Metamaterials are artificial materials engineered to have properties that have not yet been found in nature. They are assemblies of multiple individual elements fashioned from conventional materials such as metals or plastics, but the materials are usually constructed into repeating patterns, often with microscopic structures. Metamaterials derive their properties not from the compositional properties of the base materials, but from their exactingly-designed structures. Their precise shape, geometry, size, orientation and arrangement can affect waves of light (electromagnetic radiation) or sound in a manner not observed in natural materials. These metamaterials achieve desired effects by incorporating structural elements of sub-wavelength sizes, i.e. features that are actually smaller than the wavelength of the waves they affect.
The primary research in metamaterials investigates materials that are able to reverse the refractive index. These materials, known as negative index metamaterials, additionally permit the creation of superlenses that can greatly increase optical resolution beyond the capability of conventional lenses, becoming a solution to the centuries old problem of diffraction-limited systems. In other work, a form of 'invisibility' has been demonstrated at least over a narrow wave band with gradient-index materials. Although the first metamaterials were electromagnetic, acoustic and seismic metamaterials are also areas of active research.
Potential applications of metamaterials are diverse and include remote aerospace applications, sensor detection and infrastructure monitoring, smart solar power management, public safety, radomes, high-frequency battlefield communication and lenses for high-gain antennas, improving ultrasonic sensors, and even shielding structures from earthquakes.
The research in metamaterials is interdisciplinary and involves such fields as electrical engineering, electromagnetics, classical optics, solid state physics, microwave and antennae engineering, optoelectronics, material sciences, nanoscience, semiconductor engineering, and others.
- 1 History
- 2 Electromagnetic metamaterials
- 3 Other types
- 4 Frequency bands
- 5 Applications
- 6 Theoretical models
- 7 Institutional networks
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Seminal explorations of artificial materials for manipulating electromagnetic waves at the end of the 19th century. Some of the earliest structures that may be considered metamaterials date back to Jagadish Chandra Bose who in 1898 researched substances with chiral properties. Karl Ferdinand Lindman studied wave interaction with metallic helices as artificial chiral media in the early twentieth century. In the 1950s and 1960s, artificial dielectrics were studied for lightweight microwave antennas. Microwave radar absorbers moved into the research arena in the 1980s and 1990s as applications for artificial chiral media.
Winston E. Kock developed materials that had similar characteristics to metamaterials in the late 1940s.
Materials that exhibited reversed physical characteristics were first described theoretically by Victor Veselago in 1967. He proved that substances with a negative index can transmit light. In such a material, he showed that the phase velocity would be anti-parallel to the direction of Poynting vector. This is contrary to wave propagation in naturally-occurring materials.
John Pendry was the first to identify a practical way to make a left-handed metamaterial, a material in which the right-hand rule is not followed. Such a material allows an electromagnetic wave to convey energy (have a group velocity) against its phase velocity. Pendry's idea was that metallic wires aligned along the direction of propagation could provide negative permittivity (ε < 0). Note however that natural materials (such as ferroelectrics) already displayed negative permittivity; the challenge was achieving negative permeability (µ < 0). In 1999 Pendry demonstrated that a split ring (C shape) with its axis placed along the direction of wave propagation could do so. In the same paper, he showed that a periodic array of wires and ring could give rise to a negative refractive index. Pendry also proposed a related negative-permeability design, the Swiss roll.
In the year 2000, Smith et al. reported the experimental demonstration of functioning electromagnetic metamaterials by horizontally stacking, periodically, split-ring resonators and thin wire structures. Later, a method was provided in 2002 to realize negative index metamaterials using artificial lumped-element loaded transmission lines in microstrip technology. In 2003, complex (both real and imaginary parts of) negative refractive index and imaging by flat lens using left handed metamaterials were demonstrated by the Northeastern University group. By 2007, research experiments which involved negative refractive index had been conducted by many groups. At microwave frequencies, the first real invisibility cloak was realized in 2006. However, only a very small object was imperfectly hidden.
An electromagnetic metamaterial affects electromagnetic waves incident on it via structural features that are smaller than the wavelength of the respective electromagnetic wave. To behave as a homogeneous material accurately described by an effective refractive index, its features must be much smaller than the wavelength.
For microwave radiation, the cells need to be on the order of several millimeters. Microwave frequency metamaterials are usually constructed as arrays of electrically conductive elements (such as loops of wire) that have suitable inductive and capacitive characteristics. One type of a microwave metamaterial is a split-ring resonator.
Photonic metamaterials, at the scale of nanometers, are being studied in order to manipulate light at optical frequencies. To date, subwavelength structures have shown only a few questionable results at visible wavelengths. Photonic crystals and frequency-selective surfaces such as diffraction gratings, dielectric mirrors, and optical coatings exhibit similarities to subwavelength structured metamaterials. However, these are usually considered distinct from subwavelength structures, as their features are structured for the wavelength at which they function, and thus cannot be approximated as a homogeneous material. However, material structures such as photonic crystals are effective in the visible light spectrum. The middle of the visible spectrum has a wavelength of approximately 560 nm (for sunlight), the photonic crystal structures are generally half this size or smaller, that is <280 nm.
