Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Metal Gear Solid 2)
Jump to: navigation, search
Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty
Metalgear2boxart.jpg
North American box art
Developer(s) KCEJ
Success (PC)
Bluepoint Games (HD Edition)
Publisher(s) Konami
Director(s) Hideo Kojima
Producer(s) Hideo Kojima
Artist(s) Yoji Shinkawa
Writer(s) Hideo Kojima
Tomokazu Fukushima
Composer(s) Harry Gregson-Williams
Norihiko Hibino
Rika Muranaka
Series Metal Gear
Platform(s) PlayStation 2
Xbox (Substance)
Microsoft Windows (Substance)
PlayStation 3 (HD)
Xbox 360 (HD)
PlayStation Vita (HD)
Release date(s)
Genre(s) Action-adventure, stealth
Mode(s) Single-player
Distribution DVD, Blu-ray Disc, DVD DL

Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty (Japanese: メタルギアソリッド2 サンズ・オブ・リバティ Hepburn: Metaru Gia Soriddo 2 Sanzu Obu Ribati?, commonly abbreviated as MGS2) is an action-adventure stealth video game directed by Hideo Kojima, originally developed by Konami Computer Entertainment Japan and published by Konami for the PlayStation 2 in 2001. It is the fourth Metal Gear game produced and directed by Kojima and the direct sequel to Metal Gear Solid. Its release was followed by an expanded edition, Metal Gear Solid 2: Substance for Xbox, PlayStation 2 and Microsoft Windows. A direct sequel was released in 2008, titled Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots (with Metal Gear Solid 3 being a prequel).

The story revolves around the "Big Shell", a massive offshore clean-up facility that has been seized by a group of terrorists that call themselves "Sons of Liberty". They demand a massive ransom in exchange for the life of the President of the United States, and threaten to destroy the facility and create a cataclysmic environmental disaster if their demands are not met. The motives and identities of many of the antagonists and allies change rapidly, as the protagonists discover a world-shaking conspiracy constructed by a powerful organization known as the Patriots.

The game was critically acclaimed, shipping over 7 million copies worldwide[2] and scoring an average Metacritic aggregate score of 96%, making it the fourth highest-rated game on the PlayStation 2,[3] and the tied sixth highest-rated game of all time.[4] While the gameplay was universally acclaimed, critics were divided on the philosophical nature and execution of the game's storyline, which explores themes such as memes, social engineering, political conspiracies, censorship, and artificial intelligence. It has been considered the first example of a postmodern video game,[5][6][7][8] and has been cited as a primary example of artistic expression in video games.[5][7][9][10] The game was controversial due to its complex narrative and unconventional protagonist.[11]

Gameplay[edit]

Solid Snake takes cover and peeks around a corner in the Tanker chapter

Metal Gear Solid 2 carries the title of "Tactical Espionage Action," and most of the game involves the protagonist sneaking around avoiding being seen by the enemies. Most fundamental are the wider range of skills offered to the player. The new first-person aiming mode allows players to target specific points in the game, greatly expanding tactical options; guards can be blinded by steam, distracted by a flying piece of fruit or hit in weak spots. Players can now walk slowly, allowing them to sneak over noisy flooring without making a sound, or hang off walkways to slip past below guards' feet. The corner-press move from the original title, which allowed players a sneak peek around the next bend is expanded to allow players to fire from cover.[12] Other new abilities included leaping over and hanging off of railings, opening and hiding in storage lockers, and sneaking up behind enemies to hold them at gunpoint for items and ammunition.[12] Players are also able to shoot out the enemy's radio so they are unable to communicate with others on their team. The environment also had a greater impact on the stealth gameplay, taking into account factors such as weather, smell, atmosphere and temperature.[13]

In Metal Gear Solid 2, the enemy guards were given more advanced AI "to prevent an imbalance of power,"[14] and unlike the original Metal Gear Solid, work in squads. They call on their radios for a strike team upon seeing the player, then attempt to flank him and cut off his escape while avoiding the player's attacks. Often strike teams will carry body armor and riot shields, making them an even greater threat. Even if the player escapes to a hiding place, a team will sweep in to check the area. The game has a collective enemy AI,[15] where enemy guards work together in squads, can communicate with one another,[16] and react in a more realistic manner towards the player. The game's enemy AI was considered one of the best in gaming for many years.[17]

The game also expanded its predecessor's cover mechanic,[18] with Solid Snake or Raiden now able to take cover behind walls or objects and pop out to shoot at enemies,[19][20] while the improved enemy AI allowed enemies to also take cover from the player character. The enemies would often take cover to call for backup,[21] but during battle, they would take cover then pop out and shoot at the player or blindly throw grenades from behind their cover.[19][22] The game also features a laser sight mechanic, where a laser sight helps assist with manually aiming a gun, similar to WinBack (1999) and Resident Evil 4 (2005) but with first-person aiming rather than third-person.[23] Boss battles and set-pieces remain a case of finding a strategy that bypasses the defenses of the enemy. However, in a major break from action game standards, it is also possible to clear the entire game, including boss fights, without causing a single deliberate death, through use of tranquilizer guns, stun grenades and melee attacks.

Plot[edit]

Characters[edit]

The protagonist of MGS2 is a young rookie agent named Raiden.[24] He is supported by his commanding officer, the Colonel, and Rosemary,[25] his girlfriend. Allies formed on the mission include Lt. Junior Grade Iroquois Pliskin,[26] a Navy SEAL of mysterious background who provides his knowledge of the facility and later revealed as the claimed terrorist Solid Snake; Peter Stillman,[27] a NYPD bomb-disposal expert; Otacon,[28] a computer security specialist; and a cyborg ninja imitating Gray Fox's persona, first calling itself Deepthroat, then changing its name to Mr. X.[29][30]

The antagonists of peace are the Sons of Liberty,[31] a group of terrorists who seize control of the Big Shell Disposal Facility, including anti-terror training unit Dead Cell, and a Russian mercenary force.[32] The Dead Cell team members are Vamp,[33] an immortal man exhibiting vampire-like attributes; Fatman,[34] a rotund man with exceptional knowledge of bombs; and Fortune,[35] a woman capable of cheating death by apparent supernatural means. The leader of Sons of Liberty claims to be Solid Snake,[36] previously declared dead after a terrorist attack, later revealed to be Solidus Snake, a third clone in "Les Enfants Terribles" project.[37] Assisting the Sons of Liberty are Olga Gurlukovich, commander of a rogue Russian mercenary army,[38] and Revolver Ocelot,[39] a disenfranchised Russian nationalist and former FOXHOUND agent, Solid Snake's old nemesis, and henchman of Solidus Snake.

