Metropolitanate of Karlovci
|Metropolitanate of Karlovci
Coat of Arms of Metropolitanate of Karlovci
|Headquarters||Karlovci, Habsburg Monarchy (today Sremski Karlovci, Serbia)|
|Sui iuris church||Self-governing Serbian Orthodox Metropolitanate|
The Metropolitanate of Karlovci (Serbian: Карловачка митрополија or Karlovačka mitropolija) was a metropolitanate of the Serbian Orthodox Church that existed between 1691 and 1848. Between 1691 and 1706 it was known as the Metropolitanate of Sentandreja, between 1708 and 1713 as the Metropolitanate of Krušedol, and between 1713 and 1848 as the Metropolitanate of Karlovci. In 1848, it was transformed into the Patriarchate of Karlovci, which existed until 1920, when it was merged with Metropolitanate of Belgrade to form the Patriarchate of Serbia.
After a large number number of Serbs (cca 200 000), led by the Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević, migrated to southern Hungary, the Serbs religiously organized themselves by founding the Metropolis of Karlovci. This privilege was given to them by Emperor Leopold I in two chapters (Diploma Leopoldinum) the first issued on 21 August 1690 and the second a year later, on 20 August 1691.
In two centuries of its autonomous existence in Austria and Hungary the Metropolitanate of Karlovci was organized on the basis of privileges originally received from Austrian authorities.
First seat of the Metropolitanate (1691-1706) was in Sentandreja. Between 1708 and 1713, the seat of the Metropolitanate was in the monastery of Krušedol, and in 1713 it was moved to Karlovci (today Sremski Karlovci, Serbia).
The Serbian Orthodox assembly Council of 1708 in the Monastery of Krušedol proclaimed town Krušedol as the legal capital while all administrative activities were moved to the city of Karlovci. The monastery of Krušedol was bequest of the Serbian ducal family of Branković which was the main historical and national reasons for the Serbs to have this town as their Church capital.
The elected archbishop Mojsej Petrović in 1713 moved all administration from Krušedol to Karlovci. So, the new capital of the Serbian Orthodox Church in Austria became Sremski Karlovci which was confirmed by the seal of Imperial approval in the charter of Charles VI issued in October the same year. Belgrade was liberated from Ottoman rule in 1718 and became the second and later the most important city of the Orthodox Serbs. Shortly, by the Charles VI decree in 1731, the administrative capital of Serbian Orthodox Church was moved from Karlovci to Belgrade. It lasted only eight years until Belgrade fell again to Ottomans in the autumn on 1739.
Patriarch Arsenije III held the Patriarch title until the end of his life. Emperor Joseph I, following the advice of his Jesuit secretary Kolonić abolished this title and substituted it for much lower and far less distinguished title of metropolitan. In his decree, Emperor Joseph I stated, "we must make sure that they never elect another Patriarch since it is against the Catholic Church and the doctrine of the Fathers of the Church". All spiritual leaders of the Serbian Orthodox Church will be named after as both metropolitan and archbishop. The only exception from the Imperial decree was the case of Patriarch Arsenije IV Jovanović Šakabenta who brought his title directly from the historic see of Peć.
By the abolishment of Peć Patriarchate in 1776 the Metropolitanate of Sremski Karlovci became the fully independent center of Orthodoxy in the Habsburg Monarchy, with six suffragan bishops (Novi Sad, Timisoara, Vršac, Buda, Pakrac, and Karlovac).
The position of Serbs and their Church in Austria and Hungary was regulated in reforms brought about first by empress Maria Theresa and later by emperor Joseph II. The Serbian Church-Public Council of 1769 regulated its status in a special paper named "Regulament" and, later, in "Deklaratorij" published in 1779.
Serbian metropolitans of Sremski Karlovci promoted the Enlightenment by introducing western education in the schools established in Sremski Karlovci (1733) then in Novi Sad (1737). In order to counter the Roman Catholic influence, the school curricula was exposed to Russian Church and culture. As early as in 1724 the Holy Synod of Russian Orthodox Church sent M. Svivorov to open a school in Sremski Karlovci, which graduates were thereof passed on to Kievan seminary, and the more gifted to the Academy in Kiev. The Church liturgical language became Russian Slavonic, called Church Slavonic. On another hand, baroque influence became visible in the church architecture, iconography, literature and theology.