Frequency selective surfaces (FSS) can exhibit subwavelength characteristics and are known variously as artificial magnetic conductors (AMC) or High Impedance Surfaces (HIS). FSS display inductive and capacitive characteristics that are directly related to their subwavelength structure.
Negative refractive index in metamaterials
Almost all materials encountered in optics, such as glass or water, have positive values for both permittivity ε and permeability µ. However, metals such as silver and gold have negative permittivity at shorter wavelengths. A material such as a surface plasmon that has either (but not both) ε or µ negative is often opaque to electromagnetic radiation. However, anisotropic materials with only negative permittivity can produce negative refraction due to chirality.
Although the optical properties of a transparent material are fully specified by the parameters εr and µr, refractive index n is often used in practice, which can be determined from . All known non-metamaterial transparent materials possess positive εr and µr. By convention the positive square root is used for n.
However, some engineered metamaterials have εr < 0 and µr < 0. Because the product εrµr is positive, n is real. Under such circumstances, it is necessary to take the negative square root for n.
The foregoing considerations are simplistic for actual materials, which must have complex-valued εr and µr. The real parts of both εr and µr do not have to be negative for a passive material to display negative refraction. Metamaterials with negative n have numerous interesting properties:
- Snell's law (n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2), but as n2 is negative, the rays will be refracted on the same side of the normal on entering the material.
- Cherenkov radiation points the other way.
- The time-averaged Poynting vector is antiparallel to phase velocity. However, for waves (energy) to propagate, a –µ must be paired with a –ε in order to satisfy the wave number dependence on the material parameters .
For plane waves propagating in electromagnetic metamaterials, the electric field, magnetic field and wave vector follow a left-hand rule. This is a reversal of direction when compared to the behavior of conventional optical materials.
Negative refractive index is an important characteristic in metamaterial design and fabrication. As reverse-refraction media, these occur when both permittivity ε and permeability µ are negative. Furthermore, this condition occurs mathematically from the vector triplet E, H and k.
In ordinary materials – solid, liquid, or gas; transparent or opaque; conductor or insulator – the conventional refractive index dominates. This means that permittivity and permeability are both positive resulting in an ordinary index of refraction. However, metamaterials have the capability to exhibit a state where both permittivity and permeability are negative, resulting in an extraordinary, index of negative refraction.
In negative index metamaterials (NIM), both permittivity and permeability are negative resulting in a negative index of refraction. These are also known as Double Negative Metamaterials or double negative materials (DNG). Other terms for NIMs include "left-handed media", "media with a negative refractive index", and "backward-wave media".
In optical materials, if both permittivity ε and permeability µ are positive, wave propagation travels in the forward direction. If both ε and µ are negative, a backward wave is produced. If ε and µ have different polarities, waves do not propagate. Mathematically, quadrant II and quadrant IV have coordinates (0,0) in a coordinate plane where ε is the horizontal axis, and µ is the vertical axis.
Single negative (SNG) metamaterials have either negative relative permittivity (εr) or negative relative permeability (µr), but not both. They act as metamaterials in combination with a different, complementary SNG, jointly acting as a DNG.
Epsilon negative media (ENG) display a negative εr while µr is positive. Many plasmas exhibit this characteristic. For example noble metals such as gold or silver will exhibit this characteristic in the infrared and visible spectrums.
Mu-negative media (MNG) display a positive εr while µr is negative. Gyrotropic or gyromagnetic materials exhibit this characteristic. A gyrotropic material is one that has been altered by the presence of a quasistatic magnetic field, enabling a magneto-optic effect. A magneto-optic effect is a phenomenon in which an electromagnetic wave propagates through such a medium. In such a material, left- and right-rotating elliptical polarizations can propagate at different speeds. When light is transmitted through a layer of magneto-optic material, the result is called the Faraday effect: the polarization plane can be rotated, forming a Faraday rotator. The results of such a reflection are known as the magneto-optic Kerr effect (not to be confused with the nonlinear Kerr effect). Two gyrotropic materials with reversed rotation directions of the two principal polarizations are called optical isomers.
Joining a slab of ENG material and slab of MNG material resulted in properties such as resonances, anomalous tunneling, transparency, and zero reflection. Like negative index materials, SNGs are innately dispersive, so their εr, µr and refraction index n, alter with changes in frequency.
Electromagnetic bandgap metamaterials (EBM) control light propagation. This is accomplished either with photonic crystals (PC) or left-handed materials (LHM). PCs can prohibit light propagation altogether. Both classes can allow light to propagate in specific, designed directions and both can be designed with bandgaps at desired frequencies. The period size of EBGs is an appreciable amount of the wavelength, creating constructive and destructive interference.
