Metalcore

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Metalcore is a broad fusion genre of extreme metal and hardcore punk. The name is an amalgam of the names of the two genres, distinguished by its emphasis on breakdowns,[1] which are slow, intense passages that are conducive to moshing.[2] Pioneering bands, such as— Hogan's Heroes,[3][4] Earth Crisis, and Integrity,[4][5] —are described to lean more toward hardcore punk, whereas latter bands—Killswitch Engage, Bury Tomorrow, Underoath, All That Remains, Trivium, As I Lay Dying, Bullet for My Valentine, and The Devil Wears Prada —are described to lean more towards metal.[6] Sepultura, who has been credited as "helped to lay the groundwork" in the 2000s,[7] and Pantera,[8] who influenced Trivium, Atreyu, Bleeding Through and Unearth, have also been influential in the 2000s, and the further development of metalcore.

History[edit]

Precursors[edit]

Main articles: Hardcore punk and Crossover thrash

Black Flag[9] and Bad Brains,[10] among the originators of hardcore, admired and emulated Black Sabbath. British street punk groups such as Discharge and The Exploited also took inspiration from heavy metal.[11] The Misfits put out the Earth A.D. album, becoming a crucial influence on thrash.[12] Nonetheless, punk and metal cultures and music remained fairly separate through the first half of the 1980s. Cross-pollination between metal and hardcore eventually birthed the crossover thrash scene, which gestated at a Berkeley club called Ruthie's, in 1984.[13] The term "metalcore" was originally used to refer to these crossover groups.[14] Hardcore punk groups Corrosion of Conformity,[15] Dirty Rotten Imbeciles and Suicidal Tendencies[16] played alongside thrash metal groups like Metallica and Slayer. This scene influenced the skinhead wing of New York hardcore, which also began in 1984, and included groups such as Cro-Mags, Murphy's Law, Agnostic Front[17] and Warzone.[18] The Cro-Mags were among the most influential of these bands, drawing equally from Bad Brains, Motörhead and Black Sabbath.[19] Cro-Mags also embraced straight edge and Krishna consciousness.[20] Other New York metal-influenced straight edge groups include Crumbsuckers who formed in 1982. 1985 saw the development of the hardcore breakdown, an amalgamation of Bad Brains' reggae and metal backgrounds,[2] which encouraged moshing. Agnostic Front's 1986 album Cause for Alarm, a collaboration with Peter Steele, was a watershed in the intertwining of hardcore and metal.[21] During this time, thrash metal groups began to borrow a great deal from hardcore punk, and in 1987 Metallica paid tribute to Discharge and Misfits.[22]

Metallic hardcore (1990s)[edit]

Converge are a metalcore group formed in 1990.

Between 1984 and 1995, a new wave of hardcore bands emerged.[6] These included Hogan's Heroes,[23][24] Merauder, All Out War,[25] Integrity,[26] Biohazard, Hoods, Earth Crisis,[26][27] Converge,[27] Shai Hulud,[28][29][30] Starkweather, Judge,[27] Strife,[26] Rorschach,[31] Vision of Disorder[31] and Hatebreed.[26][31]

Hogan's Heroes drew influence primarily from hardcore bands such as Government Issue, Bad Brains, Misfits with elements of NWOBHM and metal bands like Venom.[32] Integrity drew influence from hardcore G.I.S.M., thrash group Slayer, with elements of Septic Death, Samhain, Motörhead, Joy Division.[33] Earth Crisis, Converge and Hatebreed[34] borrowed from hardcore punk and death metal.[35] Earth Crisis's 1995 album Destroy the Machines was particularly influential.[36] In guitarist Scott Crouse's words; "It was a very mixed reaction. I'm often quoted as saying that Earth Crisis was the first hardcore band with a metal sound. Of course we weren't the first, but I think we definitely took it to another level. We heard a lot of, 'These guys are trying to be Pantera,' which we all took as a great compliment!"[36]

Biohazard, Coalesce and Overcast were also important early metallic hardcore groups.[37][38] As journalist Lars Gotrich writes, "Along with key records by The Dillinger Escape Plan and Botch, Give Them Rope is an underground milestone that helped pioneer what was soon called 'metalcore'. At the risk of sounding too reductive, metalcore was the natural progression where extreme metal and hardcore met, but with spiraling time signatures that somehow felt more aggressive."[39] Shai Hulud's Hearts Once Nourished with Hope and Compassion became especially influential in the latter part of the decade.[28][29][30]

Commercial success (2000s to present)[edit]

Killswitch Engage are considered one of the breakthrough bands to bring metalcore to the spotlight.

