Metropolitan cities of Italy
The Città Metropolitana (Italian for "Metropolitan City") is an Italian administrative institution created by the reform of local authorities (Law 142/1990), later amended by 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2009 provisions, operative from 2014. The Città Metropolitana, as defined by law, includes a large core city and the smaller surrounding towns that are closely related to it with regard to economic activities and essential public services, as well as to cultural relations and to territorial features, that form its metropolitan area. A città metropolitana (legal name) is therefore, by all means, a metropolitan area. The main aim of the reform was to give metropolitan areas the administrative powers of a province.
The original 1990 law individuated as metropolitan areas the communes of: Turin, Milan, Venice, Genoa, Bologna, Florence, Rome, Bari, Naples and their respective hinterlands, reserving the autonomous regions the right to individuate metropolitan areas in their territory. Amendments added Reggio Calabria (in 2009) and Bergamo, Brescia, Salerno (in 2013) to the list. The metropolitan areas individuated by the autonomous regions were: Cagliari, Catania, Messina, Palermo and Trieste.
In 2005, the Italian Ministry of the Environment has produced a study on the state of metropolitan areas regulation in Italy, that contains an analysis of the local authorities already defined and suggestions on the delimitation of the remaining. In December 2013, Lower House, approves the establishment of the 9 metropolitan cities.
The new metropolitan cities will become operative from 1 January 2015. By 12 October 2014 in each Metropolitan City elections will be held to chose the members of the new Metropolitan Council. By the end of 2014 every Metropolitan Council will have to approve the new Statute of the respective Metropolitan City.
The Metropolitan City will be composed by the municipalities (comuni) that now are members of the same province. Each Metropolitan City will be headed by a Metropolitan Mayor (Sindaco Metropolitano) assisted by a legislative body, the Metropolitan Council (Consiglio Metropolitano), and by a non-legislative assembly, the Metropolitan Conference (Conferenza Metropolitana). Members of Council will be elected and chosen by mayors and city councilors of each municipality in the Metropolitan City, the Metropolitan Mayor will be the Mayor of the chief town (capoluogo). The Metropolitan Conference will be composed by the mayors of the municipalities closest to the chief town.
The main functions devolved to the new metropolitan cities will be:
- local planning and zoning;
- provision of local police services;
- transport and city services regulation.
Administrative divisions and Demography
|Apulia||5,138||1,247,303||329.92||41||1 January 2015|
|Emilia Romagna||3,702||976,243||270.53||56||1 January 2015|
|Tuscany||3,514||973,145||286.64||42||1 January 2015|
|Liguria||1,839||855,834||471.97||67||1 January 2015|
|Lombardy||1,575||3,038,420||2,016.62||134||1 January 2015|
|Campania||1,171||3,054,956||2,670.70||92||1 January 2015|
|Lazio||5,352||3,997,465||807.41||121||1 January 2015|
|Piedmont||6,827||2,247,780||336.59||315||1 January 2015|
|Veneto||2,462||846,962||348.43||44||1 January 2015|
Former municipalities amalgamated to metropolitan cities:
Sizing Economic Performance
Data by Global MetroMonitor 2012
|Metropolitan city||GDP ($ billion)||Population||GDP per capita ($)||Employment|
- Milan: Unicredit, Telecom Italia
- Rome: Eni, Enel, Poste Italiane
- Trieste: Assicurazioni Generali
- Turin: Exor, Intesa Sanpaolo
Given the situation of persisting administrative and statistical uncertainty, during the last decades a few authoritative alternative studies has been produced regarding Italian metropolitan areas. According to OECD, the largest conurbations are:
- Vittorio Ferri (2009). Metropolitan cities in Italy. An institution of federalism. University of Milan-Bicocca. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
- http://www.edscuola.it/archivio/norme/leggi/l142_90.html Law 8 June 1990 n. 142
- Law 5 May 2009 n. 42
- "Environmental issues in the administration of metropolitan areas". Italian Ministry of the Environment. 2005. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
- "Data Global MetroMonitor 2012".
- "Forbes Fortune 500 Global Companies".
- OECD. "Competitive Cities in the Global Economy" (PDF). Retrieved 30 April 2009.[dead link]