Mewar

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Historical Region of North India
Mewar (मेवाड़)
Location southern Rajastan
19th-century flag Mewar.svg
Guhil State established: AD 734
Language Mewari
Religion: Hinduism
Dynasties Moris (up to AD 734)
Guhilots(734-1303)
Parihar's
Sisodias (1326–1949)
Historical capitals Chittorgarh, Udaipur
Maharana Pratap was the greatest Maharana of Mewar

Mewar/Mewad (मेवाड़), is a region of south-central Rajasthan state in western India. It includes the present-day districts of Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur and some parts of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh and Harayana.

The region was for centuries a Rajput kingdom (Mewar Kingdom or Udaipur Kingdom) that later became a princely state under the British. It was ruled by the Chattari Rajputs of Mori Guhilot Parihar and Sisodia dynasties for over 1,400 years.

It was originally called Medhpaat and Lord Shiva (Ekling Nath) is called The King of Mewar. So Shiva is also called Medhpateshwar (Lord of Medhpaat). Over time, Medhpath became Mewar. The Mewar region it includes lies between the Aravali Range to the northwest, Ajmer to the north, Gujarat and the Vagad region of Rajasthan to the south, the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh state to the southeast and the Hadoti region of Rajasthan to the east.

Geography[edit]

Mewar Region
Sita Mata Wildlife Sanctuary

The northern part of Mewar is a gently sloping plain, drained by the Bedach and Banas River and its tributaries, which empty northwest into the Chambal River, a tributary of the Yamuna River. The southern part of the region is hilly, and marks the divide between the Banas and its tributaries and the headwaters of the Sabarmati and Mahi rivers and their tributaries, which drain south into the Gulf of Khambhat through Gujarat state. The Aravalli Range, which forms the northwestern boundary of the region, is composed mostly of sedimentary rocks, like marble and Kota Stone, which has traditionally been an important construction material.

The region is part of the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests' ecoregion. Protected areas include the Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary, the Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, the Bassi Wildlife Sanctuary and the Sita Mata Wildlife Sanctuary.

Mewar has a tropical climate. Rainfall averages 660 mm/year, and is generally higher in the southwest and lower in the northeast of the region. Over 90% of the rain typically falls in the period June to September every year, during the southwest monsoon.

Gahlot Dynasty of Mewar[edit]

Kanak-Sen left Koshala in the 2nd century and settled in Saurashtra. His descendents established themselves and became rulers at Vallabhi. Ages later, Prince Grahaditya also known as Guhil obtained the small kingdom of Idar. His name became the patronymic Grahilot, later corrupted to Gahlot. The Gahlot Dynasty sometimes supported the Pratiharas (the dominant clan in Rajasthan) along with the Chauhans against the Arab invasions of 7th century. Later the wilds of Idar had to be abandoned and the clan settled at Ahar, and the new name Aharya came into use. Around the 12th century the sons of Karan Singh I included Mahup, who established himself at Dungarpur while his younger brother Rahup established himself near Sisodia village. Later the term Sisodia supplanted both Gahlot and Aharya.[1]

Gahlot rulers at Idur[edit]

Name[1] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Grahaditya
2 Bhoja
3 Mahendra I
  • The dynasty moved to a new capital city, Nagda.

Gahlot rulers at Nagda[edit]

Name[1] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Nagaditya
2 Siladitya
3 Aparajita
4 Mahendra II
  • "Last King of Mori Dynasty of Malwa, Mun Singh Mori, killed Mahendra II, his brother-in-law, to conquer Mewar."
    • "Kalbhoj, son of Mahendra II, returned with allies to recover Mewar from his uncle and established himself at the new capital of Chittor."[1]

Gahlot rulers at Chittor[edit]

Name[1] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Kalbhoj Bappa Rawal 734 753
2 Khuman I
3 Matatt
4 Bhartribhatt I - Organized a congregation with descendants of Kanak Sen, in which several States participated. In 823 CE Keshav Dev Sikarwar, the army commander of Rawal Matribhatji of Chittor, along with troops from the Gohils of Pirangarh, Jhalasof Halwad, Chawadas, Chandrawats, Shaktawats, Sikarwars form Sikar, Mangals from Lodwara, Bargujars from Rajurgarh, Bhatejas, Guhilots and the Sisodias from Mewar went on an expansion spree.
5 Singha Gahlod
6 Khuman II
7 Mahoyak
8 Khuman III
9 Bhartribhatt II 942
10 Allat Singh - was "forced by Siyaka II of Paramara dynasty to abandon Chittor and move to Ahar". 951 953