In the early-2000s, metalcore emerged as its own genre, with several independent metal labels, including Century Media and Metal Blade, signing metalcore bands. By 2004, Killswitch Engage's The End of Heartache,[40] Shadows Fall's The War Within,[41] and Atreyu's The Curse debuted at numbers 21, 20, and 36, respectively, on the Billboard album chart. Also, in 2006, Atreyu's third studio album, A Death-Grip on Yesterday debuted at Number 9 on the Billboard 200, only to followed up by 2007's Lead Sails Paper Anchor, which debuted at Number 8. All That Remains' single "Two Weeks" peaked at number 9 at the Mainstream Rock Tracks chart in the U.S. The song peaked on the Modern Rock Tracks chart at number 38. In 2007, the songs "Nothing Left" by As I Lay Dying and Redemption by Shadows Fall were nominated for a Grammy award in the "Best Metal Performance" category.[3] An Ocean Between Us (the album that included "Nothing Left") itself was a commercial success, debuting at number 8 on the "Billboard 200".

Welsh metalcore band Bullet for My Valentine's second album, Scream Aim Fire, went straight to number 4 on the Billboard 200,[42] later surpassing this in 2010 with their third album Fever, which debuted at number 3 selling more than 71,000 copies in its first week in the U.S. and more than 21,000 in the UK. Underoath's fifth album Define the Great Line, released in 2006, peaked at number 2 on the Billboard 200 charts, selling 98,000 copies in its first week.[43]

The Devil Wears Prada has achieved much commercial success with their album, With Roots Above and Branches Below, peaking at number 11 on the Billboard 200 upon its release.[44] Trivium has met with very strong success, making top 25 positions on the charts in several countries, including the U.S., and top 10 positions in both Australia and the UK, even making Gold status in the UK. Hatebreed, God Forbid, and As I Lay Dying have also charted.[45][46][47]

Underoath's album Lost in the Sound of Separation reached number 8 on the Billboard 200 and sold 56,000 copies in its first week of sales in the U.S. alone,[48] with Killswitch Engage's self-titled fifth album reaching number 7 on the Billboard 200 and selling 58,000 copies.[49] Another recent success is the album Reckless & Relentless by British band Asking Alexandria, reaching up to now number 9 on the Billboard 200, selling 31,000 in its first week. The 2011 album Dead Throne by The Devil Wears Prada debuted at number 10[50] on the Billboard 200, selling 32,400 in its first week.[51]

In 2013, British band Bring Me the Horizon released their fourth studio album Sempiternal to critical acclaim. The album debuted at #3 on the UK Album Chart and at #1 in Australia. The album sold 27,522 copies in the US, and charted at #11 on the US Billboard Chart, making this their highest charting release in America.

Characteristics[edit]

Vocals[edit]

The vocal technique in metalcore is usually screamed vocals, common among many 1990s metalcore groups. Today, many metalcore bands combine these vocals with the use of clean vocals usually during the bridge or chorus of a song.

Instrumentation[edit]

The instrumentation of metalcore includes heavy guitar riffs, double bass drumming, and breakdowns. Drop guitar tunings are often used. Earlier bands usually used either Drop D, C# or C tunings. More recently certain bands have been known to tune as low as Drop G and even F#. Drummers typically use a lot of double bass technique and general drumming styles across the board. Blast beats are also heard at times.

