Mewar/Mewad (मेवाड़), is a region of south-central Rajasthan state in western India. It includes the present-day districts of Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur and some parts of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh and Harayana.
It was originally called Medhpaat and Lord Shiva (Ekling Nath) is called The King of Mewar. So Shiva is also called Medhpateshwar (Lord of Medhpaat). Over time, Medhpath became Mewar. The Mewar region it includes lies between the Aravali Range to the northwest, Ajmer to the north, Gujarat and the Vagad region of Rajasthan to the south, the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh state to the southeast and the Hadoti region of Rajasthan to the east.
The northern part of Mewar is a gently sloping plain, drained by the Bedach and Banas River and its tributaries, which empty northwest into the Chambal River, a tributary of the Yamuna River. The southern part of the region is hilly, and marks the divide between the Banas and its tributaries and the headwaters of the Sabarmati and Mahi rivers and their tributaries, which drain south into the Gulf of Khambhat through Gujarat state. The Aravalli Range, which forms the northwestern boundary of the region, is composed mostly of sedimentary rocks, like marble and Kota Stone, which has traditionally been an important construction material.
Mewar has a tropical climate. Rainfall averages 660 mm/year, and is generally higher in the southwest and lower in the northeast of the region. Over 90% of the rain typically falls in the period June to September every year, during the southwest monsoon.
Kanak-Sen left Koshala in the 2nd century and settled in Saurashtra. His descendents established themselves and became rulers at Vallabhi. Ages later, Prince Grahaditya also known as Guhil obtained the small kingdom of Idar. His name became the patronymic Grahilot, later corrupted to Gahlot. The Gahlot Dynasty sometimes supported the Pratiharas (the dominant clan in Rajasthan) along with the Chauhans against the Arab invasions of 7th century. Later the wilds of Idar had to be abandoned and the clan settled at Ahar, and the new name Aharya came into use. Around the 12th century the sons of Karan Singh I included Mahup, who established himself at Dungarpur while his younger brother Rahup established himself near Sisodia village. Later the term Sisodia supplanted both Gahlot and Aharya.
Bhartribhatt I - Organized a congregation with descendants of Kanak Sen, in which several States participated. In 823 CE Keshav Dev Sikarwar, the army commander of Rawal Matribhatji of Chittor, along with troops from the Gohils of Pirangarh, Jhalasof Halwad, Chawadas, Chandrawats, Shaktawats, Sikarwars form Sikar, Mangals from Lodwara, Bargujars from Rajurgarh, Bhatejas, Guhilots and the Sisodias from Mewar went on an expansion spree.
Rana Laksha of Sisodia clan with all his 10 sons had rallied in defense of Chittor but in vain. The Sardars decided that it was time to safeguard the royal lineage. There is mention of only two sons of Rana Laksha by name, Ari Singh and Ajay Singh. Ari Singh I had a son named Hammir Singh I who was taken by his uncle Ajay to Kelwara for safety. After the defeat of Mewar at Chittor by Alauddin Khilji, in which Rana Laksha and his son Ari Singh perished, the people began to rally behind Ajay who pursued a guerrilla campaign until he too died in 1320s. The Sardars now picked Hamir Singh I as head of the Sisodia clan and rightful heir to the throne of Mewar. He married the daughter of Maldeo of Jalore, who now governed Chittor for the Delhi Sultanate. He overthrew his father-in-law and reclaimed his ancestral homeland.
Maharana Bhagwat Singh passed away on 2 November 1984. He has 2 sons: elder Mahendra Singh and younger Arvind Singh. Before his death, he founded a trust named Maharana Mewar Foundation and tasked younger son Arvind Singh to look after the trust. Arvind lives in Udaipur's City Palace.
The economy of the Mewar region relies primarily on tourism, the marble and stone industry, mining, handicrafts, zinc smelters, cement and tyre factories, as well as agriculture. Major crops include maize, groundnut, soybean, wheat, and mustard. Opium is also grown in the adjoining regions of the southeast (Pratapgarh and Nimbahera). Fishery also thrives in the region's various lakes, supported by a government fisheries department.
The massive Chittorgarh hilltop fort is one of the main tourist attractions of Mewar. The fort is a depiction of Rajput culture and values. It stands on a 2.4 square kilometre site on an 180 m high hill that rises rapidly from the plains below. The fort was sacked thrice by a stronger enemy. The first sacking occurred in 1303 by Alauddin Khilji. In 1535 Bahadur Shah of Gujarat besieged the fort, causing the women to commit Jauhar. In 1568 Mughal emperor Akbar razed the fort to rubble and once again the history repeated itself. In 1616 Mughal emperor Jehangir restored the fort to the Rajputs, but it was not resettled.
Udaipur, also known as the city of lakes, is a world famous and a very popular tourist destination with its grand palaces, lakes, temples, gardens and narrow lanes.
The Lake Palace is a palace inaugurated in 1746, completely made of marble, and situated in the middle of Lake Pichola. In recent years Lake Pichola has experienced drought conditions.
Shilpgram, a village northwest of Udaipur, hosts a crafts fair every year, which is one of the largest in India.
Eklingji, a temple dedicated to Lord Shiva, the ruling deity of Mewar.
Rajsamand, a huge lake near Rajsamand city, from which the city derives its name.
The Ranakpur village is home to one of the most important Jain temples, which escaped the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb's efforts to destroy Hindu and Jain temples, because it is hidden in a geographically difficult terrain.