Methylcobalamin

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Methylcobalamin
Mecobalamin.svg
Mecobalamin 3D sticks.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
carbanide; cobalt(3+);
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Legal status
Routes oral,sublingual,injection.
Identifiers
CAS number 13422-55-4 YesY
ATC code B03BA05
PubChem CID 6436232
UNII BR1SN1JS2W N
ChEMBL CHEMBL1697757 N
Chemical data
Formula C63H91CoN13O14P 
Mol. mass 1344.40 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Methylcobalamin (mecobalamin, MeCbl, or MeB12) is a cobalamin, a form of vitamin B12. It differs from cyanocobalamin in that the cyanide is replaced by a methyl group.[1] Methylcobalamin features an octahedral cobalt(III) centre. Methylcobalamin can be obtained as bright red crystals.[2] From the perspective of coordination chemistry, methylcobalamin is notable as a rare example of a compound that contains metal-alkyl bonds. Nickel-methyl intermediates have been proposed for the final step of methanogenesis.

Methylcobalamin is equivalent physiologically to vitamin B12, and can be used to prevent or treat pathology arising from a lack of vitamin B12 (vitamin B12 deficiency), such as pernicious anemia.

Methylcobalamin is also used in the treatment of peripheral neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and as a preliminary treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Production[edit]

Methylcobalamin physically resembles the other forms of vitamin B12, occurring as dark red crystals that freely form cherry-colored transparent solutions in water.

Methylcobalamin can be produced in the laboratory by reducing cyanocobalamin with sodium borohydride in alkaline solution, followed by the addition of methyl iodide.[2]

Functions[edit]

This vitamer is one of two active coenzymes used by vitamin B12-dependent enzymes and is the specific vitamin B12 form used by 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), also known as methionine synthase.[citation needed]

Methylcobalamin participates in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, which is a pathway by which some organisms utilize carbon dioxide as their source of organic compounds. In this pathway, methylcobalamin provides the methyl group that couples to carbon monoxide (derived from CO2) to afford acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is a derivative of acetic acid that is converted to more complex molecules as required by the organism.[3]

Methylcobalamin is produced by some bacteria. It plays an important role in the environment. In the environment, it is responsible for the biomethylation of certain heavy metals. For example, the highly toxic methylmercury is produced by the action of methylcobalamin.[4] In this role, methylcobalamin serves as a source of "CH3+".

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ L. R. McDowell, Vitamins in animal and human nutrition 
  2. ^ a b David Dophin. Preparation of the Reduced Forms of Vitamin B12 and of Some Analogs of the Vitamin B12 Coenzyme Containing a Cobalt-Carbon Bond. D.B. McCormick and L.D. Wright, Eds. 1971;Vol. XVIII:34-54.
  3. ^ Fontecilla-Camps, J. C.; Amara, P.; Cavazza, C.; Nicolet, Y.; Volbeda, A. (2009). "Structure–function relationships of anaerobic gas-processing metalloenzymes". Nature 460 (7257): 814–822. doi:10.1038/nature08299. PMID 19675641.  edit
  4. ^ Zenon Schneider, Andrzej Stroiński, Comprehensive B12: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Nutrition, Ecology, Medicine