Ideologies[edit]

Metalcore emerged from heavy metal and hardcore punk's subculture. Although a few of the groups were adhering to abstention from drugs and alcohol, bands such as Integrity and Asking Alexandria were not.[6] Their frontman advocated an apocalyptic belief system related to Gnosticism and Catharism.[52] Converge focused on personal anguish and experiences of failed romantic love.[53][54] Several members of metalcore bands are Christians, including Zao,[55] Haste the Day, The Devil Wears Prada, As I Lay Dying,[56] August Burns Red, Texas in July, Oh, Sleeper and Underoath.[57][58]

Subgenres[edit]

Melodic metalcore[edit]

Main article: Melodic metalcore

The early-2000s included a wave of metalcore bands who placed significantly greater emphasis on melody. These bands tend to fuse melodic death metal and hardcore punk.[59]

Melodic metalcore bands include Killswitch Engage. As I Lay Dying, Trivium, All That Remains,[60] Atreyu,[59][61][62] Bullet for My Valentine,[63] Bury Tomorrow,[64] Darkest Hour,[61] and August Burns Red.[65][66][67] These groups took major influence, cues, and writing styles from Swedish melodic death metal bands, particularly At the Gates,[61] Arch Enemy, In Flames and Soilwork.[68] Melodic metalcore often makes use of clean vocals.[69][70] Some of these groups, such as Shadows Fall, have voiced an affection for '80s glam metal.[71]

Mathcore[edit]

Main article: Mathcore

Mathcore began with the mid-'90s work of Converge,[72] Botch[73][74] and The Dillinger Escape Plan.[75] The term mathcore is suggested by analogy with math rock. Mathcore is characterized by speed, technical riffing, and unusual time signatures.[76][77] Bands such as Fear Before incorporate metalcore standards along with odd time signatures and progressive elements.[78]

Deathcore[edit]