Other characters include Emma Emmerich, Otacon's stepsister and a computer wiz-kid;[40] Sergei Gurlukovich, Ocelot's former commanding officer and Olga's father;[41] President James Johnson, held hostage by the Sons of Liberty;[42] and DIA operative Richard Ames.[43] Liquid Snake returns as he communicates via Ocelot because his right hand, sliced by Gray Fox in the previous game, has been replaced with the right hand of Liquid.[44]

This game features cameos by Mei Ling, the communications expert who aided Snake in the first game,[45] and Johnny Sasaki, the luckless soldier with chronic digestive problems.

Story[edit]

Metal Gear series
fictional chronology

Prologue - Tanker chapter[edit]

The game opens with a flashback in 2007, two years after the Shadow Moses incident that was described in the original Metal Gear Solid. On August 8, 2007 Solid Snake and Otacon, now members of the non-governmental organization Philanthropy, are investigating the development of a new Metal Gear by the American marines. Snake arrives on the tanker transporting the weapon in the middle of an attack by Russian mercenaries, led by Colonel Gurlukovich, his daughter Olga and Snake's enemy Ocelot, who has transplanted the right arm of Liquid Snake following the loss of his own in Metal Gear Solid. After Snake knocks Olga unconscious, he sneaks down to the hold in order to record pictures of the new Metal Gear RAY. As the mercenaries take control below, Ocelot betrays his allies and shoots both Gurlukovich and the commander of the marines. Just as Ocelot is about to hijack Ray, Snake reveals himself. Ocelot is then possessed by Liquid Snake and escapes with RAY leaving the ship to sink.

Plant chapter[edit]

On April 29, 2009, Raiden is operating under a reformed FOXHOUND two years after the Tanker Chapter. He has orders to infiltrate the Big Shell clean-up facility to rescue hostages, including the US president, from the terrorist group Sons of Liberty (whose leader claims to be Solid Snake), backed up by the rogue anti-terror training unit, Dead Cell, who are also threatening to destroy the facility they have seized. All of the SEAL team are killed by Dead Cell members Vamp and Fortune, and the entire Big Shell is patrolled by the surviving Russian mercenaries from the Tanker chapter, led now by Olga, who is unaware of the extent of Ocelot's betrayal, and believes Snake was responsible for her father's murder. The remaining members of the SEAL assault team, Iroquis Pliskin and Peter Stillman join Raiden to disable explosives planted on the Shell by Stillman's former pupil, Fatman, now a terrorist. Stillman is killed by Fatman's booby trap in Shell 2, though he manages to warn Raiden in time, who successfully disables the respective bomb in Shell 1, preventing the sinking of the Big Shell. Raiden then survives a direct confrontation with Fortune and Vamp, and kills Fatman on the heliport.

As Raiden searches for the President, he begins to doubt Pliskin's identity, but agrees to the plan of transporting the surviving hostages off the Big Shell with a helicopter. However, they are both attacked by the leader of the Sons of Liberty, who identifies himself as Solid Snake. Pliskin, however shouts that the man is not Solid Snake, and assists Raiden in fending off the leader when he attacks with a Harrier Jet piloted by Vamp. The battle ends with the Harrier being shot down, though it is seized by the Metal Gear Ray seen in the Tanker chapter, and the two terrorists escape. Pliskin is now revealed to be the real Solid Snake, who, along with Otacon, helps Raiden find the location of the President. Raiden moves deeper into the facility and locates President Johnson, who informs him that Big Shell is actually a facade to hide a new Metal Gear. Known as Arsenal Gear, it houses a powerful AI called "GW", which is capable of controlling the transmission of digital information. The president also claims that the democratic process is a sham, and the true rulers of the United States are a secret organization called the Patriots. The President then reveals the leader of the Sons of Liberty is his predecessor George Sears, a direct clone of Big Boss known as Solidus Snake, who fell out of the Patriots' favour following Shadow Moses, and has now gone rogue with Dead Cell to escape the Patriots' control. Ocelot kills the president soon after this revelation. Raiden moves on to disabling Arsenal Gear, going to rescue an Arsenal Gear engineer, Emma Emmerich (Otacon's adoptive sister). After fighting and shooting Vamp, who then seemingly drowns, Raiden rescues Emma, who agrees to assist Raiden in uploading a virus into the "GW" mainframe. However, the upload is halted partway, when Emma is attacked by Vamp. Raiden then kills Vamp by shooting him again, although the injuries Emma suffers prove fatal. Otacon escapes with the surviving hostages, while Raiden is captured by Olga when Solid Snake seemingly betrays him.

Raiden awakens in a torture chamber where Solidus Snake reveals that he once adopted Raiden, a former child soldier, as his son during the Liberian civil war, and that Raiden is now a Patriot agent. Solidus then leaves the chamber, and Olga steps in and frees Raiden, telling him that she is also a Patriot double-agent within the Sons of Liberty and that she was blackmailed by the Patriots to aid Raiden in order to protect her child. Olga also tells Raiden to find Solid Snake, who only allowed Raiden to be captured so he could gain access to Arsenal Gear. While Raiden makes his way through the bowels of the facility to rendezvous with Snake, his commanding officer, the Colonel, begins to act very erratically, giving him odd instructions. Upon investigation, Otacon reveals that the "Colonel" Raiden has been taking orders from is actually a construct of the GW supercomputer, and that the partially uploaded virus is beginning to damage its systems. Raiden receives a call from Rose, whose voice begins to deepen and slow down as the conversation is cut off, but not before she manages to reveal she is pregnant with his child. Raiden reunites with Snake and his gear, and the two then encounter Fortune, who fights Snake while Raiden searches for Solidus. He is then forced into a battle with the 25 Metal Gear RAY units in Arsenal Gear. Olga protects him, before Solidus kills her and captures Snake and Raiden. Ocelot reveals that he too is a Patriot agent, and that the entire Big Shell mission was a carefully coordinated attempt to reenact the events of the Shadow Moses incident, for the purpose of creating a soldier (Raiden) on par with Solid Snake. Ocelot kills Fortune, before being possessed by Liquid again, who announces his plan to hunt down the Patriots using his host's knowledge and the first Metal Gear Ray. Snake escapes to pursue Liquid, as Arsenal Gear goes out of control.

