Mexican Air Force

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Mexican Air Force
(Fuerza Aérea Mexicana)
Logo de Fuerza Aerea Mexicana.svg
Mexican Air Force Symbol
Founded June 19, 1913
Country  United Mexican States
Allegiance Mexican Secretary of Defense
Branch Mexican Army
Type Air Force/Army Aviation
Size 11,770 personnel
Approx. 363 aircraft.[1]
Motto Honor, Valor & Lealtad
"Honor, Valor & Loyalty"
Colors Green, White & Red
Anniversaries February 10
Engagements Mexican Revolution
World War II
Chiapas revolt
Mexican Drug War
Commanders
Current
commander
Carlos Antonio Rodríguez Munguía[2]
Insignia
Roundel and Low Visibility Roundel Mexican Air Force roundel.svg Mexican Air Force roundel (low visibility).svg
Fin Flash Mexico Air force fin flash.svg
Aircraft flown
Attack PC-7, PC-9M, MD 500, T-6C+
Bomber Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighter, T-6C+
Electronic
warfare
Embraer R-99, P-99
Fighter Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighter
Interceptor Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighter
Patrol UH-60, MD 500
Reconnaissance C-90A King Air, Sabreliner 75A, Fairchild C-26, 727–200,
Trainer PC-7, PC-9M
Transport EC-725, Mi-17, Mi-8, Arava, 727–200, C-130, Boeing 787, Boeing 757

The Mexican Air Force (FAM) (Spanish: Fuerza Aérea Mexicana) is the primary aerial warfare service branch of the Mexican Armed Forces. It is a component of the Mexican Army and depends on the National Defense Secretariat (SEDENA). Since November 2013, its commander is Gen. Carlos Antonio Rodríguez Munguía.[2]

History[edit]

Mexican Revolution[edit]

The Curtiss aircraft Sonora was used for observation and bombing. Mexico, 1913.

The official predecessor of the Air Force was the Army's Auxiliary Aerial Militia Squadron (Escuadrilla Aérea de la Milicia Auxiliar del Ejército), created during the Mexican Revolution in April 1913 by the Secretary of War and Navy General Manuel Mondragón, who authorized pilots Miguel Lebrija and Juan Guillermo Villasana to bomb targets on Campo de Balbuena, in Mexico City.

On February 5, 1915, the leader of the Constitutionalist Army, Venustiano Carranza, founded the Arma de Aviación Militar (Military Aviation Arm), which would become the current air force. Its first commander was Lt. Alberto Salinas Carranza.[3]

Other rebellions[edit]

In 1925, due to the shortage of airplanes caused by World War I, Mexico set up the National Aviation Workshops (TNCA) to design and build its own airplanes and aeroengines. When U.S. Colonel Ralph O'Neill was hired to revamp the Mexican Air Force in 1920, he reported to General Plutarco Elías Calles that most of the aircraft available had to be replaced since they were obsolete and worn away. Therefore, Mexico acquired some British Avro 504K and Avro 504J airplanes, which later would be made in Mexico with the name Avro Anáhuac. In addition, in May 1920, Mexico acquired thirteen twin-engine bombers Farman F.50.[4]

Alfredo Lezama Alvarez, Unknown pilot, Luis Farell; on the far right is Eliseo Martín del Campo. Mid-late 1920s.

Between the years 1923 and 1929, Mexico found itself immersed in a wave of violent territorial, religious and military armed rebellions, which required the Air Force to quickly deploy its forces and provide air support wherever the federal army requested them. Some of these conflicts, that were decided mostly by the assertive use of the Air Force, are mentioned below.

On December 7, 1923, former President Adolfo de la Huerta launched a military coup (delahuertista rebellion) against the government of President Álvaro Obregón. The situation was extremely critical, because along with de la Huerta, about 60% of the army revolted, including various high-ranking generals across the country. The power tilted back in favor of the federal forces when the United States agreed to furnish the Mexican government with a fleet of new de Havilland DH-4B aircraft equipped with the Liberty motor, armed with Lewis and Vickers machine guns and able to carry bombs. The military coup was then suffocated by February 1924.

