Metal Gear Solid

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This article is about the original PlayStation game. For the entire series, see Metal Gear (series).
Metal Gear Solid
Metal Gear Solid cover art.png
North American cover art
Developer(s)
Publisher(s)
Director(s) Hideo Kojima
Producer(s) Hideo Kojima
Motoyuki Yoshioka
Programmer(s) Kazunobu Uehara
Artist(s) Yoji Shinkawa
Writer(s) Hideo Kojima
Tomokazu Fukushima
Composer(s) Kazuki Muraoka
Hiroyuki Togo
Takanari Ishiyama
Lee Jeon Myung
Maki Kirioka
Series Metal Gear
Platform(s)
Release date(s)
Genre(s) Action-adventure, stealth
Mode(s) Single-player
Distribution

Metal Gear Solid (Japanese: メタルギアソリッド Hepburn: Metaru Gia Soriddo?) is an action-adventure stealth video game developed by Konami Computer Entertainment Japan and first published by Konami for the PlayStation in 1998. The game was directed, produced and co-written by Hideo Kojima and serves as a sequel to the MSX2 versions of Metal Gear and Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake, which Kojima also directed.[4] The suffix Solid has several meanings as it not only references the game's protagonist, Solid Snake, but also alludes to the "solid" 3D graphics, and its placement as the third title in the series.

Metal Gear Solid follows Solid Snake, a soldier who infiltrates a nuclear weapons facility to neutralize the terrorist threat from FOXHOUND, a renegade special forces unit.[5] Snake must liberate two hostages, the head of DARPA and the president of a major arms manufacturer, confront the terrorists, and stop them from launching a nuclear strike.[6] Cinematic cutscenes were rendered using the in-game engine and graphics, and voice acting was used throughout the entire game.[7]

Metal Gear Solid was very well received, shipping more than six million copies,[8] and scoring an average of 94/100 on the aggregate website Metacritic.[9] It is recognized by many critics as one of the best and most important games of all time,[10][11] and heralded as the game which made the stealth genre popular. The commercial success of the title prompted the release of an expanded version for the PlayStation and PC, titled Metal Gear Solid: Integral;[12] and a remake, Metal Gear Solid: The Twin Snakes was later released for the Nintendo GameCube.[13][14] The game has also spawned numerous sequels, prequels and spin-offs, including several games, a radio drama, comics, and novels.

Gameplay

Representation of the game's 'Soliton Radar' gameplay feature

Despite a transition to 3D, the gameplay of Metal Gear Solid remains similar to its 2D MSX2 predecessor Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake. The player must navigate the protagonist, Solid Snake, through the game's areas without being detected by enemies.[15] Detection is triggered by the player moving into an enemy's field of vision and sets off an alarm that draws armed enemies to his location.[16] This also triggers "alert mode" and the player must then hide and remain undetected, at which point “evasion mode” begins and once the counter reaches zero the game returns to "infiltration mode" where enemies are not suspicious of Snake’s presence. The radar cannot be used in alert or evasion mode.[17]

Solid Snake hiding from a guard. When Snake leans on a corner, the camera shifts to his front for dramatic effect and to enable sight down corridors

To remain undetected, the player can perform techniques which make use of both Solid Snake's abilities and the environment, such as crawling under objects, using boxes as cover, ducking or hiding around walls, and making noise to distract enemies. These are carried out using the third-person camera, which often changes its angle to give the player the best view of the area possible, and an on-screen radar, which displays enemies and their field of vision.[18] Snake can also make use of many items and gadgets, such as infra-red goggles or a cardboard box disguise.[19] The emphasis on stealth promotes a less violent form of gameplay, as fights against large groups of enemies will often result in serious damage for the player.[20]

The game's progress is punctuated by cutscenes and codec, as well as encounters with bosses. To progress, players must discover the weaknesses of each boss and defeat them. Play controls and strategies can also be accessed via the Codec radio, where advice is delivered from Snake's support team; for example, the support team may chastise Snake for not saving his progress often enough, or explain his combat moves in terms of which buttons to press on the gamepad. The Codec is also used to provide exposition on the game's backstory. Completion of the title provides the player with a statistical summary of their performance, and a "code name" based upon it, typically the name of a common animal.

