Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia
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|Contributor note: Working on several areas including History, Duties, and Structure|
|Metropolitan Police of
the District of Columbia
|Common name||Metropolitan Police Department|
|Abbreviation||MPDC or MPD|
|Patch of the Metropolitan Police Department|
|Seal of the Metropolitan Police Department|
|(English: Justice For All)|
|Formed||August 6, 1861|
|Preceding agency||Washington City police (daytime)
Auxiliary Guard (nighttime)
|Legal personality||Governmental: Government agency|
|Map of Metropolitan Police of
the District of Columbia's jurisdiction.
|Legal jurisdiction||Washington D.C.|
|Headquarters||Henry J. Daly Building
300 Indiana Avenue NW
|Agency executive||Cathy L. Lanier, Chief of Police|
|District stations||7, 2 Substations|
|Patrol cars||Ford Taurus (Police Interceptor), Chevrolet Impala (Police Package), Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor|
The Metropolitan Police of the District of Columbia (MPDC), referred to generally and officially as the Metropolitan Police Department (MPD) or unofficially as the "D.C. Police," is the primary law enforcement agency of Washington, D.C. The MPD has a unique role among law enforcement in the United States in that it serves as a local police department, with county, state and Federal responsibilities, and is under a municipal government but operates under Federal authority.
The MPD was formed in 1861 by an act of the United States Congress. During its history it was involved in several notable cases including the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, the assassination of President James A. Garfield, the 1968 Washington, D.C. riots, the September 11 terrorist attacks, and the Washington Navy Yard shooting. Today the MPD is one of the ten largest local police departments in the United States and is at the forefront of providing police services to the District through community policing and modern technology.
The MPD is organized into six bureaus that provide services including Patrol, Investigations, Internal Affairs, Homeland Security, Strategic Services, and Corporate Support. Within the city, the MPD patrol seven police districts which are further divided into Police Service Areas. Since 2007, the department has been led by Chief of Police Cathy L. Lanier. She has been singled out in publications for her community oriented and technology-driven approach to policing that has helped modernize the MPD and lower crime rates.
The Metropolitan Police Department is the primary law enforcement agency for Washington, D.C. It is responsible for providing police services to the District such as patrol and criminal investigations, and is also charged with protecting the President and Congress. As the capital of the United States, Washington is a Federal district and subject to the ultimate authority of the United States Congress, including the Metropolitan Police. The MPD has a unique role in that it serves as a local police department, with county, state and Federal responsibilities, and is under a municipal government but operates under Federal authority. They are responsible for operating the District's sex offender registry, approving all applications for motorcades, protests, demonstrations and other public events, and maintain the District's firearm registry. The MPD's mission states:
It is the mission of the Metropolitan Police Department to safeguard the District of Columbia and protect its residents and visitors by providing the highest quality of police service with integrity, compassion, and a commitment to innovation that integrates people, technology and progressive business systems.
The Metropolitan Police is the only law enforcement agency allowed under law to shut down roads within the District and is also responsible for the protection of the President of the United States. As such, MPD always leads the presidential motorcade when traveling in the District and, under certain circumstances, also leads outside the District in conjunction with local agencies. They work closely with the United States Secret Service in planning presidential routes and providing protection for the President, the First Family, the Vice President of the United States, visiting dignitaries and VIPs as well as protecting foreign embassies.
Under the District of Columbia Home Rule Act, the President may take direct control of the MPD for Federal purposes such as during a 48 hour emergency. During longer periods of time, the President must provide to Congress in writing his reasons for continuing control of the MPD. This control can be extended at any time beyond 30 days if either the emergency continues or if Congress passes a law ordering it.
The MPD is assisted by various federal law enforcement agencies, primarily the United States Park Police, the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division, and the United States Capitol Police. Under District law, the MPD has a mutual aid agreement with over 32 law enforcement agencies operating within the District. They are also assisted by the Federal Bureau of Investigations for evidence collection and task force investigations and they work closely with the United States Marshals Service which performs the functions of a county sheriff for the District. The MPD also works with the Metro Transit Police Department which has jurisdiction in the District, Maryland, and Virginia to protect the Washington Metro Transit Authority. The MPD is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the "Metro" Police Department though this is actually the transit police.