A territorial war was that of the Sonora Yaqui Indians who demanded by force that previous territorial treaties were implemented. The conflict lasted from 1926 to 1927, and it came to an end when a new treaty was implemented.

When President Plutarco Elías Calles pushed for the creation of the 'Mexican Apostolic Catholic Church', independent of Rome, it unleashed a widespread religious war known as the Cristero War. This long civil war lasted from 1926 to 1929.

In May 1927, while General Obregón seemed keen to impose the presidency to General Calles, General Arnulfo R. Gómez launched a military coup against both Obregón and Calles. His command posts were located in the cities of Puebla and Veracruz, where he led approximately 200 federal deserters, ammunition and weapons. The air force played a key role in their defeat.

Military of Mexico
Seal of the Government of Mexico.svg

Components
Mexican Air Force
Mexican Army
Mexican Navy
Ranks
Air Force ranks and insignia
Army ranks and insignia
Navy ranks and insignia
History
Military History of Mexico
Awards
Military decorations of Mexico

Then, on March 3, 1929, a serious military coup took place, led by General José Gonzalo Escobar and heeded by various other generals. In these days, the air force's remaining airplanes consisted of worn and shot Bristol F.2 Fighter, Bristol Boarhound, de Havilland DH-4B and Douglas O-2C, a force that was not suitable to defeat Escobar's power.[5][6] In this context, the Mexican government convinced the U.S. government to promote the peace south of its border and quickly make available twelve new OU-2M Corsair with the 400 hp Wasp engine, nine Douglas O-2M, four Stearman C3B and six Waco Taper Wings. Only two weeks after making the request, the U.S. government agreed, and several Mexican pilots travelled to Brownsville, Texas, and New York to pick up the new aircraft. The key victory was decided in late March 1929 at the Battle of Jiménez, Chihuahua, where after several days of air raids, Escobar was defeated by General Calles, taking about 6000 prisoners.[7] This rebellion was quite serious, since a third of the officials and nearly 30,000 soldiers rebelled; in two months, more than 2000 men had been killed.

In May 1938, the Governor of San Luis Potosí, General Saturnino Cedillo, declared himself in rebellion and President Lázaro Cárdenas travelled there to personally mount the campaign against the revolt. The Air Force organized a mixed fleet of 17 aircraft that included some new V-99M Corsair, engaging the enemy assertively when spotted. Cedillo quickly realized he had no chance in open fields against the air force and ran to the Huasteca Hills, where his men dispersed, abandoning him.[8]

With the imminent collapse of the Spanish Republic in 1939, the Mexican government took delivery of military aircraft destined for the Republic, strengthening its arsenal.

World War II[edit]

Mexican P-47D Thunderbolt over the Philippines (1945)
Display of the uniforms of the Escuadrón 201 at The National Museum of the United States Air Force.

The Escuadrón 201, a P-47D fighter squadron of the Fuerza Aérea Expedicionaria Mexicana (Mexican Expeditionary Air Force), served in the Pacific War against the Empire of Japan during World War II. It consisted of 25 aircraft and had 300 airmen and supporting staff. The 201 Squadron completed 96 combat missions over the Philippines (Battle of Luzon) and Formosa, now called Taiwan. It is the only unit of the Mexican armed forces ever to see overseas combat.[9]

Cold War era[edit]

The first jet aircraft operated by the Mexican Air Force was the subsonic de Havilland Vampire Mk.I. Mexico received 17 Vampires during late 1960 and early 1961. This jet was nick named "The Flying Avocado" by Mexican flight crews due to the ovoid shape of its fuselage and the dark green night camouflage adopted by its first units. The Vampires were not popular with Mexican fighter pilots because of its lack of ejection seats. The FAM finally retired them in 1970.

The Mexican Vampires were initially complemented by 15 Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star subsonic fighter aircraft received also in late 1961. Because of its more modern design, an ejection seat system and several other attributes, the T-33 was well liked by most FAM pilots and became a huge success as a patrol and interceptor aircraft. During the seventies and early eighties an additional 20 or more T-33s were procured by the FAM to replace aircraft lost in accidents and to increase the size of the fleet after the retirement of the Vampires.