Arsenal Gear crashes into downtown Manhattan, launching Raiden and Solidus onto the roof of Federal Hall. Solidus attempts to kill Raiden, intending to use Raiden's nanomachines to lead him to the Patriots, eliminate them, and form a nation of "Sons of Liberty". At this point, Raiden is contacted by another AI, introducing itself as a representative of the Patriots, who reveals that the true purpose of the simulation was to see how well they could simulate and control human behavior in order to prevent society from dumbing down due to trivial information drowning valuable knowledge and inconvenient truths. Raiden is forced to fight Solidus, after the Patriots threaten to kill Olga's child and Rose if he does not cooperate. After Solidus's defeat, Snake reveals he planted a tracking device on Liquid's Metal Gear. Snake and Otacon plan to follow him, rescue Olga's child, and hunt down the Patriots, whose details were hidden in the GW computer virus disc. Raiden is finally reunited with Rose, on April 30, 2009, the anniversary of their first meeting.

In a brief epilogue, Otacon and Snake discuss the decoding of the virus disc, which contains the personal data on all twelve members of the Patriots' high council. However, it is revealed that all twelve members of the Wisemen's Committee have been dead for about 100 years.

Cast[edit]

English-language cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Kojima's original design document for the game was completed in January 1999;[46] it was later made publically available several years later and then translated into English in 2006.[47] It mentioned that the game was originally going to be called Metal Gear Solid III to symbolize Manhattan's three tallest skyscrapers at the time and that Raiden was designed as "a character in which women can more easily empathize."[46][47] The document outlines new game mechanics and features, such as bodies that need to be hidden, enemies being able to detect shadows, lights in an area that can be destroyed to affect enemy vision, realistic enemy AI that relies on squad tactics rather than working individually, and multi-level environments that add an element of "vertical tension" to the stealth gameplay. It also outlines themes, such as passing on memories, environmental issues, and particularly social themes regarding the "digitization of the military," digital simulations, the "digitization of operational planning," the "digitization of everyday life," and the "effects of digitization on personality." The document stated that the "aim of the story" involves "a series of betrayals and sudden reversals, to the point where the player is unable to tell fact from fiction" (departing from the "very clear and understandable story" of its predecessor), that "every character lies to (betrays) someone once," blurring the line between "what is real, and what is fantasy," and "ironies aimed at the digital society and gaming culture."[46]

The game's production budget was $10 million.[48] Kojima states that when he "heard about the hardware for the PlayStation 2," he "wanted to try something new. Up to that point, all cutscenes had focused more on details like facial expressions, but I wanted to pay more attention to the surroundings, to see how much I could change them in real time."[49]

Plot changes[edit]

According to Hideo Kojima in the documentary Metal Gear Saga Vol. 1, the original plot of the game revolved around nuclear weapon inspections in Iraq and Iran and had Solid Snake trying to stop the Metal Gear while it was located on an aircraft carrier, in a certain time limit, while trying to stop Liquid Snake and his group. However, about six months into the project the political situation in the Middle East became a concern and they decided that they couldn't make a game with such a plot. The tanker in the released game is based on this original plot.

MGS2 was also intended to reference the novel City of Glass, notably in the naming of its characters.[50] Raiden's support team originally featured a different field commander named Colonel Daniel Quinn; Maxine "Max" Work, an Asian woman who saves game data and quotes Shakespeare, and William "Doc" Wilson, the creator of GW. All take their names from key characters in the book, and all three would have turned out to be artificial intelligences. None of these characters survived to the final edition, their roles being absorbed by other characters, namely the "Colonel Campbell" simulation, Rose, and Emma Emmerich. Peter Stillman, however, takes his name from another City of Glass character.[51] Kojima has also cited another novel, Kōbō Abe's Kangaroo Notebook, as an influence on the game.

A character named Chinaman, originally planned to be included as a villain, was later on omitted and his abilities incorporated in Vamp, namely the ability to walk on water and walls. Chinaman would have movements modeled after Jet Li and have a body tattoo of a dragon that would come alive as soon as he dove into water.[52]

Significant changes to the game's ending were made late in development following the September 11 attacks in New York, where the finale occurs. A sequence depicting Arsenal Gear's displacement of the Statue of Liberty and crashing through half of Manhattan was removed, as was a short coda to appear after the credits, a breaking newscast showing the Statue of Liberty's new resting place, Ellis Island. At the point where Solidus dies, Raiden was supposed to have cut the rope on Federal Hall's flagpole, causing an American flag to fall over Solidus' body, and American flags that were supposed to be on all the flagpoles in New York were removed from the title.[53] More recently, Kojima revealed that the name "Raiden" was spelled in kanji rather than katakana due to the latter form of the name resembling "Bin Laden" in Japanese.[54]

Music[edit]

30-second sample from the main theme of Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, composed by TAPPY and Harry Gregson-Williams.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Hideo Kojima's choice of composer for Metal Gear Solid 2 was highly publicized in the run-up to the game's release. Kojima decided upon Harry Gregson-Williams, a Hollywood film composer from Hans Zimmer's studio, after watching The Replacement Killers with sound director Kazuki Muraoka. A mix CD containing 18 tracks of Gregson-Williams' work was sent to his office. Flattered by the research put into creating the CD (as some of the tracks were unreleased, and that what tracks he'd worked on for some films were undocumented), he joined the project soon after.[55]

In order to bypass the language barrier and allow the score to be developed before the cut-scenes were finalized, Gregson-Williams was sent short phrases or descriptions of the intended action. The resultant themes then shaped the action sequences in return. Gregson-Williams also arranged and re-orchestrated the original "Metal Gear Solid Main Theme" for use in the game's opening title sequence.