During the eighteenth century the Metropolitanate maintained close connections with Kiev and the Russian Orthodox Church. Many Serbian theological students were educated in Kiev. A Seminary was open in 1794 which educated Orthodox priests during the nineteenth century for the needs of the Karlovci Metropolitanate and beyond.
In the second half of the 18th century, the Metropolitanate of Karlovci included a large territory that stretched from the Adriatic Sea to Bukovina and from Danube and Sava to Upper Hungary. The Metropolitanate had a jurisdiction over Orthodox Serbs, Romanians, Greeks and Cincars that lived in the Habsburg Monarchy.
It included following eparchies:
- Eparchy of Gornji Karlovac
- Eparchy of Pakrac
- Eparchy of Srem
- Eparchy of Bačka
- Eparchy of Budim
- Eparchy of Arad
- Eparchy of Temišvar
- Eparchy of Vršac
- Eparchy of Erdelj
- Eparchy of Bukovina
|No.||Primate||Portrait||Personal name||Reigned from||Reigned until||Title||Notes|
|1691||1706||Patriarch of Peć
Metropolitan of Sentandreja
|Leader of the First Serbian Migration|
|1708||Metropolitan of Krušedol|
|1710||1711||Metropolitan of Krušedol|
|1713||1725||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|1726||1730||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|1731||1737||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|Arsenije Jovanović Šakabenta
Арсеније Јовановић Шакабента
|1737||1748||Patriarch of Peć
Metropolitan of Karlovci
|Leader of the Second Serbian Migration|
|1748||1749||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|1749||1768||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|1768||1773||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|Vićentije Jovanović Vidak
Вићентије Јовановић Видак
|1774||1780||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|1781||1790||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|1790||1836||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|1836||1841||Metropolitan of Karlovci|
|1842||1848||Metropolitan of Karlovci
Patriarch of Karlovci
- List of heads of the Serbian Orthodox Church
- Serbian Orthodox Church
- Patriarchate of Karlovci
- Religion in Serbia
- Religion in Vojvodina
- The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Volume 2 by John Anthony McGuckin, Wiley, Feb 8, 2011 page 564
"The Serbian Church organization in the Habsburg monarchy was centered on the metropolitan of (Sremski) Karlovac,which in 1710 the patriarch of Peć, Kalinik I, recognized as autonomous."
- Plamen Mitev(editor): Empires and Peninsulas: Southeastern Europe Between Karlowitz and the Peace of Adrianople, 1699 - 1829, LIT Verlag Münster, 2010 page 257
- Mario Katic, Tomislav Klarin, Mike McDonald: Pilgrimage and Sacred Places in Southeast Europe: History, Religious Tourism and Contemporary Trends, LIT Verlag Münster, Oct 1, 2014 page 207
- Jelena Todorovic: An Orthodox Festival Book in the Habsburg Empire: Zaharija Orfelin's Festive Greeting to Mojsej Putnik (1757), Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006 pages 12-13
- Bojan Aleksov: Religious Dissent Between the Modern and the National: Nazarenes in Hungary and Serbia 1850-1914, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 2006 page 33
- Aidan Nichols: Theology in the Russian Diaspora: Church, Fathers, Eucharist in Nikolai Afanasʹev (1893-1966), CUP Archive, 1989 page 49
- Augustine Casiday: The Orthodox Christian World, Routledge, Aug 21, 2012 page 135
- Živko M. Marinković - Jevrem Igumanović, Istorija opštehrišćanske i Srpske pravoslavne crkve sa hronologijom, Banja Luka - Beograd, 2002.
- Vojislav Stoja, Istorija Srpske pravoslavne crkve - kratak pregled, Novi Sad, 2000.
- Dr Dušan Popov, Karlovačka mitropolija, Enciklopedija Novog Sada, sveska 10, Novi Sad, 1998.