Gahlot rulers at Ahar[edit]

Name[1] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Narwahana 971
2 Shalivahana
3 Shakti Kumar 977
4 Amba Prasad
5 Shuchi Varma
6 Narvarma
7 Kirtivarma
8 Yograj
9 Vairath
10 Hanspal I
11 Bair Singh 1108
12 Hanspal II
13 Ari Singh I
14 Kod Singh
15 Vikram Singh
16 Karan Singh I - "Father of Rahup & Mahup" 1158 1168
17 Kshem Singh 1172
  • "Kshem Singh was forced to move his capital to Dungarpur due to Muslim Invasions."[1]

Gahlot rulers at Dungarpur[edit]

Name[1] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Samant Singh
2 Kumar Singh
3 Manthan Singh - "Fought alongside Prithviraj Chauhan against Muhammad of Ghor & was one of the few Rajput rulers to survive". 1192
4 Padma Singh - "His successor moves the seat of government to Nagda"

Gahlot rulers at Nagda[edit]

Name[1] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Jaitra Singh - "Recovered Chittor after the fall of Malwa to Sultan Iltutmish" 1213 1253

Gahlot rulers at Chittor[edit]

Name[1] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Jaitra Singh 1213 1253
Mewar without a ruler for eight years 1253 1262
2 Tej Singh 1262 1273
3 Samar Singh 1273 1302
4 Ratan Singh I - Siege of Chittor by Alauddin Khilji & conquest of Mewar by Delhi Sultanate 1302 1303
  • "Interregnum - Sanchore Rulers at Chittor under Alauddin Khilji (1303–1326)"
    • "Galhot dynasty is replaced by its junior branch, Sisodia, founded by Rahup."[1]

Sisodia Dynasty of Mewar[edit]

Rana Laksha of Sisodia clan with all his 10 sons had rallied in defense of Chittor but in vain. The Sardars decided that it was time to safeguard the royal lineage. There is mention of only two sons of Rana Laksha by name, Ari Singh and Ajay Singh. Ari Singh I had a son named Hammir Singh I who was taken by his uncle Ajay to Kelwara for safety. After the defeat of Mewar at Chittor by Alauddin Khilji, in which Rana Laksha and his son Ari Singh perished, the people began to rally behind Ajay who pursued a guerrilla campaign until he too died in 1320s. The Sardars now picked Hamir Singh I as head of the Sisodia clan and rightful heir to the throne of Mewar. He married the daughter of Maldeo of Jalore, who now governed Chittor for the Delhi Sultanate. He overthrew his father-in-law and reclaimed his ancestral homeland.[1]

Sisodia Dynasty at Chittor[edit]

Name[1] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Maharana Hamir Singh I - "First to take the title of Maharana of Mewar" 1326 1364
2 Maharana Kheta - "Takes Ajmer and Mandalgarh" 1364 1382
3 Maharana Lakha - "Takes remaining Mewar territories from Delhi. Killed in Battle." 1382 1421
4 Maharana Mokal – "Marwar invades Mewar and Mokal is assassinated at age 24." His elder brother, Chunda, is called back to safeguard Mewar. 1421 1433
5 Maharana Kumbha 1433 1468
6 Maharana Udai Singh I 1468 1473
7 Maharana Rai Mal 1473 1509
8 Maharana Sangram Singh I Rana Sanga - "Defeated at the Battle of Khanwa by Mughal Emperor Babur in 1527" but later he regained his constituency by defeating babur. 1509 1527
9 Maharana Ratan Singh II 1528 1531
10 Maharana Vikramaditya Singh 1531 1537
11 Maharana Banbir Singh 1537 1540
12 Maharana Udai Singh II – "He lost Chittor to Mughal Emperor Akbar in February 25, 1568. He moved his capital to Udaipur." 1540 1568

Sisodia Rajput Dynasty at Udaipur[edit]