In a first for the Metal Gear series, a training mode, called VR Mode, is available in which players can practice hiding techniques, weapon use, and sneaking. In addition to the stealth gameplay, there are set piece sequences that entail firefights between the player and enemies from the third-person and first-person perspectives.[17]

Plot

Characters

The protagonist of Metal Gear Solid is Solid Snake, a legendary infiltrator and saboteur. During the mission, Snake receives support and advice via codec radio. Colonel Roy Campbell, Solid Snake's former commanding officer, supports Snake with advice and tactics. While he initially keeps a number of secrets from Snake, he gradually reveals them.[21] He is joined by Naomi Hunter, who gives medical advice; Nastasha Romanenko, who provides item and weapon tips; Master Miller, a former drill instructor and survival coach; and Mei Ling, who invented the soliton radar system used in the mission and is also in charge of mission data; the player can call her to save the game.

The main antagonist of the game is Liquid Snake, leader of a now-terrorist splinter cell of the organization FOXHOUND, and genetic counterpart to Solid Snake.[17] An elite special forces unit, FOXHOUND contains experts specializing in unique tasks. Members are Revolver Ocelot, a Western-style gunslinger and expert interrogator whose weapon of choice is the Colt Single Action Army; Sniper Wolf, a preternatural sniper; Vulcan Raven, a hulking Alaskan shaman armed with an M61 Vulcan torn from a downed F-16; Psycho Mantis, a psychic profiler and psychokinesis expert; and Decoy Octopus, a master of disguise.[17]

Other characters include Meryl Silverburgh, Colonel Campbell's niece and a rookie soldier stationed in Shadow Moses who did not join the revolt; Dr. Hal Emmerich, the lead developer of Metal Gear REX; and the "Ninja", a mysterious cybernetically enhanced agent who is neither an ally nor an enemy of Snake but does oppose FOXHOUND.[17]

Story

Metal Gear series
fictional chronology

The story is set in 2005, six years after the events of Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake.[22] A genetically enhanced, renegade special forces unit, FOXHOUND, leads an armed uprising on a remote island in Alaska's Fox Archipelago. This island, codenamed "Shadow Moses", is the site of a nuclear weapons disposal facility.[20] The forces that seized this island, led by a mercenary known as Liquid Snake, have acquired the nuclear-capable mecha, Metal Gear REX, and are threatening the U.S government with a nuclear reprisal if they do not receive the remains of the "legendary mercenary" Big Boss within 24 hours.[23]

Solid Snake is forced out of retirement and is dispatched at the request of Colonel Roy Campbell to penetrate the terrorists' defenses and neutralize the threat.[24] Snake is also ordered to locate two hostages: DARPA Chief Donald Anderson, and ArmsTech president Kenneth Baker.[6] Colonel Campbell's daughter, at the time believed to be niece, Meryl Silverburgh, is also held captive in the facility after refusing to take part in the uprising.[25] Snake enters the facility via an air vent and eventually locates Anderson in a cell. He informs Snake of the new Metal Gear REX unit housed at the facility and how he can prevent it from being launched using a secret detonation override code, but then suddenly dies of a heart attack.[26] Meryl, who is held in an adjoining cell, manages to break out and assist Snake in escaping as enemy soldiers are alerted to his presence. Snake then locates Baker. Whilst attempting to free him, Snake is confronted by Revolver Ocelot, who challenges Snake to a gunfight, which is interrupted by a mysterious cyborg ninja who cuts off Ocelot's right hand. Baker briefs Snake on the Metal Gear project and advises him to contact Meryl, whom he gave a PAL card that could be used to prevent the launch; but, like the DARPA Chief, he suddenly dies of a heart attack.[27][28]

Snake then contacts Meryl via codec, and agrees to meet her in the base's warhead disposal area on the condition that he contacts Metal Gear's designer, Dr. Hal "Otacon" Emmerich. As he emerges onto a canyon, Snake receives an anonymous codec call. The mysterious voice calls himself "Deepthroat" and warns Snake of a tank ambush up ahead.[29] Snake is confronted by Vulcan Raven in an M1 tank, but manages to defeat the two gunners and proceeds to the warhead disposal area. Snake locates Otacon in his lab. The ninja reappears, and Snake realizes that it is actually his formerly deceased ally Gray Fox.[30] Otacon agrees to aid Snake remotely, using special camouflage to procure information and supplies while he remains invisible. Snake meets with Meryl and agrees for her to accompany him on his mission. Meryl gives Snake the PAL card Baker gave her. As they head for the underground base, Meryl becomes possessed by Psycho Mantis's mind control tune and pulls her gun on Snake. Snake disarms Meryl and defeats Psycho Mantis who, before he dies, informs Snake that he read Meryl's mind, and discovered that he has "a large place" in her heart. After they reach the underground passageway, Sniper Wolf ambushes them; wounds Meryl; and, after a brief duel, captures Snake.