PC are distinguished from sub-wavelength structures, such as tunable metamaterials, because the PC derives its properties from its bandgap characteristics. PCs are sized to match the wavelength of light, versus other metamaterials that operate as a sub-wavelength structure. Furthermore, photonic crystals function by diffracting light. In contrast, a permittivity and permeability define each metamaterial, which is derived from its sub-wavelength structure and does not use diffraction.
PCs have periodic inclusions that inhibit wave propagation due to the inclusions' destructive interference from scattering. The photonic bandgap property of PCs makes them the electromagnetic analog of electronic semi-conductor crystals.
EBGs have the goal of creating high quality, low loss, periodic, dielectric structures. An EBG affects photons in the same way semiconductor materials affect electrons. PCs are the perfect bandgap material, because they allow no light propagation. Each unit of the prescribed periodic structure acts like one atom, albeit of a much larger size.
EBGs are designed to prevent the propagation of an allocated bandwidth of frequencies, for certain arrival angles and polarizations. Various geometries and structures have been proposed to fabricate EBG's special properties. In practice it is impossible to build a flawless EBG device.
EBGs have been manufactured for frequencies ranging from a few gigahertz (GHz) up to a few terahertz (THz), radio, microwave and mid-infrared frequency regions. EBG application developments include a transmission line, woodpiles made of square dielectric bars, and several different types of low gain antennas.
Double positive medium
Double positive mediums (DPS) do occur in nature, such as naturally occurring dielectrics. Permittivity and magnetic permeability are both positive and wave propagation is in the forward direction. Artificial materials have been fabricated which combine DPS, ENG and MNG properties.
Bi-isotropic and bianisotropic
Categorizing metamaterials into double or single negative, or double positive, normally assumes that the metamaterial has independent electric and magnetic responses described by ε and µ. However in many cases, the electric field causes magnetic polarization, while the magnetic field induces electrical polarization, known as magnetoelectric coupling. Such media are denoted as bi-isotropic. Media that exhibit magnetoelectric coupling and that are also anisotropic (which is the case for many metamaterial structures), are referred to as bi-anisotropic.
Four material parameters are intrinsic to magnetoelectric coupling of bi-isotropic media. They are the electric (E) and magnetic (H) field strengths, and electric (D) and magnetic (B) flux densities. These four material parameters are ε, µ, κ and χ or permittivity, permeability, strength of chirality, and the Tellegen parameter respectively. In this type of media, the material parameters do not vary with changes along a rotated coordinate system of measurements. In this sense they are invariant or scalar.
The intrinsic magnetoelectric parameters, κ and χ, affect the phase of the wave. The effect of the chirality parameter is to split the refractive index. In isotropic media this results in wave propagation only if ε and µ have the same sign. In bi-isotropic media with χ assumed to be zero, and κ a non-zero value, different results appear. Both a backward wave and a forward wave can occur. Alternatively, two forward waves or two backward waves can occur, depending on the strength of the chirality parameter.
Chiral metamaterials are constructed from chiral in which the effective parameter k is non-zero. This is a potential source of confusion as the metamaterial literature includes two conflicting uses of the terms left- and right-handed. The first refers to one of the two circularly polarized waves that are the propagating modes in chiral media. The second relates to the triplet of electric field, magnetic field and Poynting vector that arise in negative refractive index media, which in most cases are not chiral.
Wave propagation properties in chiral metamaterials demonstrate that negative refraction can be realized in metamaterials with a strong chirality and positive ε and μ.  This is because the refractive index has distinct values for left and right, given by
It can be seen that a negative index will occur for one polarization if κ > √. In this case, it is not necessary that either or both εr and µr be negative for backward wave propagation.
Frequency selective surface-based metamaterials block signals in one waveband and pass those at another waveband. They have become an alternative to fixed frequency metamaterials. They allow for optional changes of frequencies in a single medium, rather than the restrictive limitations of a fixed frequency response.
These are a type of metamaterial that uses different parameters to achieve a negative index of refraction in materials that are not electromagnetic. Furthermore, "a new design for elastic metamaterials that can behave either as liquids or solids over a limited frequency range may enable new applications based on the control of acoustic, elastic and seismic waves." They are also called mechanical metamaterials.
Acoustic metamaterials control, direct and manipulate sound in the form of sonic, infrasonic, or ultrasonic waves in gases, liquids and solids. As with electromagnetic waves, sonic waves can exhibit negative refraction.
Control of sound waves is mostly accomplished through the bulk modulus β, mass density ρ, and chirality. The bulk modulus and density are analogs of permittivity and permeability in electromagnetic metamaterials. Related to this is the mechanics of sound wave propagation in a lattice structure. Also materials have mass and intrinsic degrees of stiffness. Together, these form a resonant system and the mechanical (sonic) resonance may be excited by appropriate sonic frequencies (for example audible pulses).