Norihiko Hibino, who had worked on previous Konami games such as Metal Gear: Ghost Babel, was responsible for all of the in-game music. He also worked on the majority of the game's cut scenes, re-orchestrating Gregson-Williams' "Main Theme" remix for use in several sequences.

As with Metal Gear Solid, the cut scene music includes orchestral and choir pieces, while the in-game soundtrack is scored with ambient electronic music. However, the score as a whole incorporates more electronic elements (particularly breakbeat) than its predecessor, in order to reflect the plot's thematic thrust of a machine-dominated society. Rika Muranaka again provided a vocal ending theme, a jazz track entitled "Can't Say Goodbye to Yesterday", sung by Carla White. The game's music was released via 4 CDs: Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty Original Soundtrack, Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty Soundtrack 2: The Other Side, Metal Gear Solid 2: Substance Limited Sorter (Black Edition) and Metal Gear Solid 2: Substance Ultimate Sorter (White Edition).

The MGS2 main theme was chosen by the London Philharmonic Orchestra for their Greatest Video Game Music-compilation,[56] and the theme is a key regular in the Video Games Live concert when the Metal Gear Solid segment is introduced.[57] A segment of the song's main chorus is also included during the closing sequence of Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater.[58][59]

Release history[edit]

Original version[edit]

The Japanese release was held back two weeks following the initial American release. As a result, the developers added new features and cut scenes, including two new modes: Boss Survival and Casting Theatre (the latter allowed players to select cut scenes and change the character models used). Like the original Metal Gear Solid, a Premium Package of the game was issued in addition to the stand-alone version. The box came with the reversible cover art on the DVD case, a DVD video, an A4-sized pamphlet and a metallic-colored Solid Snake figurine.

The game's initially scheduled European release date of February 22, 2002, nearly three months after the other releases, was delayed another two weeks. The added features from the Japanese release were carried over to the European version, along with a new difficulty setting (European Extreme). In addition, the European edition featured a Making Of DVD video by French television production house FunTV. As well as collating all of the game's promotional trailers and a GameSpot feature on the title's closing days of production, it featured a documentary filmed at KCEJ West's Japanese studio. The DVD was included as an apology to European gamers for the several month delay that had occurred between the American and Japanese releases, which saw numerous European gaming magazines detail the various twists in the game.

The Document of Metal Gear Solid 2[edit]

Released on September 12, 2002 in Japan and September 24 in North America, The Document of Metal Gear Solid 2 is an interactive "making of" documentary released for the PlayStation 2. The disc is a database of the game's development process where the user can view polygonal models used for characters, mechanics and areas in the game, as well as listen to the game's soundtrack. The disc also features all of the game's real time cut-scenes from the game (without audio) and their respective storyboards. Other features include a collection of behind-the-scenes footage, preview trailers, a partial script, Hideo Kojima's original draft of the game (available only in Japanese), a development timeline, and a gallery of Metal Gear Solid related products and merchandise. The disc also includes five "VR Training" levels that served as a preview of Metal Gear Solid 2: Substance. The disc was included in the European PlayStation 2 version of Metal Gear Solid 2: Substance, but was not available at retail in that region. It was also included in the 20th Anniversary Edition re-release of the original Metal Gear in Japan.

Substance[edit]

A screenshot from one of the training missions in Substance. Snake is dressed in a tuxedo.

Metal Gear Solid 2: Substance is a multi-platform updated version of the original MGS2 first released for the Xbox, then followed by PlayStation 2 and PC. The game contains the main Sons of Liberty game with some subtle alterations, as well as the inclusion of Boss Survival and Casting Theater modes from the Japanese and PAL versions of the original game. The idea for Substance follows from Metal Gear Solid: Integral and was continued with Metal Gear Solid 3: Subsistence.

The main addition of Substance is the inclusion of an extra missions mode with 300 virtual reality training missions set in a computer-constructed environment and 200 "Alternative Missions" set in areas taken from the main game. The player can choose to play these missions as Solid Snake or Raiden, with alternate outfits for both characters becoming available as the player progresses. Mission objectives include reaching the goal undetected, target practice, eliminating enemies, bomb disposal and a set of miscellaneous missions that include protecting a wounded ally from enemies or fighting a series of enemies. There are also a set of missions simulating a first-person shooter game. These missions are divided into seven modes. Sneaking Mode, Weapon Mode, Variety Mode, Photograph Mode, Hold Up Mode, Bomb Disposal Mode and Elimination Mode. The character X Raiden has a special mission called Streaking Mode. In this mission, the player has to complete 5 sneaking stages without any weapons or items (barring a cardboard box) without being seen. This stage also has a 2 minute time limit, which pauses when the player is discovered and resumes when the player continues.

In addition to the missions mode, there is also a set of "Snake Tales", which are five story-based missions featuring Solid Snake as the main character. This includes missions set in the Big Shell area from the Plant chapter, featuring characters such as Fatman, Emma, Vamp and Solidus Snake, as well as an alternate version of the Tanker chapter, which replaces Olga Gurlukovich with Meryl Silverburgh (from Metal Gear Solid) as the boss. These missions, which are not canonical in respect to the main storyline, have no voice acting but are instead narrated via on-screen text. They are side stories created by directors of Kojima Productions such as Shuyo Murata and Shinta Nojiri.

The PS2 version also featured a skateboarding minigame based on Konami's Evolution Skateboarding game.[60] The player can use Solid Snake or Raiden in a pair of Big Shell-themed levels and has to complete a set of objectives before time runs out. These objectives range from collecting dog tags scattered throughout the level to blowing up parts of Big Shell.

Substance was originally released as an Xbox timed-exclusive in North America on November 5, 2002. The PS2 version was released on March 2003 and released alongside the PC version. All three versions of the game were released almost simultaneously in Europe, the PS2 version being bundled with The Document of Metal Gear Solid 2 to once again make up for a substantial delay in its release. Only the PS2 version of Substance was released in Japan on December 19, 2002, replacing the original Japanese voices with the English dub.