While Snake is imprisoned, Liquid confirms Snake's suspicion that they are twin brothers.[31] Snake is then tortured by Ocelot,[32] and the player can choose whether or not to give in to the torture. When Snake is taken to his cell, he discovers Anderson's body lying in the corner, drained of blood and looking decomposed for days. Eventually Snake is able to escape his cell. As Snake makes his way up the facility's communications tower, he is ambushed by Liquid in a Hind-D attack helicopter, but swiftly defeats him. As he emerges from the tower onto the snowfield, he is confronted once again by Sniper Wolf. This time, however, Snake defeats and kills Wolf in front of a grief-stricken Otacon, who was infatuated with her. Nonetheless, Otacon continues to aid Snake.

Snake engaging Metal Gear REX

Snake continues on to REX's hangar, while Vulcan Raven lies in wait. Raven, having shamanistic intuition, is able to discern Snake's heritage. He can also tell that Snake is a clone, saying that he is "from another world." Snake and Raven battle it out in a freezer warehouse, which results in Raven's death. During his death scene, Raven tells Snake that the man he saw die in front of his eyes was not the DARPA Chief but Decoy Octopus, a member of FOXHOUND. Raven leaves Snake with a cryptic message of his violent future before being devoured by ravens.[33]

Infiltrating Metal Gear's hangar, Snake overhears Liquid and Ocelot preparing the launch sequence for Metal Gear REX. Thinking he is deactivating it by using the PAL card, Snake activates Metal Gear REX.[34] Liquid then reveals his true colors, having impersonated Master Miller from the beginning of the operation. Liquid informs Snake that his entire mission was manipulated by the renegades to allow the launch of the nuclear weapon.[35] Liquid explains that they are the product of the Les Enfants Terribles project, a government-sponsored effort to clone Big Boss, that was conducted during the 1970s.[36] Liquid explains that Snake received all of Big Boss' dominant genes, while he received all of the recessive genes.[37] He also reveals to Snake the government's true reason for sending him in: the reprogrammed FoxDie virus would kill all the members of FOXHOUND, allowing the government to retrieve REX undamaged.[38]

Liquid assumes control of Metal Gear REX and a battle ensues. Gray Fox suddenly appears and destroys REX's radome and dies trying to fend off the bipedal tank from Snake. Snake destroys Metal Gear REX and is challenged again by Liquid in person. He fights Liquid atop REX and defeats him after knocking him over the edge. He is then reunited with Meryl if the player succeeded in resisting the torture sequence; or Otacon if the player submitted in the torture sequence. They escape through an underground tunnel, while being chased by Liquid, in a jeep. After the two vehicles crash at the tunnel entrance, Liquid emerges and pulls a gun on Snake but suddenly dies from the FoxDie virus.[39] Colonel Campbell, briefly ousted from command of the mission, calls off a nuclear air strike intended to obliterate the evidence of the day's events and officially declares Snake killed in action to stop the US government's search for him in the future.[40]

In a post-credits scene, Snake is revealed to be the one with recessive genes while Liquid had the dominant genes. Snake has an indeterminate amount of time left before FoxDie kills him. Ocelot is revealed to be a double agent for the President of the United States. His intention was to obtain Baker's disk containing Metal Gear's specifications and deliver it to the President, and kill whoever knew of his true motives, one reason for his "accidental" killing of the DARPA Chief.[41]

Voice actors

Most of the voice actors who appeared in the English version of the game were credited under pseudonyms since it was uncertain whether or not the project was supported by the Screen Actors Guild. The only actors who used their real names were David Hayter, Doug Stone and Scott Dolph.