As the US Civil War raged, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln took a personnel interest in the formation of the a regular police force for the nation's capital. Washington had quickly filled with soldiers, government employees, and citizens hoping to cash in on the war. The crowds, crime, and the constant threat of southern spies, had made the capital into a rowdy city barely under control. Formed by an act of the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Lincoln on August 8, 1861 the Metropolitan Police replaced the previous two forces, largely viewed as inept: the Washington City police, which was formed by the city council, and the Auxiliary Guard, which was formed by the U.S. Congress, as well as the constables assigned by the U.S. state of Maryland to patrol Washington County. After the formation of the Metropolitan Police Board, which was to govern the new police department, Lincoln sent a member of the board to study the New York City Police Department and its structure, itself modeled on the London Metropolitan Police Service.
The Metropolitan Police Board unanimously chose one of its members, William Benning Webb who was commissioned as a Major in the army, to serve as the first Chief of Police, the formal title being "Major and Superintendent". The Police Board initially divided the District into 10 precincts. The First Precinct constituted the portion of Washington County east of the Anacostia River, while the Second Precinct included the county territory north of Washington City and between the Anacostia and Rock Creek. The Third Precinct comprised the remainder of Washington County west of Rock Creek, including Georgetown and the island of Analostan in the Potomac River. The Fourth through Tenth precincts corresponded respectively with the First through Seventh wards of Washington City. Beginning immediately, Superintendent Webb worked to organize the department which had an authorized strength of ten sergeants and as many patrolmen as needed, though not to exceed 150. The majority of the new department was hired by September with the Superintendent of Police salaried annually at $1,500, sergeants received $600, and patrolmen were paid $480. The officers worked 12 hour shifts, seven days a week with no holidays or vacation time. At first officers were issued no uniform or badges and had to purchase their own firearms. The US Capitol building was chosen as the back drop of the MPD badge a month later and today's badge has changed little from the original. The first arrest by an MPD officer was for public intoxication.
At the urging of U.S. Marshal for the District of Columbia Ward Lamon and United States Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, President Lincoln agreed in November 1864 agreed to have bodyguards, though he felt that the President of the United States should not have found it necessary to have guards at all. Superintendent Webb had four MPD officers assigned the task of guarding the White House grounds and accompanying the president on his walks through the city. However Lincoln did not want this fact made public and the officer's orders were not made official and they wore plainclothes with their revolvers concealed. One of the officers, William H. Crook, the most well known of Lincoln's original guards, would go on to serve under five other administrations and wrote down his recollections in a book Through Five Administrations. He became close to Lincoln and accompanied him to Richmond, Virgina at Lincoln's request after the city was captured. Two officers would begin their shift at 8 a.m. till 4 p.m. They were then relieved by an officer who stay till midnight and was then himself relieved at 8 the next morning.
In December 1864, A. C. Richards became Major and Superintendent, a post he would hold through the next 14 years. Richards was present at Ford's Theater the night the President Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. In one of the lowest points of the MPD's history, the police officer who was to guard Lincoln that night, John Frederick Parker, had left his post at the door to Lincoln's box, presumably to get a drink at the bar across the street. Officer Crook, who had been on duty that day and had been relieved by Parker who was several hours late for his shift, would place blame in his book on Parker for Lincoln's death.
After Booth had fled the theater, Major Richards, began organizing the activities for investigation until it was taken over by Secretary Stanton. In the hours immediately after the assassination, MPD officers enforced closures of all places of entertainment and helped seal off the city. They patrolled the streets on horses alongside members of the Military Provost. That night on April 14, 1865, an MPD detective entered into the daily blotter: At this hour the melancholy intelligence of the assassination of Mr. Lincoln President of the U.S. at Fords Theatre was brought to this office and the information obtained...goes to show that the assassin is a man named J. Wilks Boothe. It remains the most famous entry in the MPD's records. A tip provided to MPD detectives indicated that the Surratt boarding house at 614 H Street was linked to the assassination. The tip would lead to the eventual trial and execution of Booth's conspirators.
