Methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase (MCC) (3-Methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase, methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase) is a biotin-requiring enzyme located in the mitochondria. MCC uses bicarbonate as a carboxyl group source to catalyze the carboxylation of a carbon adjacent to a carbonyl group performing the 4th step in processing leucine, an essential amino acid.
Bicarbonate is activated by the addition of ATP, increasing the reactivity of bicarbonate. Once bicarbonate is activated, the biotin portion of MCC performs nucleophilic attack on the activated bicarbonate to form enzyme-bound carboxybiotin. The carboxybiotin portion of MCC can then undergo nucleophilic attack transferring the carboxyl group to the substrate, 3-methylcrotonyl CoA, to form 3-methylglutaconyl CoA.