Me 410s accounted for a rare success, downing 10 B-17s without any losses. However, the unit's luck then ran out. During the course of the same raid, their second sortie was intercepted by P-51s that destroyed eight Me 410s and three Bf 110s. Sixteen crewmen were killed and three wounded.
From the summer of 1944, despite being Hitler's favourite bomber destroyer, the Me 410 units were taken from Defense of the Reich duties and production was phased out in favour of single-engine fighters with the Me 410s remaining in service flying on reconnaissance duties only. Some Me 410s were used with Junkers Ju 188s during the Battle of Normandy for high-altitude night reconnaissance missions.
The basic A-series aircraft were armed with two 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns and two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons in the nose and delivered as the Me 410 A-1 light bomber. The originally planned Me 410 A-2 heavy fighter was cancelled because the dual 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 103 cannon pack was not ready in time. The Me 410A featured a bomb bay for carrying air-to-ground ordnance or for the installation of additional air-to-air weaponry or other equipment. Initially, three Umrüst-Bausätze (factory conversion kits) were available, U1 contained a palette of cameras for the photo-reconnaissance role, U2 two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon with 250 rpg for the heavy fighter use, and U4 used the 50 mm (2 in) Bordkanone series weapon, the BK-5 cannon with 21 rounds, to turn either an Me 410A or B-series aircraft into a dedicated bomber destroyer. The BK 5 cannon - derived from the Panzer III tank's main armament, the 50 mm (2 in) KwK 39 L/60 - allowed the Me 410s to shoot at their targets from over 914 m (1,000 yd), a distance at which the bombers' defensive armament, usually consisting of the "light-barrel", .50 calibre AN/M2 aviation version of the M2 Browning machine guns, was useless. Frequent problems with jamming and limited ammunition supply, together with the extra 540 kg (1,200 lb) weight of the large-calibre gun under the nose, made the other anti-bomber versions of Me 410, especially those with extra 20 mm MG 151/20s, much more useful. The dedicated reconnaissance version Me 410 A-3 received a deeper fuselage for additional cameras and fuel. The Me 410 A-3 entered service in small numbers in early 1944, and equipped three long-range reconnaissance Staffeln, known as Fernaufklärungsgruppen (one on the Western Front and the other two on the Eastern Front).
The Me 410B-series was largely the same as the A-series, but replaced the 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 with 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 machine gun. The originally planned 1,900 hp (1,400 kW) DB 603G engine was cancelled in early 1944, so all Me 410Bs used DB 603A or DB 603AA engines. The DB 603G would have increased the maximum speed to 630 km/h (392 mph), and cruising speed to 595 km/h (370 mph), although the weights increased once again. The versions were the same as with the A-series, the Me 410 B-1, and Me 410 B-3 filling the same roles as the earlier A-1, and A-3 versions, also with the options of using the same Umrüst-Bausätze factory conversion kits as the A-series aircraft used.
Several experimental models were also developed. The Me 410 B-5 added shackles under the fuselage to carry a torpedo, and removed the MG 131s in the nose to make room for the FuG 200 Hohentwiel 550 MHz UHF-band maritime patrol radar. The bomb bay was not used in this version in order to make room for a 650 L (170 US gal) fuel tank, and the rearward-firing remote turrets were replaced by another 700 L (180 US gal) fuel tank for long-range missions. The Me 410 B-6 was a similar anti-shipping conversion, but intended for the short-range coastal defense role only. For this mission, it did not use a torpedo, and was instead a simple modification of the B-1 with the FuG 200 radar. The Me 410 B-7/B-8 were updated B-3 reconnaissance models that were only built as prototypes.
The Me 410C was a high-altitude version drawn up in early 1944, with two new wing designs that increased span to 18.25 m (60 ft) or 20.45 m (67 ft). The larger wings allowed the gear to retract directly to the rear. A new universal engine mount would allow for the use of any of the DB 603JZ or BMW 801J turbocharged engines or the Jumo 213E two-stage mechanically supercharged engines, driving a new four-blade propeller with very wide blades. The BMW 801 radials were air-cooled and the DB 603 and Jumo 213 used an annular radiator, all housed as unitized Kraftei (power-egg) engine "modules" onto an airframe for ease of installation and field maintenance, so the normal under-wing radiators were removed. None were ever built, as Me 410 production was canceled before the engines matured.
The Me 410D was a simpler upgrade to the B-series to improve altitude performance, but not to the same degree as the C-series. It would be powered by the DB 603JZ engines, and had a revised forward fuselage to increase the field of view of the pilot and reduce drag. It also replaced portions of the outer wing panels with ones made of wood to conserve strategic materials. Several were built, but like many other attempts at wood construction by the German aviation industry late in World War II, the loss of the Goldschmitt Tego film factory in Wuppertal, in a Royal Air Force nighttime bombing raid, meant the acidic replacement adhesives available were too corrosive to the materials being bonded, and the wooden portions tended to fail.