In 1871, the first MPD officer was killed in the line of duty. On Friday, December 29, 1871, Officer Francis M. Doyle and several other officers attempted to gain entry to the house of a thief to recover stolen property. When they forced the door, the wife of the suspected thief fired at them striking Doyle in the chest and killing him instantly. Although the wife was arrested and tried for the murder, she was acquitted. Officer Doyle was a veteran of the Civil War, having served in the US Navy, and had been with the MPD for five years. He was 38 years old at the time of his death and was survived by his wife and three children.
The MPD also has the unique historical fact of having arrested a sitting U.S. President. During his presidency, Ulysses S. Grant was known to speed in his horse and buggy on Washington's streets. The MPD had issued him three different citations for this offense. On the fourth occasion, President Grant was arrested on M Street for racing and his horse and buggy were confiscated. When brought to the station however, the officers became unsure if a sitting president could be formally charged if he had not been impeached. Grant was allowed to pay a fine but had to walk back to the White House. In 1878, Congress abolished the Metropolitan Police Board and its duties were taken over by the newly formed DC Board of Commissioners, established by Congress to govern the entire District. That year as well, Thomas P. Morgan was named to replace Richards, who had resigned, as Major and Superintendent. Although a police fund had been established during the MPD's first year to assist those officers injured in the line of duty, Morgan would add to this by establishing a retirement fund for older officers who could no longer perform their duties.
On July 2, 1881, the MPD took part in investigating the assassination of President James A. Garfield. The assassin, Charles J. Guiteau, approached Garfield at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station and fired his weapon twice, hitting Garfield. Though Garfield had no bodyguards, MPD Officer Patrick Kearney had been nearby and arrested Guiteau before he could leave the station. Kearney took Guiteau a few blocks away to the station to be booked where the small pistol that Guiteau had used was discovered inside his jacket pocket. The officials at the station at first refused to believe Kearney's claims that Guiteau had shot the president. The detective blotter would note the shooting, investigation, and arrest as well as Garfield's death several weeks later.
In the summer of 1918, Major and Superintendent Raymond W. Pulliam established a the Women's Bureau, originally directed by Marion O. Spingarn. The Women's Bureau was created to deal with issues involving juveniles, specifically girls, such as delinquency, investigating casework on juveniles, preventive welfare work to curb criminality in juveniles, and the supervision of movie theatres, dance halls, and similar places. Most of the officers in the Bureau in 1920 were trained as school teachers, nurses, or social workers, and included one lawyer. On October 7, 1918, Mina Van Winkle was appointed a police officer in the Women's Bureau. She was known to be extremely outspoken and was an ardent supporter of protection for girls and other women during the law enforcement and judicial process. In January 1919 Van Winkle became director of the Women's Bureau, a post she held till her death in 1932.
Also in 1919, the MPD established a "School of Instruction" on the third floor of the 7th Precinct. This was the early forerunner to the Training Bureau and today's Metropolitan Police Academy. A group of 22 officers took a 30-day course in the fundamental duties of police officers, the law of arrest, and court procedures. BY 1930, an official training school was established. The school expanding the original course work to a three month period and additionally it brought in outside experts from various fields to instruct.
During Prohibition, the MPD remained active dealing with the organized crime that resulted in DC. During that thirteen year period, almost 25 officers were killed in the line of duty, mostly due to gunfire and accidents while pursuing rum-runners.
During the Great Depression, over 17,000 veterans of the First World War marched on Washington demanding payment for their service. Known as the Bonus Army, they set up camp in a Hooverville in Anacostia Park. The marchers remained at their campsite waiting for President Herbert Hoover to take action after Congress rejected a bill to pay the veterans. On July 28, 1932, Attorney General William D. Mitchell ordered the Metropolitan Police to remove the Bonus Army veterans from their camp. When the veterans moved back into it, they rushed two officers trapped on the second floor of a structure. The cornered officers drew their revolvers and shot two veterans, William Hushka and Eric Carlson, who died later. In the aftermath of the shooting, President Hoover ordered the military, under General Douglas MacArthur, to disperse the Bonus Army. Fifty-five veterans were injured and 135 arrested.