Character Japanese English (pseudonyms in parentheses)
Solid Snake Akio Otsuka David Hayter
Liquid Snake/Master Miller Banjo Ginga Cam Clarke (James Flinders)
Meryl Silverburgh Kyoko Terase Debi Mae West (Mae Zadler)
Naomi Hunter Hiromi Tsuru Jennifer Hale (Carren Learning)
Hal 'Otacon' Emmerich Hideyuki Tanaka Christopher Randolph (Christopher Fritz)
Roy Campbell Takeshi Aono Paul Eiding (Paul Otis)
Mei Ling Houko Kuwashima Kim Mai Guest (Kim Nguyen)
Gray Fox Kaneto Shiozawa Greg Eagles (George Byrd)
Nastasha Romanenko Eiko Yamada Renee Raudman (Renne Collette)
Revolver Ocelot Koji Totani Patric Zimmerman (Patric Laine)
Vulcan Raven Yukitoshi Hori Peter Lurie (Chuck Farley)
Psycho Mantis Kazuyuki Sogabe Doug Stone
Sniper Wolf Naoko Nakamura Tasia Valenza (Julie Monroe)
Donald Anderson/Decoy Octopus Masaharu Sato Greg Eagles (George Byrd)
Kenneth Baker Yuzuru Fujimoto Allan Lurie (Bert Stewart)
Jim Houseman Tomohisa Asō William Bassett (Frederick Bloggs)
Johnny Sasaki Naoki Imamura Dean Scofield (Dino Schofield)
Genome/Enemy Soldiers Masaya Takatsuka
Naoki Imamura
Doug Stone
Peter Lurie (Chuck Farley)
Dean Scofield (Dino Schofield)
Scott Dolph
Computer Naoko Nakamura Tasia Valenza (Julie Monroe)

Development

Kojima initially planned the third Metal Gear game in 1994, originally titled "Metal Gear 3", and to release it for the 3DO Interactive Multiplayer in 1994.[42] Conceptual artwork, by illustrator Yoji Shinkawa, of the characters Solid Snake, Meryl Silverburgh, who was also a character in the adventure game Policenauts, and the FOXHOUND team, were included in the Policenauts: Pilot Disk preceding the release of the full version of the 3DO game in 1995.[43] However, due to the declining support for the 3DO, development of the game shifted to the PlayStation shortly after Policenauts was released.

Kojima retitled the game Metal Gear Solid, choosing this over the working title Metal Gear 3. This was due to the fact that he believed that the first two MSX2 games in the series were not very well known.[44] He used the word 'Solid' which was chosen due to the game being the third installment in the series, and because it uses 3D computer graphics, as well as being in reference to Solid Snake, the game's protagonist.[45] Sequels to this game also use the Metal Gear Solid title, and follow a new numeral progression.

Kojima working on the game in the Konami studio in Tokyo, 1 April 1996.

The development for Metal Gear Solid began in mid-1995[46] with the intention of creating the "best PlayStation game ever".[47] A version was apparently planned for the Nintendo 64, but received no further updates outside a brief article posted by GameSpot.[46] Developers aimed for accuracy and realism while making the game enjoyable and tense. In the early stages of development, the Huntington Beach SWAT team educated the creators with a demonstration of vehicles, weapons and explosives. Weapons expert Motosada Mori was also tapped as technical adviser in the research, which included visits to Fort Irwin and firing sessions at Stembridge Gun Rentals.[47][48] Kojima stated that "if the player isn't tricked into believing that the world is real, then there's no point in making the game". To fulfill this, adjustments were made to every detail, such as individually designed desks.[49]

Hideo Kojima created the characters of Metal Gear Solid. Modifications and mechanics were made by conceptual artist Yoji Shinkawa. According to Shinkawa, Solid Snake's physique in this particular installment was based on Jean-Claude Van Damme, while his facial appearance was based on Christopher Walken.[50][51]The characters were completed by polygonal artists using brush drawings and clay models by Shinkawa.[52] Kojima wanted greater interaction with objects and the environment, such as allowing the player to hide bodies in a storage compartment. Additionally, he wanted "a full orchestra right next to the player"; a system which made modifications such as tempo and texture to the currently playing track, instead of switching to another pre-recorded track. Although these features could not be achieved, they were implemented in Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty.[53]

Metal Gear Solid was shown to the public at the E3 gaming event in 1997 as a short video. It was later playable for the first time at the Tokyo Game Show in 1998 and officially released the same year in Japan[54] with an extensive promotional campaign.[47] Television and magazine advertisements, in-store samples, and demo give-aways contributed to a total of $8 million in promotional costs.[55] An estimated 12 million demos for the game were distributed during 1998.[56]

Music

30-second sample from the main theme of Metal Gear Solid, composed by TAPPY.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

The musical score of Metal Gear Solid was composed by Konami's in-house musicians, including Kazuki Muraoka, Hiroyuki Togo, Takanari Ishiyama, Lee Jeon Myung, and Maki Kirioka. Composer and lyricist Rika Muranaka provided a song called "The Best is Yet To Come" for the game's ending credits sequence.[57] The song is performed in Irish by Aoife Ní Fhearraigh.[58] The main theme was composed by Tappi Iwase from the Konami Kukeiha Club