Main article: Deathcore

Deathcore is a fusion of metalcore and death metal.[79][80][81] Deathcore is defined by breakdowns, blast beats and death metal riffs.[82][83] Bands may also incorporate guitar solos and even riffs that are influenced by metalcore.[79] New York-based death metal group Suffocation is credited as one of the main influences for the emergence of deathcore.[84] Deathcore bands include Suicide Silence,[85] Whitechapel,[85] Knights of the Abyss,[86] Carnifex[85] and Chelsea Grin.[87]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tom Breihan. "Status Ain't Hood". "Live: Trivium, the Jackson 5 of Underground Metal". The Village Voice. Daily Voice. October 11, 2006. Access date: July 21, 2008. "The best part of every metalcore song is the breakdown, the part where the drums drop out and the guitars slow their frantic gallop to a devastating, precise crunch-riff and everyone in the moshpit goes extra nuts."
  2. ^ a b Blush, p. 193. "Howie Abrams (NYHC scene): Mosh style was slower, very tribal – like a Reggae beat adapted to Hardcore. (...) It was an outbreak of dancing with a mid-tempo beat driven by floor tom and snare."
  3. ^ 1948-1999 Muze, Inc. Hogan's Heroes. "Pop Artists Beginning with 'Hod'", Phonolog, 1999, p. 1. No. 7-278B Section 207.
  4. ^ a b HXC Revolution. "History of HC". 2007-07-14. Retrieved 2012-03-18. "Judge, Integrity and Hogan's Heroes were some of the earliest bands to bring this level of intensity to hardcore—an amalgamation of deep, hoarse vocals (though rarely as deep or guttural as death metal); downtuned guitars and thrashy drum rhythms inspired by earlier hardcore bands; and slow staccato low-end breaks, known as breakdowns. Thrash metal and melodic death metal elements are also common in metalcore." 
  5. ^ "Shai Hulud, interview with Punknews.org – 05/28/08". Retrieved 2008-09-21. "As far as coining the term 'metalcore' or coining a sound, I don't think we did. There were bands before Shai Hulud started that my friends and I were referring to as 'metalcore'. Bands like Burn, Deadguy, Earth Crisis, even Integrity. These bands that were heavier than the average hardcore bands. These bands that were more progressive than the average hardcore band. My friends and I would always refer to them as 'metalcore' because it wasn't purely hardcore and it wasn't purely metal. It was like a heavier hardcore band with hardcore ethics and attitude but clearly a metal influence. So we would joke around and say 'Hey, it's metalcore. Cool!' But it was definitely a tongue-in-cheek term." 
  6. ^ a b c "Blood Runs Deep: 23 Bands Who Shaped the Scene". Alternative Press. July 7, 2008. pp. 110, 118. 
  7. ^ "MTVNews.com: The Greatest Metal Bands of All Time". MTV. Retrieved 17 May 2010. 
  8. ^ "MTVNews.com: The Greatest Metal Bands of All Time: Pantera". MTV. Retrieved 17 February 2012. 
  9. ^ Blush, American Hardcore, part 2, "Thirsty and Miserable", p. 63, 66.
  10. ^ Andersen, Mark and Mark Jenkins (2003). Dance of Days: Two Decades of Punk in the Nation's Capital. "Positive Mental Attitude". p. 27. Akashic Books. ISBN 1-888451-44-0.
  11. ^ Glasper, Ian (2004). Burning Britain: The History of UK Punk 1980-1984. Cherry Red Books. p. 5. ISBN 1-901447-24-3.
  12. ^ Blush, "Hits from Hell", American Hardcore, p. 204.
  13. ^ Blush, p. 115.
  14. ^ Felix von Havoc, Maximum Rock'n'Roll #198. Access date: June 20, 2008.
  15. ^ Blush, p. 193.
  16. ^ Christe, Ian: Sound of the Beast: The Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal (2003), p. 184.
  17. ^ Blush, p. 186.
  18. ^ Blush, p. 188.
  19. ^ Blush, p. 189.
  20. ^ Blush, p. 189. "Cro-Mags were the first band to attract both Skinheads and Metalheads audiences; their music at the point where Hardcore nihilism met Metal power."
  21. ^ Blush, p. 192.
  22. ^ Garage, Inc. at Allmusic.
  23. ^ * McClard, Kent. Record Reviews Hogan's Heroes - Built To Last 12 |quote="Hailing from New Jersey, Hogan's Heroes play scathing hardcore with extremely metallic guitar riffing, quality bass work, a splattering of machine-gun drumming, and sharp singing. Normally, I would cringe at the metal guitar, but it is done so well and with such crisp clarity that I can't object. In fact it turns out to be really explosive sounding. At times they remind me of a metallic version of old Justice League on speed . Hot! - Kent". No Answers, November 1988, p. 30.
  24. ^ * McClard, Kent. Hogan's Heroes |quote="Hogan's Heroes is a four piece that plays a speedy type of clean metallic guitar orientated hardcore.Their approach is unique and up-beat. Attitude wise, they are right on. Built To Last is more than an acetylene burst of energy. It is a positive affirmation of the greatness of the alternative hardcore scene.". No Answers, November 1988, p. 13, 14, 15, 16.
  25. ^ "All Out War Biography". Metal Inside. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  26. ^ a b c d Ian Glasper, Terrorizer no. 171, June 2008, p. 78, "here the term (metalcore) is used in its original context, referencing the likes of Strife, Earth Crisis, and Integrity (...)".