In December 1951, Robert V. Murray became Major and Superintendent. He took the command of a demoralized department marred by embarrassments, corruption, and waning public support. During his 13 years as chief, Murray would be credited with making the most sweeping, and longest lasting changes in the MPD's history and is seen as bringing the department into the modern era of policing. One of his first acts was that he would make rounds of the various precincts, inspecting them and the officers where he promised his support. He developed a code of ethics for officers and created a new branch to investigate police corruption named the Internal Investigations Division the precursor to the Internal Affairs Division. Murray also made good on his promise to improve conditions for his department. By 1952 Murray had petitioned Congress to give his officers a ten percent raise, had turned the six day work week into a five day work week, and worked to have two officers per patrol car. He went on to improve the MPD's vehicle fleet, initiated the use of canines, radar, helicopters and experimented with hand held radios.
In 1953 Congress passed the District Government Reorganization Act. It formally abolished the rank and title of Major and Superintended and replaced it with the position of Chief of Police. Murray would be the last Major and Superintended and the first Chief of Police of the MPD. Murray's reforms and efforts improved the images of the department which expanded to 3,000 officers. He and the MPD earned public accolades for their handling of the Transit strikes in the hot summers of 1955 and 1956, the March on Washington, and the funeral of President John F. Kennedy. One of his final major acts would be to fully integrate assignments. Specific assignments would not longer be held by only white officers and black officers would no longer be given only certain beats to work. While it did not eliminate racial tensions and discrimination, it moved the department forward towards racial equality.
The 1968 Washington, D.C. riots in the aftermath of the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. were the most devastating to the city. Rioters of over 20,000 quickly overwhelmed the 3,100 member police department. During the four days of violence, the inner part of Washington was devastated in widespread looting and fires, at one point coming within two blocks of the White House. The rioting ended when the National Guard was called out to assist the overwhelmed MPD. 12 persons were killed, 1,098 were injured, and over 6,100 were arrested. The resulting economical fallout and crime spike would take many areas decades to recover from. The mobilization of 13,600 federal troops to assist the MPD in putting down the riot was the largest military occupation of an American city since the Civil War.
On September 20, 1974 Officer Gail Cobb was shot and killed becoming the first female American police officer killed in the line of duty. While on foot patrol, Cobb was tipped off that a suspected bank robber had just fled into a nearby garage. She located the man and instructed him to place his hands on the wall. As she radioed for assistance, the suspect spun around and fired a single shot at point-blank range. The bullet went through her wrist and her police radio and then struck in the chest, killing her.
Officers of the MPD were also present at the assassination attempt of President Ronald Reagan during which one officer, Thomas Delahanty, was shot. In the late 1980s and early 1990s Washington was hit by the crack epidemic and the homicide rates soared. The District soon became known as the "murder capital" of the nation.
During the 1991 Washington, D.C. riot, the MPD contended with three days of violence by rioters, mostly in the Mt. Pleasant neighborhood, who were upset in the aftermath of a controversial police shooting which exacerbated strained relationships between the city's Hispanic population and the MPD. The riot was dispersed after a curfew was initiated and over 1,000 riot police descended on the area to enforce the peace.
We had just finished up a meeting when my chief of staff came in and told me I needed to go into his office and take a look at what was going on in New York. He had the Today Show on and he was looking at images of the first tower burning, the second tower had not yet been hit. I asked what happened and he said nobody seems to know. A small plane is the way it was described must have flown into the building. Everybody was still kind of not sure if it was an accident, on purpose or whatever and as we were standing there looking we actually saw the second plane strike the second tower, so we immediately knew that that was certainly no accident.