Music played in-game has a synthetic feel with increased pace and introduction of strings during tense moments, with a looping style endemic to video games. Overtly cinematic music, with stronger orchestral and choral elements, appears in cutscenes. The soundtrack was released on September 23, 1998, under the King Records label.[59]

Releases

Original version

The English version of Metal Gear Solid, translated by Jeremy Blaustein, who localized the Sega CD version of Snatcher,[4] contains minor refinements made during localization, such as adjustable difficulty settings, an alternate tuxedo outfit for Snake (which the character wears on every third successive playthrough on the same save file), and a "demo theater" where the player views every cutscene and radio conversations relevant to the main story.[17][60] Versions of the game dubbed in Spanish, German, French and Italian were released throughout Europe in addition to the English-dubbed version released in America. A premium package was released in Japan and Asia containing the game, a t-shirt, dog tags, a music CD featuring the soundtracks of the MSX2 games, and a booklet with information about the game's production and plot.[61] A European version of the package was also produced, featuring different content from the Japanese version.[62]

The Japanese PlayStation version of Metal Gear Solid, as well as Integral, had been reissued twice: once under The Best range and second time as a PSone Books title. Likewise, the American and European versions of Metal Gear Solid were reissued under the "Greatest Hits" and "Platinum" ranges respectively. The game is included in the Japanese Metal Gear Solid: 20th Anniversary Collection set[63] and in the American Essential Collection set.[64] The original Metal Gear Solid was released on the PlayStation Store for download on the PlayStation 3 and PlayStation Portable in 2008 in Japan and in 2009 in North America and Europe.[65]

Integral

Released on June 25, 1999 for the PlayStation in Japan,[12] Metal Gear Solid: Integral (メタルギアソリッド インテグラル Metaru Gia Soriddo: Integuraru?) is an expanded edition that features the additional content from the American and European versions of the original game. Integral replaces the Japanese voices from the original version with the English dub, while offering a choice between Japanese and English subtitles (item descriptions and such are still in Japanese).[23] Further additional content to the main game include an alternate "sneaking suit" outfit for Meryl (which she wears when Snake is wearing the tuxedo), a "Very Easy" difficulty setting where the player starts the mission with a suppressor-equipped MP5 sub-machine gun that has infinite ammo (which substitutes the FAMAS rifle in the player's inventory), new Codec frequencies with staff commentary (text only) and hidden music tracks, an alternate game mode where the player controls Snake from a first-person perspective, an option for alternate patrol routes for enemies, and a downloadable PocketStation minigame. The Torture Event was made easier on higher difficulty levels.

In addition to the main game, Integral includes a third disc of additional content called the "VR Disc." The VR Disc features 300 VR training missions testing the player's sneaking and fighting skills, as well as less conventional tests, such as murder mysteries, battling giant genome soldiers, and three missions where the player controls the Cyborg Ninja. Other content include trailers for Metal Gear Solid and a "photoshoot" mode where the player takes pictures of Mei Ling and Naomi.[66] Completing all 300 missions will unlock a concept artwork of the Metal Gear RAY mech that would later appear in Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Famitsu magazine rated Metal Gear Solid: Integral a 34 out of 40.[67]

The third disc from Integral was released as a stand-alone game in North America under the title of Metal Gear Solid: VR Missions on September 23, 1999.[23][68] While the content of VR Missions are virtually identical to the VR Disc, the unlocking requirements for the Ninja missions and the photoshoot mode were changed since they required save data from the main game in the Japanese version.

The VR Disc was also released in the PAL region as an expansion pack titled Metal Gear Solid: Special Missions on October 29, 1999. Unlike the Japanese and American versions, Special Missions requires a PAL copy of the original Metal Gear Solid in order to be played. This change was done since the original Metal Gear Solid was released in multiple languages in Europe and Special Missions determines the language it uses based on which version of the original game the player owns. When the Special Missions disc is loaded into the PlayStation console, the game will ask the player to switch the disc with the first disc from Metal Gear Solid in order to load voice and language data before asking the player to switch back to the Special Missions disc.[69] This requirement renders Special Missions incompatible with pre-SCPH-70000 PlayStation 2 models.

PC version

The PC version of Metal Gear Solid was released in North America, Europe and Asia in late 2000.[13][23][70] This version was published by Microsoft Game Studios and developed by Digital Dialect. While the PC version is simply labelled Metal Gear Solid on the packaging, it is actually based on Metal Gear Solid: Integral, which is the title that appears in the actual game.