  27. ^ a b c Mudrian, Albert (2000). Choosing Death: The Improbable History of Death Metal and Grindcore. Feral House. ISBN 1-932595-04-X. p. 222-223.
  28. ^ a b "Kill Your Stereo - Reviews: Shai Hulud - Misanthropy Pure". "Shai Hulud, a name that is synonymous (in heavy music circles at least) with intelligent, provocative and most importantly unique metallic hardcore. The band's earliest release is widely credited with influencing an entire generation of musicians" .
  29. ^ a b "Shai Hulud - Hearts Once Nourished with Hope and Compassion Review". Sputnikmusic. Retrieved July 11, 2012. "Hearts Once Nourished with Hope and Compassion is pretty much the prime in early melodic metalcore. So many bands in both the modern metalcore and hardcore scene have drawn vast influence from them, because of how perfect they blend hardcore and metal." 
  30. ^ a b "In at the Deep End Records". "Regardless of whether or not you liked Shai Hulud, it is undeniable that Hearts Once Nourished with Hope and Compassion was an oft-imitated and highly influential release in the mid-to-late nineties." 
  31. ^ a b c Ross Haenfler, Straight Edge: Clean-living Youth, Hardcore Punk, and Social Change. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-3852-1. p. 87-88.
  32. ^ * Kisg, Attila. "Hogan's Heroes - Jersey Straight Edge" |quote="I was always into what I feel is real metal. Early Venom, early (1979) Accept, etc. etc. , and early on in "Impossible Task"(1983) I played no leads or metal-related guitar parts, keeping the style more true to the early vibe. Then as I heard Battalion of Saints, which was after I heard Bad Brains doing leads and around the same time I heard Toxic Reasons I started to feel if you had a point to make play a lead other wise dont bother with it. Thats why I played metal styles with hardcore.". Honest For Truth, June 2008, p. 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27.
  33. ^ "It was this simple formula that's single-handedly responsible for every band you hear combining heavy metal and hardcore today." "Blood Runs Deep: 23 Bands Who Shaped the Scene". Alternative Press. July 7, 2008. p. 110. 
  34. ^ Hatebreed cites Entombed and Bolt Thrower. Q&A with Jamey Jasta, Miami New Times, May 27, 2008. Access date: June 22, 2008.
  35. ^ Karl Buechner of Earth Crisis cites Napalm Death, Bolt Thrower, and Obituary as prime influences. Mudrian also discusses Converge and Bloodlet and their relationship to death metal. See Mudrian, Albert (2000). Choosing Death: The Improbable History of Death Metal and Grindcore. Feral House. ISBN 1-932595-04-X. p. 222-223.
  36. ^ a b Gabriel Cardenas Salas, "Blasts from the Past", Terrorizer 180, February 2009, p. 96.
  37. ^ "Exclusive Interview with Shai Hulud Guitarist Matt Fox". Retrieved 2008-10-09. "When we used to joke with the term, it was just a clever (or not so clever) way of describing a metallic hardcore, metal-influenced hardcore, or hardcore-influenced metal band." 
  38. ^ J. Bennett, "Converge's Jane Doe", Revolver, June 2008.
  39. ^ Lars Gotrich, "Coalesce: A Tale of Two Ropes", All Songs Considered, 25 October 2011.
  40. ^ The End of Heartache at Billboard.com.
  41. ^ "Shadows Fall to Co-Headline Sounds of the Underground". Blabbermouth.net. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  42. ^ Scream Aim Fire at Billboard.com.
  43. ^ Define the Great Line at Billboard.com.
  44. ^ [1][dead link]
  45. ^ Supremacy at Billboard.com.
  46. ^ Perseverance at Billboard.com.
  47. ^ Sacrament at Billboard.com.
  48. ^ Lost in the Sound of Separation at Billboard.com.
  49. ^ "Killswitch Engage Debuts @ #7 on Billboard Top 200". Roadrunner Records. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  50. ^ http://www.metalinsider.net/video/the-devil-wears-prada-post-a-video-update-for-new-album
  51. ^ "Lady Antebellum 'Own' the Billboard 200 with Second No. 1 Album". Billboard.com. 2009-09-14. Retrieved 2011-10-20. 
  52. ^ "Blood Runs Deep: 23 Bands Who Shaped the Scene". Alternative Press. July 7, 2008. p. 110. 
  53. ^ Interview with My Penis, Revolver, June 2008, p. 114.
  54. ^ Ferris, D.X. "The Godfather of Cleveland Hardcore". Cleveland Scene. Retrieved June 8, 2008. 
  55. ^ Cogdale, Russ (2005-01-28). Zao's music abrasive yet spiritual. (Interview). Deseret News. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  56. ^ "FAQ". As I Lay Dying. Archived from the original on March 2, 2008. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  57. ^ Chamberlain, Spencer; Gillespie, Aaron (2006-07-17). Interview with Underoath. (Interview). Europunk.net. Retrieved 2008-01-28. 
  58. ^ Style, Justin (August 2003). "Blessing the Martyrs". Cross Rhythms (76). 
  59. ^ a b Lee, Cosmo; Voegtlin, Stewart. "Into the void: Stylus Magazine's Beginner's Guide to Metal - Article - Stylus Magazine". Stylus Magazine. Retrieved 17 May 2010. 