Metamaterials may also be fabricated which include some form of nonlinear media, whose properties change with the power of the incident wave. Nonlinear media are essential for nonlinear optics. Most optical materials have a relatively weak response, meaning that their properties change by only a small amount for large changes in the intensity of the electromagnetic field. The local electromagnetic fields of the inclusions in a nonlinear metamaterials can be much larger than the average value of the field. In addition, exotic properties such as a negative refractive index, create opportunities to tailor the phase matching conditions, which must be satisfied in any nonlinear optical structure.
Terahertz metamaterials interact at terahertz frequencies, usually defined as 0.1 to 10 THz. Terahertz radiation lies at the far end of the infrared band, just after the end of the microwave band. This corresponds to millimeter and submillimeterwavelengths between the 3 mm (EHF band) and 0.03 mm (long-wavelength edge of far-infrared light).
Tunable metamaterials allow arbitrary adjustments to frequency changes in the refractive index. A tunable metamaterial encompasses the development of expanding beyond the bandwidth limitations in left-handed materials by constructing various types of metamaterials.
Plasmonic metamaterials exploit surface plasmons, which are produced from the interaction of light with metal dielectrics. Under specific conditions, the incident light couples with the surface plasmons to create self-sustaining, propagating electromagnetic waves known as surface plasmon polaritons.
Metamaterials are under consideration for many applications. Metamaterial antennas are commercially available.
In 2007, one researcher stated that for metamaterial applications to be realized, energy loss must be reduced, materials must be extended into three-dimensional isotropicmaterials and production techniques must be industrialized.
Metamaterial antennas are a class of antennas that use metamaterials to improve performance. Demonstrations have shown that metamaterials could enhance an antenna's radiated power. Materials that can attain negative permeability allow for properties such as an electrically small antenna size, high directivity and tunable operational frequency.
A metamaterial absorber manipulates the loss components of metamaterials' permittivity and magnetic permeability, to absorb large amounts of electromagnetic radiation. For example, this is a useful feature for solar photovoltaic applications. Loss components are often noted in applications of negative refractive index (photonic metamaterials, antenna systems) or transformation optics (metamaterial cloaking, celestial mechanics), but often not utilized in these applications.
Light and sound filtering
Metamaterials textured with nanoscale wrinkles could control sound or light signals, such as changing a material's color or for improving ultrasound resolution. Uses include nondestructive material testing, medical diagnostics and sound suppression. The materials can be made through a high-precision, multi-layer deposition process. The thickness of each layer can be controlled within a fraction of a wavelength. The material is then compressed, creating precise wrinkles whose spacing can cause scattering of selected frequencies.
The analogy is as follows: All materials are made of atoms, which are dipoles. These dipoles modify the light velocity by a factor n (the refractive index). The ring and wire units play the role of atomic dipoles: the wire acts as a ferroelectric atom, while the ring acts as an inductor L and the open section as a capacitor C. The ring as a whole therefore acts as an LC circuit. When the electromagnetic field passes through the ring, an induced current is created and the generated field is perpendicular to the magnetic field of the light. The magnetic resonance results in a negative permeability; the index is negative as well. (The lens is not truly flat, since the capacitance of the structure imposes a slope for the electric induction.)
Several (mathematical) material models which frequency response in DNGs. One of these is the Lorentz model. This describes electron motion in terms of a driven-damped, harmonic oscillator. The Debye relaxation model applies when the acceleration component of the Lorentz mathematical model is small compared to the other components of the equation. The Drude model applies when the restoring force component is negligible and the coupling coefficient is generally the plasma frequency. Other component distinctions call for the use of one of these models, depending on its polarity, or purpose.
Three-dimensional composites of metal/non-metallic inclusions periodically/randomly embedded in a low permittivity matrix are usually modeled by analytical methods including mixing formulas and scattering-matrix based methods. The particle is modeled by either an electric dipole parallel to the electric field or a pair of crossed electric and magnetic dipoles parallel to the electric and magnetic fields, respectively, of the applied EM wave. These dipoles are the leading terms in the multipole series. They are the only existing ones for a homogeneous sphere, whose polarizability can be easily obtained from the Mie scattering coefficients. In general, this procedure is known as the "point-dipole approximation", which is a good approximation for metamaterials consisting of composites of electrically small spheres. Merits of these methods include low calculation cost and mathematical simplicity. 
Duke University has initiated an umbrella organization researching metamaterials under the banner "Novel Electromagnetic Materials" and became a leading research center. The center is a part of an international team, which includes California Institute of Technology, Harvard University, UCLA, Max Planck Institute of Germany, and the FOM Institute of the Netherlands. Six other groups are connected to this organization.
The Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) encompasses dozens of Universities and a few government organizations. Participating universities include UC Berkeley, UC Los Angeles, UC San Diego, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Imperial College in London, UK. The sponsors are Office of Naval Research and the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency.
MURI supports research that intersects more than one traditional science and engineering discipline to accelerate both research and translation to applications. As of 2009, 69 academic institutions were expected to participate in 41 research efforts.
The Virtual Institute for Artificial Electromagnetic Materials and Metamaterials ”Metamorphose VI AISBL” is an international association to promote artificial electromagnetic materials and metamaterials. It organizes scientific conferences, supports specialized journals, creates and manages research programs, provides training programs (including PhD and training programs for industrial partners); and technology transfer to European Industry.
- Artificial dielectrics—macroscopic analogues of naturally occurring dielectrics that came into use with the radar microwave technologies developed between the 1940s and 1970s.
- Split-ring resonator—delivers strong magnetic coupling for metamaterials.
- METATOY (METAmaTerial fOr raYs)—composed of super-wavelength structures, such as small arrays of prisms and lenses and can operate over a broad band of frequencies
- Academic journals
- Metamaterials books
- Shelby, R. A.; Smith D.R.; Shultz S.; Nemat-Nasser S.C. (2001). "Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial". Applied Physics Letters 78 (4): 489. Bibcode:2001ApPhL..78..489S. doi:10.1063/1.1343489.[dead link]
- Smith, D. R.; Padilla, WJ; Vier, DC; Nemat-Nasser, SC; Schultz, S (2000). "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity". Physical Review Letters 84 (18): 4184–7. Bibcode:2000PhRvL..84.4184S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.4184 (inactive 2014-04-15). PMID 10990641.
- Engheta, Nader; Richard W. Ziolkowski (June 2006). Metamaterials: Physics and Engineering Explorations. Wiley & Sons. pp. xv, 3–30, 37, 143–150, 215–234, 240–256. ISBN 978-0-471-76102-0.
- Zouhdi, Saïd; Ari Sihvola; Alexey P. Vinogradov (December 2008). Metamaterials and Plasmonics: Fundamentals, Modelling, Applications. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 3–10, Chap. 3, 106. ISBN 978-1-4020-9406-4.
- Smith, David R. (2006-06-10). "What are Electromagnetic Metamaterials?". Novel Electromagnetic Materials. The research group of D.R. Smith. Retrieved 2009-08-19.
- Shelby, R. A.; Smith, D. R.; Schultz, S. (2001). "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction". Science 292 (5514): 77–79. Bibcode:2001Sci...292...77S. doi:10.1126/science.1058847. PMID 11292865.
- Pendry, John B. (2004). "Negative Refraction". Contemporary Physics (Princeton University Press) 45 (3): 191–202. Bibcode:2004ConPh..45..191P. doi:10.1080/00107510410001667434. ISBN 0-691-12347-0. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- Veselago, V. G. (1968). "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of [permittivity] and [permeability]". Soviet Physics Uspekhi 10 (4): 509–514. Bibcode:1968SvPhU..10..509V. doi:10.1070/PU1968v010n04ABEH003699.
- Guenneau, S. B.; Movchan, A.; Pétursson, G.; Anantha Ramakrishna, S. (2007). "Acoustic metamaterials for sound focusing and confinement". New Journal of Physics 9 (11): 399. Bibcode:2007NJPh....9..399G. doi:10.1088/1367-2630/9/11/399.
- Brun, M.; S. Guenneau; and A.B. Movchan (2009-02-09). "Achieving control of in-plane elastic waves". Appl. Phys. Lett. 94 (61903): 1–7. arXiv:0812.0912. Bibcode:2009ApPhL..94f1903B. doi:10.1063/1.3068491.
- Smith, David R; Research group (2005-01-16). "Novel Electromagnetic Materials program". Retrieved 2009-08-17.
- Rainsford, Tamath J.; Samuel P. Mickan, and D. Abbott (9 March 2005). Al-Sarawi, Said F, ed. "T-ray sensing applications: review of global developments". Proc. SPIE. Smart Structures, Devices, and Systems II (Conference Location: Sydney, Australia 2004-12-13: The International Society for Optical Engineering). 5649 Smart Structures, Devices, and Systems II (Poster session): 826–838. Bibcode:2005SPIE.5649..826R. doi:10.1117/12.607746.
- Cotton, Micheal G. (December 2003). "Applied Electromagnetics". 2003 Technical Progress Report (NITA – ITS) (Boulder, CO, USA: NITA – Institute for Telecommunication Sciences). Telecommunications Theory (3): 4–5. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
- Alici, Kamil Boratay; Özbay, Ekmel (2007). "Radiation properties of a split ring resonator and monopole composite". Physica status solidi (b) 244 (4): 1192. Bibcode:2007PSSBR.244.1192A. doi:10.1002/pssb.200674505.