The MPD activated its newly built Command Information Center. Although it not officially opened yet, 9-11 became its first day of operations. While some equipment had been installed, other devices, such as phones, had not and had to be installed on the fly as emergency personnel arrived to respond. Officials from various agencies and department including the United States Park Police, United States Capitol Police, the FBI, Secret Service, and the FAA's military district arrived to respond. Around that time, they were notified that The Pentagon had been hit as well. Though the Pentagon is across the river in Arlington County, Virginia, MPD officers responded to assist with the emergency response. Additionally, officers in conjunction with the Park Police, locked down all Federal buildings along the National Mall including establishing a perimeter around the White House.
The US Park Police had sent its two helicopters to respond to assist with operations at the Pentagon. Shortly thereafter, the flight control tower at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport was evacuated. Flight control of all airspace over the Washington metro area was turned over to the US Park Police helicopters who coordinated with NORAD. However, needing to assist with evacuating victims, the Park Police requested assistance from the MPD. Shortly thereafter, an MPD helicopter arrived and took over command and control of Washington's air space.
That evening, after the majority of the population had arrived at home Washington's streets laid empty, Chief Ramsey, his Executive Assistant Chief Terry Gainer, FBI Director Robert Mueller, and Secret Service Director Brian L. Stafford, drove around DC to check security measures of the locked down city. While several officers also wanted to assist with efforts in New York, many had to remain in DC and the majority of the department worked 12 hour shifts several weeks after the attacks. Ramsey noted that at the time many, himself included, thought that there were more attacks to come.
On January 2, 2007, Cathy L. Lanier took the post of Chief of Police. Lanier, who began her career as a Metropolitan Police patrol officer, became the first female chief of the department. In 2012 the city attained a lowered homicide rate not seen since 1961.
On September 16, 2013, MPD officers responded to the Washington Navy Yard for an active shooter in Building 197. Two officers were shot during the over-hour long search and gunfight, the first being Officer Scott Williams who was hit in both legs during an exchange of gunfire with the shooter, Aaron Alexis. The other officer, Dorian DeSantis, a member of MPD's Emergency Response Team, was with Park Police officers Andrew Wong and Carl Hiott and had entered an area of cubicles when Alexis engaged them, striking DeSantis in his vest, who immediately returned fire and killed Alexis. In all, 13 people were killed and 8 injured. Williams and DeSantis were given the Medal of Valor, Medal of Honor and the Blue Badge Medal on February 20, 2014 during a ceremony to honor them and the 170 law enforcement officers, including 57 MPD officers, who responded and entered the building to search for Alexis.
The Metropolitan Police Department is headed by a Chief of Police. The MPD's organization consists of the Executive Office of the Chief of Police (led by an Assistant Chief who serves as the Execute Officer) and six bureaus. These include:
- Patrol Services and School Security Bureau
- Investigative Services Bureau
- Homeland Security Bureau
- Internal Affairs Bureau
- Strategic Services Bureau
- Corporate Support Bureau
Each bureau is headed by an Assistant Chief or Executive Director (civilian equivalent).
The city is divided into seven Police Districts which are under the Patrol Services and School Security Bureau. Each Police District is headed by a Commander. Inspectors are either assistant executive officers of a district or are also in charge of district substations. Captains are district administrative officers who each oversee several Police Service Areas (PSAs) within a police district. Lieutenants are either in charge of units or oversee an individual PSA. Both Captains and Lieutenants serve on a rotating basis as Watch Commanders for shifts.
Police officers spend approximately three years learning their basic patrol duties and during that time period may also work as a member of the patrol district's vice unit or in a tactical unit if selected. After three years with Metropolitan Police Department, police officers may apply and compete for many specialized jobs including crime scene search officer, officer assigned to the Canine Unit, Emergency Response Team or Explosive Ordnance Disposal Unit (bomb squad), Harbor Patrol Unit, Helicopter Branch, Narcotics and Special Investigations, and Special Events. Moreover, police officers may compete in the centralized selection process for investigator that is the entry-level job in the detective career path. Officers interested in advancing to the rank of sergeant, must have four years at the time of the promotional examination that is given every other year.