On release, Famitsu magazine scored the PlayStation 2 version of the game a 35 out of 40.[61]

HD release[edit]

Konami released an HD re-release of Metal Gear Solid 2, Metal Gear Solid 3, and Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker in the Metal Gear Solid HD Collection. The version of MGS2 included is the Substance edition with some features removed. It was released in the United States for the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 on November 8, 2011.

Reception[edit]

Critical response[edit]

Reception
Aggregate scores
Aggregator Score
GameRankings 95.09%[62]
Metacritic 96/100[63]
Review scores
Publication Score
AllGame 5/5 stars[64][65]
Computer and Video Games 9/10
Edge 8/10[66]
Electronic Gaming Monthly 38.5/40
Famitsu 38/40[67][68]
Game Informer 10/10[62]
GamePro 5/5 stars[69]
Game Revolution A[62]
GamesMaster 96%[62]
GamesRadar 96/100[63]
GameSpot 9.6/10[70]
GameSpy 5/5 stars[71]
GameZone 9.8/10[72]
IGN 9.7/10[73]
Official PlayStation Magazine (US) 5/5 stars[62]
Official PlayStation Magazine (UK) 10/10[63]
PlayStation Magazine 10/10[62]
PlayStation 3 Magazine 96%[62]
GameNOW A+[62]
Gamer.tv 9.6/10[62]
Gaming Target 9.9/10[62]
Just Adventure A[62]
Maxim 5/5 stars[63]
Next Generation Magazine 5/5 stars[62]
The Electric Playground 9.7/10[63]
Awards
Publication Award
Game Informer Game of the Year[74]
CESA Award Excellence Award[75]
Edge Innovation of the Year[75]

As a result of promising trailers and the huge commercial success of its predecessor Metal Gear Solid, there was a high level of anticipation in the gaming community surrounding the release of Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty.[76] The game's E3 2000 demo surprised many spectators with its level of realism and played a key role in the PlayStation 2 console's early success.[76][77] Upon release, Metal Gear Solid 2 received a large amount of critical and fan praise, having sold over 7 million copies worldwide and maintaining a critical average of 96% on Metacritic, where it is the fourth highest-rated game on the PlayStation 2,[3] and the tied sixth highest-rated game of all time.[4] Game Informer Magazine gave the game a score of 10/10 (Notably, this is the second game Game Informer ever gave a 10/10 score), and it received high reviews from nearly all major publications and websites. GameSpot gave the game a high 9.6 rating, stating, "It all boils down to this: You must play Metal Gear Solid 2".[78] Critics praised the title's stealth gameplay, particularly the improvements over its predecessor, as well as the game's level of graphical detail, in particular the use of in-game graphics to render plot-driving cut scenes.[79]

The game was critically acclaimed, gaining a 95.09% and 96/100 aggregate at ratings websites GameRankings and Metacritic, the highest score for a Metal Gear Solid game on the websites respectively.[62][63] The title's storyline however was divisive[80] and became the source of controversy. The storyline explores many social, philosophical and cyberpunk themes in great detail, including meme theory, social engineering, sociology, artificial intelligence, information control, conspiracy theories, political and military maneuvering, evolution, existentialism, censorship, the manipulation of free will, the nature of reality,[5][9][11][81][82][83] child exploitation,[84] and taboos such as incest[85] and sexual orientation.[86] Hideo Kojima's ambitious script has been praised, some even calling it the first example of a postmodern video game.[5][6][7][9][10][11] However, some critics considered the plot to be "incomprehensible" and overly heavy for an action game, and also felt that the lengthy dialogue sections heavily disrupted the gameplay, and that the dialogue itself was overly disjointed and convoluted.[87][88] The surprise introduction of Raiden as the protagonist for the majority of the game (replacing long-time series protagonist Solid Snake) was also controversial with some fans of Metal Gear Solid.[11]

Awards[edit]

Impact[edit]

In a 2006 viewer poll conducted by Japan's Famitsū magazine of top 100 games of all time, Metal Gear Solid 2 was ranked at #42 in the poll.[92] In the 200th issue of Game Informer Magazine in 2009, its list of top 200 games of all time ranked the game at #50 on the list.[93] Metal Gear Solid 2 was ranked #7 on Game Informer's list of The Top 10 Video Game Openings in 2008.[94] In 2010, UGO included the game in the article The 11 Weirdest Game Endings at #1, with an editor calling it "the most insane, nonsensical thing I've ever seen."[95] The same year, GamesRadar included the game in its list of top 7 games "with mega plot twists you never saw coming."[96] In 2011, the game was included in the book 1001 Video Games You Must Play Before You Die.[97]

Metal Gear Solid 2 is often considered the first example of a postmodern video game,[5][6][7] and has often been cited as a primary example of artistic expression in video games.[5][7][9][10] In his paper How Videogames Express Ideas, Matthew Weise of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology described Sons of Liberty as "perhaps the most vivid example of a game that uses tension between different levels of player agency to fuel a multi-faceted ideological argument," noting Solidus Snake's suggestion of the United States being a "totalitarian regime of thought control" and pointing to the "very meta concept" of "how the designer’s imposed plan or path for the player maps to the tyrannical nature of the government", where, "like the player, Jack has no agency other than what his puppet masters give him."[9] In the book Joystick Soldiers: The Politics of Play in Military Video Games, Tanner Higgin examined the game's "resistant and subversive counter-history of military engagement," describing its "convoluted narrative and unconventional gameplay logics" as a "critique" of "the very networks of biopolitical and informational control that comprise the postmodern military, and posthumanity generally," and noting that it "purposefully manufactures frustration and negative affect" to "highlight the typically unexamined codes, conventions, and hidden pleasures of the military game genre."[98] Jeremy Parish of 1UP.com notes that "Metal Gear Solid 2 is a game built on misinformation" and that it "was simply too avant-garde—too clever—for its own good."[99] Steven Poole commented in a 2012 Edge column, "the story of MGS2, with its mythic wit and sweep, is still in a different league from the vast majority of videogame yarns. ... [H]owever, the fact that MGS2 still seems so avant-garde today might well prompt a worry: does it represent the pinnacle of a now-vanished era, the age of the experimental mainstream? This was, after all, a big-budget commercial boxed product that gleefully took risks and subverted genre conventions at every turn. Modern blockbuster games play it painfully safe by comparison."[100] Gamasutra has compared the game's themes to the philosophies of Thomas Hobbes, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, as well as the more recent social media and social gaming trends.[101]