- Veselago, V. G. (1968 (Russian text 1967)). "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ". Sov. Phys. Usp. 10 (4): 509–14. Bibcode:1968SvPhU..10..509V. doi:10.1070/PU1968v010n04ABEH003699. Check date values in:
- AIP News, Number 628 #1, March 13Physics Today, May 2003, , 2003 Press conference at APS March Meeting, Austin, Texas, March 4, 2003, New Scientist, v.177, p.24, 15 March 2003
- "Imaging by Flat Lens using Negative Refraction", P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, Nature, 426, 404 (2003).
- Kock, W. E. (1946). "Metal-Lens Antennas". IRE Proc. 34 (11): 828. doi:10.1109/JRPROC.1946.232264.
- Kock, W.E. (1948). "Metallic Delay Lenses". Bell. Sys. Tech. Jour. 27: 58–82. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb01331.x.
- Caloz, C.; Chang, C.-C. and Itoh, T. (2001). "Full-wave verification of the fundamental properties of left-handed materials in waveguide configurations". J. Appl. Phys. 90 (11): 11. Bibcode:2001JAP....90.5483C. doi:10.1063/1.1408261.
- Eleftheriades, G.V.; Iyer A.K.; and Kremer, P.C. (2002). "Planar Negative Refractive Index Media Using Periodically L-C Loaded Transmission Lines". IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 50 (12): 2702–2712. Bibcode:2002ITMTT..50.2702E. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2002.805197.
- Caloz, C. and Itoh, T. (2002). "Application of the Transmission Line Theory of Left-handed (LH) Materials to the Realization of a Microstrip 'LH line'". IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium 2: 412. doi:10.1109/APS.2002.1016111. ISBN 0-7803-7330-8.
- Sievenpiper, Dan et al. (November 1999). "High-Impedance Electromagnetic Surfaces with a Forbidden Frequency Band" (Free PDF download. Cited by 1,078). IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 47 (11): 2059. Bibcode:1999ITMTT..47.2059S. doi:10.1109/22.798001. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
- R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia (2004). "A new condition to identify isotropic dielectric-magnetic materials displaying negative phase velocity". Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 41 (4): 315. doi:10.1002/mop.20127.
- Eleftheriades, George V.; Keith G. Balmain (2005). Negative-refraction metamaterials: fundamental principles and applications. Wiley, John & Sons. p. 340. ISBN 978-0-471-60146-3.
- Pendry, John B.; David R. Smith (June 2004). "Reversing Light: Negative Refraction". Physics Today (American Institute of Physics) 57 (June 37): 2 of 9 (originally page 38 of pp. 37–45). Bibcode:2004PhT....57f..37P. doi:10.1063/1.1784272. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
- Alù, Andrea and; Nader Engheta (January 2004). "Guided Modes in a Waveguide Filled With a Pair of Single-Negative (SNG), Double-Negative (DNG), and/or Double-Positive (DPS) Layers" (Free PDF download. Cited by 123). IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 52 (1): 199. Bibcode:2004ITMTT..52..199A. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2003.821274. Retrieved 2010-01-03.
- Engheta, Nader; Richard W. Ziolkowski (June 2006). Metamaterials: physics and engineering explorations (added this reference on 2009-12-14.). Wiley & Sons. pp. 211–221. ISBN 978-0-471-76102-0.
- Valentine, J.; Zhang, S.; Zentgraf, T.; Ulin-Avila, E.; Genov, D. A.; Bartal, G.; Zhang, X. (2008). "Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index". Nature 455 (7211): 376–379. doi:10.1038/nature07247. PMID 18690249.
- Pendry, JB (2009-04-11). "Metamaterials Generate Novel Electromagnetic Properties" (This is a seminar – lecture series lasting one semster – fall 2009.). UC Berkeley Atomic Physics Seminar 290F Main. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
- Chappell, William leads the IDEA laboratory at Purdue University (2005). "Metamaterials". research in various technologies. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
- Edited by Soukoulis, C. M. (May 2001). Photonic Crystals and Light Localization in the 21st Century (Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Photonic Crytals and Light Localization, Crete, Greece, June 18–30, 2000 ed.). London: Springer London, Limited. pp. xi. ISBN 0-7923-6948-3.
- Marques, Ricardo; Medina, Francisco; Rafii-El-Idrissi, Rachid (2002-04-04). "Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials" (Free PDF download of this article is linked to this reference.). Physical Review B 65 (14): 144440–1. Bibcode:2002PhRvB..65n4440M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.65.144440. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- Rill, M. S. et al. (2008-12-22). "Negative-index bianisotropic photonic metamaterial fabricated by direct laser writing and silver shadow evaporation". Optics Letters 34 (1): 19–21. doi:10.1364/OL.34.000019. PMID 19109626.