This version has a few changes from the PlayStation release. Due to hardware design differences, the cutscene prior to the Psycho Mantis battle where he reads the player's memory card and vibrates the game controller was removed, and the method for defeating him was changed as well. The Staff frequency number (140.07) was removed from the Codec. The first-person view mode has been integrated into the main game and can be toggle at anytime. All 300 VR Training missions, as well as the photoshoot mode, are available from the start.[71] Players can save their progress at any point without contacting Mei-Ling.

Scoring 83 in Metacritic's aggregate, the game was criticized for "graphic glitches", the aged nature of the port, and being essentially identical to the PlayStation version.[72]

The Twin Snakes

A remake of Metal Gear Solid, titled Metal Gear Solid: The Twin Snakes, was developed by Silicon Knights under the supervision of Hideo Kojima and released for the GameCube in North America, Japan, and Europe in March 2004.[14] While Twin Snakes was largely developed at Silicon Knights, its cutscenes were developed in-house at Konami and directed by Japanese film director Ryuhei Kitamura, reflecting his dynamic signature style, utilizing bullet time photography and choreographed gunplay extensively.[73] While the storyline and settings of the game were unchanged (although a select few lines of dialog were re-written more closely resembling the original Japanese version), a variety of gameplay features from Sons of Liberty were added such as the first person aiming and hanging from bars on walls. Another change in the English voice acting was the reduction of Mei Ling's, Naomi's and Nastasha's accents, as well as the recasting of Gray Fox from Greg Eagles, who still reprise the role of the DARPA chief, to Rob Paulsen. The graphics were also updated to match those of MGS2.[74]

Reception and legacy

Reception
Aggregate scores
Aggregator Score
GameRankings 93.24% (PS)[75]
84.22% (PC)[76]
Metacritic 94/100 (PS)[9]
83/100 (PC)[77]
Review scores
Publication Score
AllGame 5/5 stars[78]
Edge 9/10[79]
Electronic Gaming Monthly 40/40[80]
GameSpot 8.5/10[81]
IGN 9.8/10[82]
PlayStation Magazine 10/10[83]
NGamer 9/10[84]
Awards
Publication Award
Japan Media Arts Festival Excellence Award for Interactive Art[85]

Metal Gear Solid was a commercial success, shipping over six million copies worldwide.[8] Upon release, it was one of the most rented games,[86] and topped sales charts in the United Kingdom.[87]

The game was critically acclaimed, gaining a 93.24% and 94/100 aggregate at ratings websites GameRankings and Metacritic, respectively.[9][75] The review in PlayStation Magazine declared it "the best game ever made. Unputdownable and unforgettable."[83] The review by IGN opined Metal Gear Solid came "closer to perfection than any other game in PlayStation's action genre" and called it "beautiful, engrossing, and innovative...in every conceivable category."[82] NGamer compared it to "playing a big budget action blockbuster, only better."[84] GamePro called it "this season's top offering [game] and one game no self-respecting gamer should be without," but criticized the frame rate that "occasionally stalls the eye-catching graphics".[88] GameSpot was critical of how easy it is for the player to avoid being seen, as well as the game's short length, calling it "more of a work of art than ... an actual game."[81] MGS received an Excellence Award for Interactive Art at the 1998 Japan Media Arts Festival.[85]

Retrospective

Metal Gear Solid is often recognized as one of the key titles involved in popularizing the stealth game genre. The idea of the player being unarmed and having to avoid being seen by enemies rather than fight them has been used in many games since. It is also sometimes acclaimed as being a film as much as a game due to the lengthy cut scenes and complicated storyline.[89] GameTrailers claimed that MGS "invented the stealth game"[90] and IGN called it "the founder of the stealth genre".[91] Entertainment Weekly said it "broke new ground with...movie-style production...and stealth-driven gameplay."[92] The game is often considered one of the best games for the PlayStation, and was featured in best video games lists by Computer and Video Games in 2000,[93] by Electronic Gaming Monthly[94] and Game Informer in 2001,[95] by Retro Gamer in 2004,[96] by GameFAQs[97] and GamePro in 2005,[98] and by Famitsu,[99] and by Entertainment Weekly[92] and GameTrailers in 2006.[90]