In 2009, Wired included the game in its list of "The 15 Most Influential Games of the Decade" at #13, concluding that every "videogame story that subverts a player’s expectations owes a debt to the ground broken by Metal Gear Solid 2."[102] The artistic influence of Metal Gear Solid 2 can be seen in later video games such as Goichi Suda's similarly postmodern game Killer7,[6] the similarly metanarrative game Portal,[103] the survival horror title Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem, and particularly the first-person shooter BioShock,[104] which featured a similar plot twist to Metal Gear Solid 2.[105] Several game mechanics developed in Metal Gear Solid 2, such as the cover system and laser sight mechanic, have since become staples of stealth games as well as shooters, including Kill Switch (2003), Resident Evil 4 (2005) and Gears of War (2006).[18][23] According to Kojima, Metal Gear Solid 2 paid more "attention to the surroundings" in real-time and later "games like Call of Duty have followed this trend of making your surroundings more realistic."[49] The early anticipation that surrounded Metal Gear Solid 2 since its E3 2000 demo has also been credited as a key factor in the PlayStation 2's best-selling success and dominance during the sixth console generation, as well as the demise of Sega's Dreamcast.[77] MGS2, along with its predecessor, has been featured in the Smithsonian American Art Museum's "The Art of Video Games" exhibition, taking place from 16 March to 30 September 2012.[106]

Related media[edit]

IDW Publishing published a 12-issue comic book adaptation from 2006 to 2007, titled Metal Gear Solid: Sons of Liberty, illustrated by Ashley Wood (who also worked on the comic book adaptation of the previous game) and written by Alex Garner. This version deviates from the game, where many scenes involving Raiden are substituted with Snake.

A digital version of the comic, titled Metal Gear Solid 2: Bande Dessinée, was released on June 12, 2008 in Japan. Originally announced as a PlayStation Portable game, similar to the Metal Gear Solid: Digital Graphic Novel, the digital comic was released as a DVD film instead. A fully voiced version of the graphic novel adaptation of the first Metal Gear Solid is featured as well.[107]