  60. ^ Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Overcome review". Allmusic. Retrieved 17 February 2012. "Overcome offers very dependable melodic metalcore in the spirit of All That Remains' albums past, without succumbing to outright stagnation." 
  61. ^ a b c D. Taylor, Jason. "Suicide Notes and Butterfly Kisses review". Allmusic. Retrieved June 24, 2008. "Atreyu's debut album, Suicide Notes and Butterfly Kisses, is an invigorating foray into melodic metalcore in the vein of Darkest Hour, Poison the Well, and Eighteen Visions." 
  62. ^ "Taste of Chaos", Revolver, June 2008, p. 110. "This is the Rockstar Taste of Chaos Tour, a night when heavier melodic-metalcore bands like Atreyu and Avenged Sevenfold intend to position themselves as the next generation of bands to actually pack arenas (...)".
  63. ^ Apar, Corey. "Bullet for My Valentine". Allmusic. Retrieved November 8, 2011. 
  64. ^ Phil Freeman (16 March 2010). "Alternative Press | Reviews | Bury Tomorrow - Portraits". Alternative Press. Retrieved 9 July 2012. "If you're wondering whether they bring anything unique or unexpected to the table, the answer is no. Is Portraits a pleasurable enough melodic metalcore album while it's playing? Absolutely." 
  65. ^ "August Burns Red - Constellations". Way Too Loud!. July 15, 2012. 
  66. ^ "Eternal Closure". Sputnik. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  67. ^ "August Burns Red Burns Red Presents Sleddin' Holiday Album". Bradley Zorgdrager. October 9, 2012. 
  68. ^ Metal Injection, August 28, 2007. Access date: June 24, 2008.
  69. ^ "It's Through the Approach". El Paisano. September 12, 2007. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved June 24, 2008. 
  70. ^ "Suicide Notes and Butterfly Kisses review". mp3.com. Archived from the original on February 12, 2009. 
  71. ^ Dan Epstein, "The Brewtal Truth", Revolver, November 2004, p. 65.
  72. ^ "Converge biography". Rockdetector.com. Archived from the original on 2007-08-11. Retrieved 2007-08-23. 
  73. ^ Bowar, Chad. "Botch - We Are the Romans Review". About.com. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  74. ^ "Botch". San Francisco Bay Guardian. Archived from the original on February 12, 2009. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  75. ^ "Mathcore band the 'Dillinger Escape Plan' visit NZ". TV3. Archived from the original on October 18, 2008. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  76. ^ "Events for this weekend in New York (page 2 of 2)". NY Daily News. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  77. ^ [2][dead link]
  78. ^ "Fear Before the March of Flames Bio". The Gauntlet. Retrieved August 3, 2008. "Drawing inspiration from the intricacies of Converge, the varied time signatures of Botch and the temperament of The Blood Brothers, they produced a distinctive combination of hardcore, metal and indie rock that was eclectic, fresh and frenetic." 
  79. ^ a b "lambgoat.com". Retrieved July 11, 2012. "This is deathcore. This is what happens when death metal and hardcore, along with healthy doses of other heavy music styles, are so smoothly blended..." 
  80. ^ Lee, Cosmo. "metalinjection.net". Retrieved November 11, 2008. "...All Shall Perish... Alienacja (Poland), Despised Icon (Montreal) and Whitechapel (Knoxville, TN)... They're all textbook 'deathcore', fusing death metal and hardcore punk." 
  81. ^ Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Heaven Shall Burn". Allmusic. Retrieved May 31, 2008. "Munich, Germany's Heaven Shall Burn specialize in highly controversial and politicized death metal fused with hardcore; a hybrid style often referred to as death-core." 
  82. ^ Lee, Cosmo. "Doom". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  83. ^ Marsicano, Dan. "Rose Funeral - 'The Resting Sonata'". About.com. Retrieved October 7, 2011. 
  84. ^ Lee, Cosmo (September 2009). "Suffocation reclaim their rightful place as kings of death metal". Decibel Magazine #059. "One of Suffocation's trademarks, breakdowns, has spawned an entire metal subgenre: deathcore" .
  85. ^ a b c Wiederhorn, Jon (September 2008). "Dawn of the Deathcore". Revolver (Future US) (72): pp. 63–66. ISSN 1527-408X. Retrieved 3 July 2009. 
  86. ^ Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Knights of the Abyss". MusicMight. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  87. ^ Henderson, Alex. "Desolation of Eden review". Allmusic. Macrovision. Retrieved 2010-04-04. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Haenfler, Ross. Straight Edge: Clean-living Youth, Hardcore Punk, and Social Change, Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-3852-1.
  • Mudrian, Albert (2000). Choosing Death: The Improbable History of Death Metal and Grindcore. Feral House. ISBN 1-932595-04-X.
  • Sharpe-Young, Garry (2005). New Wave of American Heavy Metal. Zonda Books. ISBN 0-9582684-0-1.