- Luftwaffe was Me 410 main operator during 1943-45
- Stabsschwarm & 2.(F)/Aufklärungsgruppe 22
- 1.(F)/Aufklärungsgruppe 33
- 1.,2(Ekdo).,5.(F)/Aufklärungsgruppe 122
- Seenotgruppe 80 (sea recon)
- 9.,20./ZG 1 'Wespen'
- 2.,4.,6.,Stab/ZG 26 'Horst Wessel'
- 1.,2.,3.,/ZG 76
- 5.(nacht),14.(nacht),15.,16./KG 2 (night intruder)
- 1.(Jagd),2.(nacht),5.(Erg/jagd),6./KG 51 'Edelweiss' (long-range night ops)
- 1./NJG 5 (Mosquito chaser)
- 3./NJG 1 (Mosquito chaser)
- Royal Air Force received at least two captured aircraft during war and shortly after.
- No. 1426 Flight RAF operated a single Me 410 A-1/U2 (WNr.10259, RAF serial TF209) during the war.
- Soviet Air Force tested at least one captured Me 410 B-2/U4 (WNr.130379) after the war.
Aircraft on display
Two Me 410s survive today:
- Me 410 A-1/U1 (W.Nr.10018, converted from Me 210 airframe)
- Aircraft held by the American National Air and Space Museum and stored awaiting restoration, at the Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Facility.
- Me 410 A-1/U2 (W.Nr.420430)
- This aircraft is part of the collection of the RAF Museum and is publicly displayed at the Royal Air Force Museum Cosford. It was built in late 1943 by Messerschmitt in Augsburg. There is evidence it served with Zerstörergeschwader 26 before being surrendered at Vaerlose, Denmark in May 1945. It was one of six Me 410s that were taken to the UK in 1945 for evaluation, but the only one to be later selected for preservation and to avoid being scrapped. It underwent restoration in 1986, after which both engines were successfully run on the ground. It was moved to Cosford in 1989 and has remained there since.
Specifications (Me 410 A-1)
From Wagner, Ray and Nowarra, Heinz. German Combat Planes: A Comprehensive Survey and History of the Development of German Military Aircraft from 1914 to 1945. New York: Doubleday, 1971, page 261.
- Crew: 2 (pilot and gunner)
- Length: 12.4 m (40 ft 8-3/16 in)
- Wingspan: 16.39 m (53 ft 9-1/4 in)
- Height: 3.7 m (12 ft 2-5/8 in)
- Wing area: 36.20 m² (390 ft²)
- Empty weight: 6,150 kg (13,558 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 10,760 kg (23,721 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Daimler-Benz DB 603A liquid-cooled V12 engine, 1,750 PS (1,726 hp, 1,287 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 624 km/h (388 mph)
- Range: 2,300 km (1,400 mi)combat
- Service ceiling: 10,000 m (32,800 ft)
- Climb to 6,000 m (19,680 ft): 10.7 min
- Bombs: up to 1,000 kg (2,204 lb) of disposable stores
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Messerschmitt Bf 110
- de Havilland Mosquito
- Northrop P-61 Black Widow
- Bristol Beaufighter
- Kawasaki Ki-102
- W. N Hess, p82
- Caldwell & Muller, p137
- Caldwell & Muller, p183
- Caldwell & Muller, p198
- Andrew Simpson (2007). "Individual History MESSERSCHMITT Me410A-1/U2 W/NR.420430/AM72/8483M MUSEUM ACCESSION NUMBER 85/A/78". Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved December 23, 2011.
- Rechlin E'Stelle Erpr. Nr. 1929. Br.B.Nr. 773/43 g.Kdos.
- Caldwell, Donald; Muller, Richard (2007), The Luftwaffe over Germany: Defense of the Reich, London: Greenhill Books, ISBN 978-1-85367-712-0.
- Hess, William N. (1994), B-17 Flying Fortress: Combat and Development History, St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbook International, ISBN 0-87938-881-1.
- Stocker, Werner; Petrick, Peter (2007), Messerschmitt Me 210 / Me 410 Hornisse/ Hornet, Midland Publishing, ISBN 1-85780-271-3.
- Scutts, J. (1994), Mustang Aces of the Eighth Air Force, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-85532-447-4.
- Wagner, Ray; Nowarra, Heinz (1971), German Combat Planes: A Comprehensive Survey and History of the Development of German Military Aircraft from 1914 to 1945, New York City: Doubleday.
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