A novelization of the game written by Raymond Benson and published by Del Ray. The American paperback edition was published on November 24, 2009. A majority of the character interaction in the novel is taken verbatim from the Codec conversations in the game itself.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Metal Gear Solid HD PS Vita Euro release date announced | Uncategorized". Official PlayStation Magazine. 2012-06-13. Retrieved 2012-06-17. 
  2. ^ Big Gaz. "Metal Gear Solid 3 Exclusive For Sony". GamePlanet New Zealand. Archived from the original on 2009-06-02. Retrieved 2006-10-31. 
  3. ^ a b "Top PlayStation 2 Games". Metacritic. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  4. ^ a b "Game Releases by Score". Metacritic. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Dr. Chris Zimbaldi Konkle (April 30, 2004). "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty as a Post-Modern Tragedy". metalgearsolid.org. Archived from the original on 2008-09-20. Retrieved 2007-02-21. 
  6. ^ a b c d Mark Ryan Sallee (June 29, 2006). "Kojima's Legacy". IGN. Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  7. ^ a b c d e James Howell & Ryan Payton (2008-03-20). "The Kojima Productions Report Session 084". Kojima Productions. Retrieved 2009-11-24. 
  8. ^ Myles, Aaron (January 4, 2012). "Metal Gear Solid's postmodern legacy". Nightmaremode.net. Retrieved 28 January 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Matthew Weise (2003). "How Videogames Express Ideas". Level Up: Digital Games Research Conference. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  10. ^ a b c "Games as Art: The videogames that prove Rogert Ebert wrong". IGN. July 31, 2007. Retrieved 2009-11-24. 
  11. ^ a b c d David Radd (November 10, 2009). "'Controversial' Games: Dealing with Fan Backlash". Industry Gamers. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  12. ^ a b "Metal Gear Solid 2 PS2 Game Guide". Absolute PlayStation. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  13. ^ David Low (April 2, 2007). "GO3: Kojima Talks Metal Gear History, Future". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2011-08-03. 
  14. ^ "Mana_'s reader review of Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty for PlayStation 2". Gamespot.com. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  15. ^ Shane Patterson (2009-06-21). "The Sneaky History of Stealth Games". GamesRadar. 
  16. ^ "Metal Gear Solid 2 R review". NTSC-UK. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  17. ^ Mark Ryan Sallee. "Kojima's Legacy". Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  18. ^ a b Lindsay, Stuart (2009-12-02). "Did Gears of War Innovate the Cover System". Planet Xbox 360. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  19. ^ a b "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty Walkthrough: Walkthrough: Tanker, Part 2". IGN. 
  20. ^ "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty Walkthrough: Walkthrough: Plant, Part 6". IGN. 
  21. ^ "Hands-on: The Metal Gear Solid 2 Demo". IGN. 
  22. ^ "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty Walkthrough: Walkthrough: Tanker, Part 1". IGN. 
  23. ^ a b Gordon, Shawn (October 11, 2009). "Greatest "Retro" Console Games of All Time". Game Informer. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  24. ^ Official Site (Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, Konami, 2001)
  25. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Raiden: Rose! You0re not supposed to be involved! What’s going on!? // Rose: Jack, I0m a part of this mission. // Raiden: Colonel, what the hell is going on? // Colonel: Raiden, meet the mission analyst. She'll be overseeing the data saving and support." 
  26. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Iroquois Pliskin: I'm not an enemy. Calm down. My name is S... My name is Pliskin. Iroquois Pliskin, Lieutenant Junior Grade." 
  27. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Peter Stillman: My name is Peter, Peter Stillman. // Iroquois Pliskin: A lecturer at NSEOD, Indian Head. Also consultant to the NYPD Bomb Squad." 
  28. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Iroquois Pliskin: Raiden, let me introduce you to my partner -- Otacon. // Raiden: Otacon? // Otacon: Hey, Raiden. Nice to meet you." 
  29. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Mr. X: I'm like you...I have no name. // Raiden: Are you Mr. X?" 
  30. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Mr. X: Be careful! There are Claymore mines around there. // Raiden: Who is this! // Mr. X: Stealth-equipped Claymores, invisible to the naked eye. Use the mine detector. // Raiden: Identify yourself. // Mr. X: Just call me "Deepthroat". // Raiden: Deepthroat? You mean from Shadow Moses? // Mr. X: Mr. X, then. // Raiden: Mr. X now, is it? Why would it matter if I called you Deepthroat? Mr. X: Never mind about that. [...] Mr. X: Let's just say I'm one of your fans." 
  31. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Colonel: The terrorists call themselves “Sons of Liberty”." 
  32. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Colonel: Former members of the Navy SEAL’s special anti-terrorist training squad, “Dead Cell”. Russian private army members may also be involved. It’s a highly trained group and they have the Big Shell under complete control." 
  33. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Raiden: What was that man just now? // Iroquois Pliskin: That blood sucking freak? That was Vamp. [...] // Raiden: What is he? // Iroquois Pliskin: One of the members of Dead Cell." 
  34. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Fatman: I am Fatman. I am the greatest humanity has to offer and the lowest." 
  35. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Fortune: Maybe you can give me death. My name is Fortune. Lucky in war and nothing else. And without a death to call my own. Hurry. Kill me, please." 
  36. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Colonel: The name of their leader is Solid Snake." 
  37. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Colonel: Right. But it can’t be THE Solid Snake. He died two years ago, on that tanker, after he blew it sky-high." 
  38. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Raiden: I saw a female soldier -- Russian. // Iroquois Pliskin: Must be Olga Gurlukovich. // Raiden: How do you know? // Iroquois Pliskin: Unlike you, I've been briefed. // Raiden: She's not a Dead Cell? // Iroquois Pliskin: No, she commands a Russian private army. // Raiden: They must be the ones patrolling the Big Shell. // Iroquois Pliskin: That's right. She's led the group ever since her old man, Colonel Gurlukovich, died. Watch yourself with her. She's a tough one." 
  39. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Solidus Snake: Ocelot, I leave this place in your hands. I have the intruder to take care of." 
  40. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Raiden: Wait a second. Isn't Emma Emmerich -- // Otacon: My sister. // Raiden: What's she doing here? // Otacon: You got me. She's a computer whiz who specializes in neural-AI and ultra-variable volume data analysis using complex logic. How she got involved in weapons development is beyond me." 
  41. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Otacon: We’ve ID’d the old man. // Solid Snake: Who is he? // Otacon: Sergei Gurlukovich. // Solid Snake: Gurlukovich! One of Ocelot’s allies? // Otacon: Yeah...the GRU colonel." 
  42. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Raiden: Hostages, huh? // Colonel: A VIP from one of the major conservation groups, and one from our own government -- the Most Important Person in a sense. // Raiden: The most important person -- ? // Colonel: James Johnson. // Raiden: The President!" 
  43. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "Revolver Ocelot: I always knew the DIA turned out second-rate liars. // Richard Ames: What are you talking about? // Revolver Ocelot: No need for denials. You know what you are -- Colonel Ames." 
  44. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. ""Liquid Snake": It’s been a while, brother. // Solid Snake: Who are you? // "Liquid Snake": You know who I am. // Solid Snake: Liquid?" 