In 2002, IGN ranked it as the best PlayStation game ever, stating that just the demo for the game had "more gameplay [in it] than in most finished titles." IGN also gave it the "Best Ending" and "Best Villain" awards.[100] In 2005, in placing it 19th on their list of "Top 100 Games", they said that it was "a game that truly felt like a movie."[91][101] Guinness World Records awarded Metal Gear Solid with a record for the "Most Innovative Use of a Video Game Controller" for the boss fight with Psycho Mantis in the Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition 2008 edition.[102] In 2010, PC Magazine ranked it as seventh in the list of most influential video games of all time, citing its influence on "such stealthy titles as Assassin's Creed and Splinter Cell."[103] In 2012, Time named it one of the 100 greatest video games of all time[104] and G4tv ranked it as the 45th top video game of all time.[105] According to 1UP.com, Metal Gear Solid's cinematic style continues to influence modern action games such as Call of Duty.[106] Metal Gear Solid, along with its sequel, Metal Gear Solid 2, was featured in the Smithsonian American Art Museum's exhibition The Art of Video Games in 2012.[107]

Related media

A Japanese radio drama version of Metal Gear Solid, directed by Shuyo Murata and written by Motosada Mori, was produced shortly after the release of the original PlayStation game. 12 episodes were aired, from 1998 to 1999 on Konami's CLUB db program. The series was later released on CD as a two volume set.[108][109] Set after the events of the PlayStation game, Snake, Meryl, Campbell and Mei Ling (all portrayed by their original Japanese voice actors) pursue missions in hostile third world nations as FOXHOUND. The new characters introduced include Sgt. Allen Iishiba (voiced by Toshio Furukawa), a Delta Force operative who assists Snake and Meryl; Col. Mark Cortez (v.b. Osamu Saka), an old friend of Campbell who commands the fictional Esteria Army Special Forces; and Capt. Sergei Ivanovich (v.b. Kazuhiro Nakata), a former war buddy of Revolver Ocelot from his SVR days.[110][111]

In September 2004, IDW Publications began publishing a series of Metal Gear Solid comics,[112] written by Kris Oprisko and illustrated by Ashley Wood.[113] As of 2006, 12 issues have been published, fully covering the Metal Gear Solid storyline.[114] The comic was adapted into a PlayStation Portable game titled Metal Gear Solid: Digital Graphic Novel (Metal Gear Solid: Bande Dessinée in Japan).[115] It features visual enhancements and two interactive modes designed to give further insight into the publication.[116] Upon viewing the pages, the player can open a "scanning" interface to search for characters and items in a three dimensional view.[116] Discoveries are added to a database which can be traded with other players via Wi-Fi. The "mission mode" allows the player to add collected information into a library. This information must be properly connected to complete a mission. Metal Gear Solid: Digital Graphic Novel was released in North America on June 13, 2006, Japan on September 21 and the PAL region on September 22.[117] In 2006, the game received IGN's award for Best Use of Sound on the PSP.[118] A DVD-Video version is included with its sequel (Metal Gear Solid 2: Bande Dessinée), which was released in Japan on June 12, 2008. The DVD version features full voice acting.[119]

A novelization based on the original Metal Gear Solid was written by Raymond Benson and published by Del Rey. The American paperback edition was published on May 27, 2008,[120] and the British Edition on June 5, 2008.[121]

Film adaptation

Director Hideo Kojima confirmed in 2006 that a film adaptation of Metal Gear Solid was in development.[122] He also hinted that the movie may be set in Alaska, the original setting for the game.[123] Despite pitching his ideas regarding the movie, the voice of Solid Snake, David Hayter, will not be writing the final script, appearing in the movie or directing the film. However, a petition has been started by fans to get Hayter involved in writing the script.[124] The movie's producers hoped to invite Kurt Wimmer to write the movie, but the final decision has not yet been announced,[125][126] but producer Michael DeLuca dismissed the claim. According to an interview in Nuts magazine actor Christian Bale is interested in playing Solid Snake in the film.[127] In late August 2012, Konami issued a press release stating that a live-action film was in pre-production.[128] The film is being produced by Avi Arad and Ari Arad, with their production company Arad Productions as well as Columbia Pictures.[128] Distribution and production will be handled by Sony Pictures Entertainment.[128]