These are the current ranks of Metropolitan Police Department:
||White shirt, blue pants||Gold, with title inscribed on badge|
||Blue shirt, blue pants|
||Silver||Holds supervisory authority only in a limited capacity if no sergeant is on scene|
||Holds no supervisory authority and is used as a title for commendation.|
||Senior Police Officer is a title given to those officers who formally retire but return to service in a "contract employee" status. They can be placed back in patrol or other speciality positions. The position must be annually renewed.|
||Tan shirt and pants||None||Officers who are in training at the Metropolitan Police Academy|
Detectives do not hold supervisory authority over a sergeant and above and do not have supervisory authority over uniformed officers except when taking charge of a crime scene. Members who hold the rank of sergeant or above but are assigned to the Criminal Investigation Division or have investigatory duties, are referred to with the "Detective" title in front i.e. "Detective-Sergeant".
||Awarded as special recognition for outstanding service and holds minimal supervisory authority when no sergeant is on scene. Requires 7 years of service, 5 of which must be spent as a Detective II|
||Requires completing 1 year as an Investigator|
||Training and evaluation phase for those wanting to become full detectives|
The department maintains approximately 3,800 sworn officers and 400 civilian support staff, making it one of the ten largest police forces within the United States. The department historically has been known for hiring a large number of African American police officers during times when African American police officers were uncommon in other police departments. In 1968, African Americans constituted 25% of the department's force and in 1970 constituted 35% of the department's force.
The MPD has remained a very diverse department. Currently, officers are approximately 77% male and 23% female. Racially, the department is composed of approximatly 59% African American, 32% White, 7% Hispanic, and 2% Asian.
Since the establishment of the Metropolitan Police Department, 121 officers have died in the line of duty. The MPD maintains a comprehensive list of remembrance on its memorial webpage. The cause of deaths are as follows:
|Cause of death||Number of deaths|
|Struck by streetcar||
|Struck by vehicle||
|Vehicle||Country of Origin||Type||Notes||Picture|
|Ford Police Interceptor Sedan||United States of America||Cruiser|
|Chevrolet Impala 9C1|| United States (Origin)
|Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor|| United States (Origin)
|Ford E-350||United States of America||Van|
|Ford F-550||United States of America||Truck||Used by the MPD Special Operations Division|
|Dodge Ram||United States of America||Truck|
In popular culture
- The syndicated CBS television series The District dramatized the daily goings on of the police department.
- In the 1997 film Murder at 1600, an MPD homicide detective (portrayed by Wesley Snipes) investigates a murder at The White House.
- The 2009 novel True Blue by David Baldacci stars a former MPD officer and her older sister who is the Chief of Police. The chief in the novel was loosely based on Chief Cathy Lanier. Baldacci spent time shadowing MPD officers and interviewed Chief Lanier for the novel.
- The TV series NCIS has several references to the MPD, with several interactions with local law enforcement and NCIS.
- The 2009 season of the TV series 24 on Fox starring Kiefer Sutherland has featured the MPD in a few episodes which center around a terrorist plot against the White House. The MPD are shown working with the FBI and other major government agencies.
- In the film True Lies, Arnold Schwarzenegger's character knocks a MPD Mounted Unit to the ground and commandeers his horse for the pursuit of a terrorist.
- In the film The Invasion, Nicole Kidman's character is caught in an altercation with an MPDC officer who has been infected by an alien disease.
- In the TV series Lie To Me, deception expert Dr. Cal Lightman occasionally is hired by the city to work with MPD important cases.
- In the 2009 film State of Play, two reporters investigate a series of murders in conjunction with MPD. MPD cruisers are shown in several scenes.
- The novels of George Pelecanos, which are largely set in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area, have included several major and minor characters who are active or former MPD officers.
- The 2013 videogame Payday 2 takes place in Washington D.C. where the crew violently clash with the MPD, SWAT, and FBI SWAT regularly as a result of their heists and robberies.
- Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia Chiefs
- List of law enforcement agencies in the District of Columbia
Notes and references
- MPDC. "About MPDC". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
- MPD Annual Report 2012
- MPDC. "MPDC Services". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
- MPDC. "MPD Homeland Security and Special Operations Division". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
- "District of Columbia Home Rule Act: Emergency Control of Police". ABF Associates. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
- MPDC. "Brief History of the MPDC". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
- MPDC. "William B. Webb". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
- John P. Deeben (Spring, 2008). "To Protect and to Serve: The Records of the D.C. Metropolitan Police, 1861–1930". National Archives. Retrieved 2014-01-30.
- Crook, William H. (1910). Through Five Administrations. New York: Harper and Brothers.
- MPDC. "A. C. Richards". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
- ODMP. "Officer Francis M. Doyle". Officer Down Memorial Page. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
- Mark Segraves (September 6, 2012). "D.C. police once arrested a U.S. president for speeding". National Archives. Retrieved 2014-02-09.
- MPDC. "Thomas P. Morgan". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
- Richard Sylvester (1894). District of Columbia Police: A Retrospect of the Police Organizations of the Cities of Washington and Georgetown and the District of Columbia, with Biographical Sketches ... and Historic Cases. Pub. for the Benefit of the Policemen's Fund. Gibson Bros., printers.
- Raymond W. Pullman, “Annual Report of the Major & Superintendent of the Metropolitan Police,” pp. 10-11, 76-81 (1919).
- "Metropolitan Police Department, District of Columbia". The Officer Down Memorial Page. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
- New York Times: "Veteran dies of wounds," August 2, 1932, accessed August 30, 2011
- TIME: "Heroes: Battle of Washington," August 8, 1932, accessed August 30, 2011: "Last week William Hushka's Bonus for $528 suddenly became payable in full when a police bullet drilled him dead in the worst public disorder the capital has known in years."
- MPDC. "Robert V. Murray". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
- Risen, Clay (2009). "April 5: 'Official Disorder on Top of Civil Disorder'". A Nation on Fire : America in the Wake of the King Assassination. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-17710-5.
- "Police Officer Gail A. Cobb". The Officer Down Memorial Page. Retrieved 2009-08-04. "While walking her beat, she was tipped off that a suspected bank robber had just fled into a nearby garage. Officer Cobb located the man and instructed him to place his hands on the wall. As she radioed for assistance, the suspect spun around and fired a single shot at point-blank range. The bullet went through her wrist and her police radio and then penetrated her heart. She died at the scene."
- Feaver, Douglas. "Three men shot at the side of their President", The Washington Post, March 31, 1981.
- Urbina, Ian (2006-07-13). "Washington Officials Try to Ease Crime Fear". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-07.
- Castaneda, Ruben (1991-05-06), "Simmering Tension Between Police, Hispanics Fed Clash", The Washington Post: A1
- Sanchez, Rene (1991-05-08), "Curfew Leaves Mt. Pleasant Area Quieter", The Washington Post: A1
- "After 9/11 Charles H. Ramsey". Retrieved 2014-02-13.
- National Park Service Responding to the September 11 Terrorist Attacks
- "D.C. police honor courage, dedication of Navy Yard massacre responders". Washington Post. February 21, 2014.
- Friday, July 19, 1968 (1968-07-19). "Police: The Thin Blue Line". Time.com. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
- Monday, July 13, 1970 (1970-07-13). "What the Police Can-And Cannot-Do About Crime". Time.com. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
- MPDC. "Memorial to MPDC Officers Killed in the Line of Duty". mpdc.dc.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
- David Baldacci (2009-08-02). "New Ways To Stop Crime". Parade. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
- District of Columbia Police: A Retrospect of the Police Organizations of the Cities of Washington and Georgetown and the District of Columbia, with Biographical Sketches ... and Historic Cases Full text online
- History of the Metropolitan Police Department 1924 by A. W. Lowell
- The Metropolitan Police Department, Washington, DC 150th Anniversary
- Through Five Administrations: Reminiscences of Colonel William H. Crook, Body-Guard to President Lincoln, Full text online
- Official website
- National Archives: To Protect and to Serve: The Records of the D.C. Metropolitan Police, 1861–1930
- Blog: Establishment of the Washington Metropolitan Police Force 150 Years Ago
- Unofficial MPD History Collector's website