  45. ^ Konami Computer Entertainment Japan. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Konami. "???: What a crock! What did you do with that little cheat sheet I made you! // [...] Snake: What's going on over there? // Mei Ling: Oh, hi, Snake. Do you know that Otacon's been -- // Otacon: Er, Mei Ling, we're in the middle of a mission and everything! So can we, you know... // Mei Ling: Fine. Sure. And Snake, the real meaning of "Care avoids err" is that if you're cautious, you can avoid making serious mistakes. Even if you've gotten used to the mission, watch what you do. Good luck!" 
  46. ^ a b c "Metal Gear Solid 2: Grand Game Plan". Kojima Productions. Retrieved 21 December 2011. 
  47. ^ a b Orland, Kyle (August 15, 2006). "MGS2 design secrets translated". Joystiq. Retrieved 21 December 2011. 
  48. ^ "The Final Hours of Metal Gear Solid 2". Kojima Productions. May 22, 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  49. ^ a b Grajales, Lorenzo (2012-07-23). "Hideo Kojima Reflects on 25 Years of Metal Gear". PlayStation Blog. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 
  50. ^ "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty: Information from". Answers.com. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  51. ^ "Metal Gear Solid 2: Grand Game Plan Page 26" (PDF). http://www.kojimaproductions.net The Kojima Productions Network. Retrieved 14 September 2010. 
  52. ^ "6:20, Retrieved: Feb 17, 2010". Youtube.com. 2009-06-28. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  53. ^ Hideo Kojima (2002). The Document of Metal Gear Solid 2 (DVD). New Zealand: Konami. 
  54. ^ Leone, Matt (November 21, 2011). "Patchwork Fixes". How Japan's Earthquake Changed its Developers. 1UP.com. p. 2. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  55. ^ Harry Gregson-Williams' interview in The Making of Documentary in the Bonus Making Of DVD.
  56. ^ "London Philharmonic Orchestra To Release Video Game-Themed Album". Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  57. ^ "Video Games live | http". //www.videogameslive.com. Retrieved 2012-06-17. 
  58. ^ "4:40 Mark and 6:53 Mark; the MGS2 theme creeps in upon Big Boss' praise". 
  59. ^ "Track 37 "Debreifing"". 
  60. ^ Greg Kasavin. "Metal Gear Solid 2: Substance (PlayStation 2)". Retrieved 2008-06-09. 
  61. ^ プレイステーション2 - メタルギア ソリッド2 サブスタンス. Weekly Famitsu. No.915 Pt.2. Pg.85. 30 June 2006.
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty for PlayStation 2". GameRankings. 2001-11-12. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  63. ^ a b c d e f "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty for PlayStation 2 Reviews". Metacritic. 2001-11-12. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  64. ^ Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty at AllGame
  65. ^ Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty [Greatest Hits] at AllGame
  66. ^ Anon. (December 29, 2001). "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons Of Liberty Review". Edge. Future plc. Retrieved September 1, 2012.  Originally published in Anon. (2001). "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty". Edge (Bath: Future Publishing) (106). 
  67. ^ プレイステーション2 - メタルギアソリッド2 サンズ・オブ・リバティ. Weekly Famitsu. No.915 Pt.2. Pg.67. 30 June 2006.
  68. ^ "Famtisu Scores". Retrieved 2009-11-23. 
  69. ^ "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty Review". GamePro. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  70. ^ "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty Review". GameSpot. 2001-11-12. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  71. ^ Buecheler, Christopher. "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty Review". GameSpy. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  72. ^ "PlayStation 2 Video Game Reviews – Gamezone offers video game reviews for all of your favorite systems. | GameZone.com". GameZone. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  73. ^ "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty Review". IGN. 2001-11-16. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  74. ^ a b "Games of 2001." Game Informer. January 2002: p. 52
  75. ^ a b c d "METAL GEAR SOLID2 -SONS OF LIBERTY-". 2002-06-12. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  76. ^ a b "25 Most Overrated Games of All Time". GameSpy. 2003. Retrieved 28 December 2006. 
  77. ^ a b Parish, Jeremy (September 2010). "Enter PS2". 9.9.99, A Dreamcast Memorial: A decade later, what is the Dreamcast's legacy?. 1UP.com. p. 3. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  78. ^ "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty Review, Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty PlayStation 2 Review - GameSpot.com". Uk.gamespot.com. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  79. ^ "Metal Gear Solid 2 Review". GameSpot. 2001. Retrieved 28 August 2006. 
  80. ^ Liam Martin (August 30, 2009). "Feature: Divisive Games". Digital Spy. Retrieved 2011-04-01. 
  81. ^ "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons Of Liberty". Cyberpunk Review. 
  82. ^ Artemio Urbina (2002). "Metal Gear Solid 2 Ending Analysis". Junker HQ. Retrieved 21 February 2007. 
  83. ^ Dr. Chris Zimbaldi (2004). "MGS2 Story / Ending / Symbolism Analysis". metalgearsolid.org. Archived from the original on 2007-11-01. Retrieved 2007-02-21. 
  84. ^ "GameSpy's Top MGS Moments: Metal Gear Solid 2 (Day Two)". GameSpy. May 16, 2008. p. 5. Retrieved 2009-11-25. 
  85. ^ Kris Pigna (2010-04-15). "Kojima: "I'll Have to Leave the Industry" if Next Game Goes Wrong". 1UP.com. Retrieved 2011-03-08. 
  86. ^ Xav de Matos (January 28, 2009). "Gamasutra examines sexuality, homophobia in Persona 4". Joystiq. Retrieved 2011-03-08. 
  87. ^ "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty (ps2: 2001): Reviews". Metacritic.com. 2001-11-12. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  88. ^ "25 Most Overrated Games of All Time". GameSpy. Retrieved 25 January 2006. 
  89. ^ "2000 - Game Awards". Game Critics Awards. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  90. ^ "2001- Game Awards". Game Critics Awards. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  91. ^ "Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty". Academy of Interactive Arts & Science. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  92. ^ "Japan Votes on All Time Top 100". Edge. March 3, 2006. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  93. ^ "Top 200 Games". Game Informer (200). December 2009. 
  94. ^ "The Top Ten Video Game Openings," Game Informer 187 (November 2008): 38.
  95. ^ By K. Thor Jensen December 3, 2010 Follow   (2010-12-03). "The 11 Weirdest Game Endings". UGO.com. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  96. ^ Meikleham, Dave. "The Top 7... Games with mega plot twists you never saw coming". GamesRadar. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  97. ^ Mott, Tony; Molyneux, Peter (5 December 2011). 1001 Video Games You Must Play Before You Die. Octopus Publishing Group, Hachette. ISBN 1-84403-715-0. 
  98. ^ Higgin, Tanner (2010). ""Turn the Game Console Off Now": War, Subjectivity, and Control in Metal Gear Solid 2". In Nina B. Huntemann & Matthew Thomas Payne. Joystick Soldiers: The Politics of Play in Military Video Games. New York: Routledge. pp. 15–6 & 252–71. ISBN 0-415-99659-7. Retrieved 22 December 2011. 
  99. ^ Parish, Jeremy (December 10, 2011). "Metal Gear Solid 2: Gaming's Greatest Con Job". 1UP.com. Retrieved 22 December 2011. 
  100. ^ Poole, Steven (August 31, 2012). "Still Playing: Metal Gear Solid 2 Sons Of Liberty". Edge. Bath: Future Publishing Ltd. Retrieved September 1, 2012. 
  101. ^ Patrick, Dugan (July 29, 2011). "Analysis: 'Socially Awkward' - How Metal Gear Solid 2 Predicted Facebook". Gamasutra. Retrieved 1 June 2012. 
  102. ^ Kohler, Chris (December 24, 2009). "The 15 Most Influential Games of the Decade". Wired. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  103. ^ Good, Owen (November 8, 2009). "The Meta-Narrative That Pulls Back The Curtain For All Games". Kotaku Australia. Australia: Kotaku. Retrieved 1 June 2012. 
  104. ^ "GameSpy's Top MGS Moments: Metal Gear Solid 2 (Day Two)". GameSpy. May 16, 2008. p. 3. Retrieved 2009-11-25. 
  105. ^ Kessler, Matthew (2009-04-15). "The End of Metal Gear Solid 4 makes me Crazy". Gamasutra. Retrieved 22 December 2011. 
  106. ^ "Exhibitions: The Art of Video Games / American Art". 
  107. ^ "「◆送料無料 METAL GEAR SOLID 2 BANDE DESSINÉE (DVD)」商品情報 - コナミスタイル" (in Japanese). 

External links[edit]