- Kriegler, C. E. et al. (submitted 2009-03-31 to be published 2010-04). "Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials" (download free PDF article.). IEEE journal of selected topics in quantum electronics 999 (2): 1–15. doi:10.1109/JSTQE.2009.2020809. Retrieved 2009-10-20. Check date values in:
- Wang, Bingnan et al. (November 2009). "Chiral metamaterials: simulations and experiments". J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11 (11): 114003 (10pp). Bibcode:2009JOptA..11k4003W. doi:10.1088/1464-4258/11/11/114003. Retrieved 2009-12-24.
- S. Tretyakov, A. Sihvola and L. Jylhä (2005). "Backward-wave regime and negative refraction in chiral composites". Photonics and Nanostructures Fundamentals and Applications 3 (2–3): 107. arXiv:cond-mat/0509287. Bibcode:2005PhNan...3..107T. doi:10.1016/j.photonics.2005.09.008.
- Capolino, Filippo (October 2009). "32". Theory and Phenomena of Metamaterials. Taylor & Francis. pp. 32–1. ISBN 978-1-4200-5425-5.
- Page, John (2011). "Metamaterials: Neither solid nor liquid". Nature Materials 10 (8): 565–6. Bibcode:2011NatMa..10..565P. doi:10.1038/nmat3084. PMID 21778996.
- Rüdiger Paschotta (2008-18). "Photonic Metamaterials". Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology. I & II. Wiley-VCH Verlag. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-10-01. Check date values in:
- Capolino, Filippo (October 2009). Applications of Metamaterials. Taylor & Francis, Inc. pp. 29–1, 25–14, 22–1. ISBN 978-1-4200-5423-1. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
- DOE /Ames Laboratory (2007-01-04). "Metamaterials found to work for visible light" (Costas Soukoulis discusses some metamaterials). HTML. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
- Enoch, Stefan; Tayeb, GéRard; Sabouroux, Pierre; Guérin, Nicolas; Vincent, Patrick (2002). "A Metamaterial for Directive Emission". Physical Review Letters 89 (21): 213902. Bibcode:2002PhRvL..89u3902E. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.213902. PMID 12443413.
- Siddiqui, O.F.; Mo Mojahedi; Eleftheriades, G.V. (2003). "Periodically loaded transmission line with effective negative refractive index and negative group velocity". IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 51 (10): 2619. Bibcode:2003ITAP...51.2619S. doi:10.1109/TAP.2003.817556.
- Wu, B.-I.; W. Wang, J. Pacheco, X. Chen, T. Grzegorczyk and J. A. Kong (2005). "A Study of Using Metamaterials as Antenna Substrate to Enhance Gain". Progress in Electromagnetics Research (MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA: EMW Publishing) 51: 295–328. doi:10.2528/PIER04070701. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- A. Vora, J. Gwamuri, N. Pala, A. Kulkarni, J.M. Pearce, and D. Ö. Güney, "Exchanging ohmic losses in metamaterial absorbers with useful optical absorption for photovoltaics," Sci. Rep. 4, 4901 (2014). doi:10.1038/srep04901 arxiv preprint
- Pendry, J. B. (2000). "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens". Physical Review Letters 85 (18): 3966–9. Bibcode:2000PhRvL..85.3966P. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.3966. PMID 11041972.
- Fang, N.; Lee, H; Sun, C; Zhang, X (2005). "Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens". Science 308 (5721): 534–7. Bibcode:2005Sci...308..534F. doi:10.1126/science.1108759. PMID 15845849.
- "First Demonstration of a Working Invisibility Cloak". Office of News & Communications Duke University. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- Schurig, D. et al. (2006). "Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies". Science 314 (5801): 977–80. Bibcode:2006Sci...314..977S. doi:10.1126/science.1133628. PMID 17053110.
- "Experts test cloaking technology". BBC News. 2006-10-19. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- "Engineers see progress in creating 'invisibility cloak'".
- A. Alu and N. Engheta (2005). "Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings". Phys. Rev. E 72: 016623. arXiv:cond-mat/0502336. Bibcode:2005PhRvE..72a6623A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.72.016623.
- Richard Merritt, "Next Generation Cloaking Device Demonstrated: Metamaterial renders object 'invisible'"
- Johnson, R. Colin (2009-07-23). "Metamaterial cloak could render buildings 'invisible' to earthquakes". EETimes.com. Retrieved 2009-09-09.
- Barras, Colin (2009-06-26). "Invisibility cloak could hide buildings from quakes". New Scientist. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "Wrinkled metamaterials for controlling light and sound propagation". KurzweilAI. 2014-01-28. Retrieved 2014-04-15.
- Rudykh, S.; Boyce, M. C. (2014). "Transforming Wave Propagation in Layered Media via Instability-Induced Interfacial Wrinkling". Physical Review Letters 112 (3). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.034301.