Name[1] Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E.
1 Maharana Udai Singh II 1568 1572
2 Maharana Pratap Singh I 1572 1597
3 Maharana Amar Singh I 1597 1620
4 Maharana Karan Singh II 1620 1628
5 Maharana Jagat Singh I 1628 1652
6 Maharana Raj Singh I 1652 1680
7 Maharana Jai Singh 1680 1698
8 Maharana Amar Singh II 1698 1710
9 Maharana Sangram Singh II 1710 1734
10 Maharana Jagat Singh II 1734 1751
11 Maharana Pratap Singh II 1751 1754
12 Maharana Raj Singh II 1754 1761
13 Maharana Ari Singh II 1761 1773
14 Maharana Hamir Singh II 1773 1778
15 Maharana Bhim Singh 1778 1828
16 Maharana Jawan Singh 1828 1838
17 Maharana Sardar Singh 1838 1842
18 Maharana Swarup Singh 1842 1861
19 Maharana Shambhu Singh 1861 1874
20 Maharana Sajjan Singh 1874 1884
21 Maharana Fateh Singh 1884 1930
22 Maharana Bhupal Singh 1930 1956
23 Maharana Bhagwat Singh - "Last ruler of Mewar (Udaipur)" 1956 1984

Maharana Bhagwat Singh passed away on 2 November 1984. He has 2 sons: elder Mahendra Singh and younger Arvind Singh. Before his death, he founded a trust named Maharana Mewar Foundation and tasked younger son Arvind Singh to look after the trust. Arvind lives in Udaipur's City Palace.

Economy[edit]

The economy of the Mewar region relies primarily on tourism, the marble and stone industry, mining, handicrafts, zinc smelters, cement and tyre factories, as well as agriculture. Major crops include maize, groundnut, soybean, wheat, and mustard. Opium is also grown in the adjoining regions of the southeast (Pratapgarh and Nimbahera). Fishery also thrives in the region's various lakes, supported by a government fisheries department.

Tourism[edit]

Chittorgarh Fort
The Jain temple in Ranakpur
  • The massive Chittorgarh hilltop fort is one of the main tourist attractions of Mewar. The fort is a depiction of Rajput culture and values. It stands on a 2.4 square kilometre site on an 180 m high hill that rises rapidly from the plains below. The fort was sacked thrice by a stronger enemy. The first sacking occurred in 1303 by Alauddin Khilji. In 1535 Bahadur Shah of Gujarat besieged the fort, causing the women to commit Jauhar. In 1568 Mughal emperor Akbar razed the fort to rubble and once again the history repeated itself. In 1616 Mughal emperor Jehangir restored the fort to the Rajputs, but it was not resettled.
  • Udaipur, also known as the city of lakes, is a world famous and a very popular tourist destination with its grand palaces, lakes, temples, gardens and narrow lanes.
  • The Lake Palace is a palace inaugurated in 1746, completely made of marble, and situated in the middle of Lake Pichola. In recent years Lake Pichola has experienced drought conditions.
  • Jaisamand Lake
  • Udaisagar lake
  • Fatehsagar lake
  • Shilpgram, a village northwest of Udaipur, hosts a crafts fair every year, which is one of the largest in India.
  • Eklingji, a temple dedicated to Lord Shiva, the ruling deity of Mewar.
  • Keshariaji, a temple of Rishabhdev.
  • Nathdwara, a temple of Lord Shrinathji, one of the most important pilgrimage sites of India.
  • Haldighati, a mountain pass in Rajsamand district that hosted the battle between Rana Pratap Singh and the Mughal emperor Akbar.
  • Kumbhalgarh, a 15th-century fortress, built by Rana Kumbha, with 36 kilometres of walls. Over 360 temples are within the fort. It also has a wildlife sanctuary.
  • Charbhuja Temple, dedicated to Lord Vishnu.
  • Rajsamand, a huge lake near Rajsamand city, from which the city derives its name.
  • The Ranakpur village is home to one of the most important Jain temples, which escaped the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb's efforts to destroy Hindu and Jain temples, because it is hidden in a geographically difficult terrain.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Mewar through the ages, by D. L. Paliwal. Sahitya Sansthan, Rajasthan Vidyapeeth, 1970
  • The Kingdom of Mewar: great struggles and glory of the world's oldest ruling dynasty, by Irmgard Meininger. D.K. Printworld, 2000. ISBN 81-246-0144-5.
  • Costumes of the rulers of Mewar: with patterns and construction techniques, by Pushpa Rani Mathur. Abhinav Publications, 1994. ISBN 81-7017-293-4.

rathore mertiya

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "The Rajputs of Rajputana: a glimpse of medieval Rajasthan" by M. S. Naravane ISBN 81-7648-118-1

External links[edit]