References

  1. ^ "Metal Gear Solid Hits Japan". IGN. September 3, 1998. Retrieved May 19, 2008. 
  2. ^ "Metal Gear Countdown Commences". IGN. October 19, 1998. Retrieved December 31, 2007. 
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  4. ^ a b "Metal Gear Solid Tech Info/Credits". GameSpot. Retrieved July 7, 2007. 
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  26. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. "Metal Gear Solid". Konami. Level/area: Tank Hangar: B1 - Cell. Solid Snake: Naomi! The chief! What happened? / Naomi Hunter: I... I don't know. It looked like a heart attack but... / Colonel Campbell: A heart attack? No... 
  27. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. "Metal Gear Solid". Konami. Level/area: Tank Hangar: B2 - Armory. Solid Snake: Colonel! Are you listening? Now he's dead too! / Colonel Campbell: I have no idea! / Solid Snake: Don't lie to me! / Naomi Hunter: It looked like another heart attack but... / Solid Snake: Some kind of poison!? / Naomi Hunter: Well, there are a lot of drugs that can cause a heart attack in large doses. For example. potassium chloride or dioxides... But we won't be able to tell without doing an autopsy. / Solid Snake: Damn! 
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  29. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. "Metal Gear Solid". Konami. Level/area: Tank Hangar: Canyon. Deepthroat: Snake, be careful! There are Claymore mines around there. Use a mine detector. / Solid Snake: Who are you? / Deepthroat: Just call me "Deepthroat". / Solid Snake: Deepthroat? The informant from the Watergate scandal? / Deepthroat: Never mind about that. / Solid Snake: You're not using burst transmission. Are you nearby? / Deepthroat: Listen. There's a tank in front of your position waiting to ambush you. / Solid Snake: Who are you anyway? / Deepthroat: One of your fans. 
  30. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. "Metal Gear Solid". Konami. Level/area: Nuclear Warhead Storage Building: B2 - Lab. Solid Snake: Gray Fox... Colonel, that ninja is Gray Fox. No doubt about it. / Colonel Campbell: Ridiculous! You of all people should know he died in Zanzibar. / Naomi Hunter: No, he should have died... but he didn't. 
  31. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. "Metal Gear Solid". Konami. Level/area: Tank Hangar: B1 - Medical Room. Liquid Snake: There definitely is a resemblance. Don't you think, little brother? Or should I say big brother? I'm not sure... Anyway, it doesn't matter. You and I are both the last surviving "sons of Big Boss". 
  32. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. "Metal Gear Solid". Konami. Level/area: Tank Hangar: B1 - Medical Room. Liquid Snake: We're shorthanded, so make this little torture show of yours as short as possible. / Revolver Ocelot: Torture? This is an interrogation. / Liquid Snake: As you wish. 
  33. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. "Metal Gear Solid". Konami. Level/area: Maintenance Facility: Warehouse. Vulcan Raven: You are a snake which was not created by Nature. You and the Boss... you are from another world... a world that I do not wish to know. (...) The man who you saw die before your eyes... That was not the DARPA Chief. It was Decot Octopus. A member of FOX-HOUND. He was a master of disguise. (...) The path you walk on has no end. Each step you take is paved with the corpses of your enemies. Their souls will haunt you forever... you shall have no peace. Hear me, Snake! My spirit will be watching you! 
  34. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. "Metal Gear Solid". Konami. Level/area: Maintenance Facility: Underground Base. Computer: PAL code number three confirmed. PAL code entry complete... Detonation code activated. / Solid Snake: No! Why!? 
  35. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. "Metal Gear Solid". Konami. Level/area: Maintenance Facility: Underground Base. Master Miller: Without the detonation codes, we had to find some other way. That's when I decided... you might prove useful, Snake. / (...) / Solid Snake: You mean you had this planned from the beginning? Just to get me to input the detonation code!? / (...) / Colonel Campbell: Snake, that's not Master Miller! / Master Miller: Campbell, you're too late. / Colonel Campbell: Master Miller's body was just discovered at his home. He's been dead for at least three days. I didn't know because my Codec link with Master was cut off. But Mei Ling said his transmission signal was coming from inside the base! / Solid Snake: So who is it? / Colonel Campbell: Snake, you've been talking to... / Master Miller: ...Me... dear brother. 
  36. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. "Metal Gear Solid". Konami. Level/area: Maintenance Facility: Underground Base. Liquid Snake: We were created to be that way. / Solid Snake: Created? / Liquid Snake: Les enfants terribles... the terrible children. That's what the project was called. It started in 1970s. Their plan was to artificially create the most powerful soldier possible. The person that they chose as the model was the man known then as the greatest living soldier in the world... / Solid Snake: Big Boss... 
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  38. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. "Metal Gear Solid". Konami. Level/area: Maintenance Facility: Underground Base. Liquid Snake: You were sent in here to kill us so they could retrieve Metal Gear undamaged along with the bodies of the genome soldiers. From the beginning, the Pentagon was just using you as a vector to spread FoxDie! 
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External links