- Shore, R. A.; Yaghjian, A. D. (2007). "Traveling waves on two- and three-dimensional periodic arrays of lossless scatterers". Radio Science 42 (6): RS6S21. Bibcode:2007RaSc...42.6S21S. doi:10.1029/2007RS003647.
- Li, Y.; Bowler, N. (2012). "Traveling waves on three-dimensional periodic arrays of two different magnetodielectric spheres arbitrarily arranged on a simple tetragonal lattice". IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagations 60 (6): 2727–2739. Bibcode:2012ITAP...60.2727L. doi:10.1109/tap.2012.2194637.
- MURI metamaterials, UC Berkely (2009). "Scalable and Reconfigurable Electromagnetic Metamaterials and Devices" (Link to web site). Retrieved 2009-12-08.
- U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) (2009-05-08). "DoD Awards $260 Million in University Research Funding". DoD. Retrieved 2009-12-08.
- Tretyakov, Prof. Sergei; President of the Association; Dr. Vladmir Podlozny; Secretary General (2009-12-13). "Metamorphose" (See the "About" section of this web site for information about this organization.). Metamaterials research and development. © 2009 Metamorphose VI. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
- de Baas, A. F.; J. L. Vallés (2007-02-11). "Success stories in the Materials domain". Metamorphose (European Commission Directorate-General for Research. Directorate G – Industrial technologies. Unit G3 ‘Value – added Materials’.). Networks of Excellence Key for the future of EU research: 19. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
- Educational pages on metamaterials:
- EM Lab. Prof. Raymond C. Rumpf
- Nanophotonics group. Prof. Min Qiu. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Sweden.
- ETA research group. Prof. Christophe Caloz. Polytechnique Montréal.
- Metamaterials. Electromagnetics Group. George Eleftheriades. University of Toronto.
- The Engheta Group. Nader Engheta. University of Pennsylvania.
- Electromagnetic Metamaterials. Fraunhofer FHR. Germany.
- Antennas Research Group. Prof. Yang Hao. University of London.
- Inano Group. Prof. M. Saif Islam. UC Davis.
- Mediums with Negative Phase Velocity. Prof. Akhlesh Lakhtakia. Penn State University.
- Condensed Matter Theory Group. Sir John Pendry. Imperial College. London.
- Computational Nano Materials Group Viktor Podolskiy (Assoc. Prof.). UMass Lowell.
- Shvets Research Group, University of Texas at Austin – US
- David Smith's research group — Duke University — US
- Costas Soukoulis at IESL, Greece — Photonic, Phononic & MetaMaterials Group
- Srinivas Sridhar's Group Northeastern University
- Irina Veretennicoff's research group, Vrije Universiteit Brussel — Belgium
- Christophe Craeye's research group – Belgium
- Martin Wegener's Metamaterials group Universität Karlsruhe (TH) — Germany
- Georgios Zouganelis's Metamaterials Group – NIT — Japan
- Xiang Zhang's group – UC Berkeley – US
- Sergei Tretyakov's group – Aalto University, Finland
- Gengkai Hu's group – Beijing Institute of Technology, (PRC)
- Institute of Applied Physical Problems – BSU – Belarus]
- Centre for Photonic Metamaterials, University of Southhampton
- Internet portals:
- Scholar Google profile on metamaterials
- MetaMaterials.net Web Group
- Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Duke University
- Journal "Metamaterials" published by Elsevier (homepage)
- Online articles: "Metamaterials" in ScienceDirect
- RSS feed for Metamaterials articles published in Physical Review Journals
- Virtual Institute for Artificial Electromagnetic Materials and Metamaterials ("METAMORPHOSE VI AISBL")
- European Network of Excellence "METAMORPHOSE" on Metamaterials
- SensorMetrix Formed with a specific directive to exploit the recent advances in electromagnetic metamaterials
- Metamaterials collection on IOPscience (IOP Publishing)
- More articles and presentations:
|Find more about Metamaterial at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Metamaterials (see and listen to Lectures 12-14)
- Homogenization and Parameter Retrieval (see and listen to Lecture 15)
- Subwavelength gratings (see and listen to Lecture 10)
- Dr. Sebastien Guenneau. Research on Metamaterials and Photonic Crystal Fibres
- UWB Tunable Delay System, Prof Christophe Caloz, Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal
- What are Metamaterials ? An index page by Dr. Stefan Linden and Prof. Dr. Martin Wegener
- Raytracing Metamaterials (demonstrations)
- Cloaking devices, nihility bandgap, LF magnetic enhancement, perfect radome NIT Japan
- Left-Handed Flat Lens HFSS Tutorial Electromagnetism Tutorial
- Journal of Optics A, February 2005 Special issue on Metamaterials
- Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction
- How To Make an Object Invisible
- Metamaterials hold key to cloak of invisibility