In 1982, the FAM received 12 Northrop F-5E/F Tiger II jets (10 F-5Es and 2 F-5Fs). The F-5 gave Mexico its first supersonic platform and saw the formation of Air Squadron 401. During the eighties the F-5 became the main Mexican fighter jet while the remaining operational T-33s were still used for subsonic support and light attack roles.[10]

In 1983 an F-5 was lost in an accident that ocurred during a target practice exercise in the state of Chihuahua.

Chiapas conflict[edit]

On January 1, 1994, the day the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect, hundreds of guerrillas from the previously unknown Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) occupied several towns and cities in the southern state of Chiapas.

The FAM was mobilized to support Army units, sending almost every available helicopter to the territory of operations. Units involved included the recently formed 214th and 215th Special Operations Squadrons, equipped with a mix of Bell 212 assault- and MD.530F scout helicopters. Up to 40 helicopters were deployed to support an initial deployment of 10,000 ground troops.

Bell 212s were armed in two configurations: for fire support with twin MAG 7.62-mm gun pods and cabin-mounted GPMGs; or as gunship, with LAU-32 70-mm rocket launchers, a twin MAG gun-pod and cabin mounted MAG GPMGs.

Pumas, Bell 205s, 206s and 212s from the 209th were also deployed, however, FAM's helicopter assets were scarce and the Mexican Army had to rely on almost every other government agency's helicopters for general support tasks. Almost any flyable aircraft from the National Attorney's Office (PGR) was also deployed, including Bell 206s and 212s, as well as the Navy's recently acquired Mi-8MTV-1s. Eventually the Army deployed some 70,000 ground troops and air support proved to be insufficient; hence the decision was taken to considerably expand the FAM's helicopter fleet.

By December 1994, FAM had bought additional 12 armed MD.530MG 'Defender' and four UH-60L Blackhawk helicopters,[11] which it grouped into the 216th Special Operations Squadron. This unit was the spearhead of operation "Arco Iris" (Rainbow) to re-take several towns that had fallen under rebel control in January 1994. The new militarized Defenders came armed with M2AC machine-guns and LAU-68A 70-mm rocket launchers. Three additional units were ordered in 1996 and delivered as attrition replacements in March 1998. Black Hawks wore 1191 to 1194 serials and are being used for special operations.

Although the FAM received 18 surplus Bell 206s from the Attorney General's office (PGR) in the mid-1990s, the main need identified by the FAM High Command was for a new fleet of transport helicopters that would allow it to support the Army with an adequate airlift capability.[12]

Recent times[edit]

On 16 September 1995, after more than 30 yearly military parade flights without incidents, an F-5E collided in mid-air with three Lockheed T-33s during the parade for the Independence of Mexico. All aircraft were lost and a total of 10 deaths occurred. Since then, for safety reasons, military parade flyovers in Mexico have been smaller in participation.

In 2007, after more than 45 years in service, the last operational T-33s were retired. In 2012 the F-5 fighter jets had their 30th anniversary in Mexican Air Force service.[13][10]

Because of the ongoing Mexican Drug War, increasing importance has been placed on acquiring airborne surveillance platforms, UAVs, light attack aircraft, helicopters and rapid troop transports.[14]

Structure[edit]

A national commander under the orders of the Secretary of National Defense is in charge of the Mexican Air Force. The second-in-command is the Air Force Chief of Staff, who supervises a Deputy Chief of Operations and a Deputy Chief of Management. The Air Force divides the country's territory into four regions: Northwestern (Mexicali, Baja California), Northeastern (Chihuahua, Chihuahua), Central (Mexico City) and Southeastern (Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas); each region is commanded by a general. The regional headquarters are in charge of 18 air bases across the country:

Northwest Air Region

Military Air Base Air Group Unit Aircraft
3rd Military Air BaseEl Cipres, Baja California 5th 106 Air Squadron Cessna 182, Cessna 206
9th Military Air Base – La Paz, Baja California Sur 2nd 203 Air Squadron Pilatus PC-7
10th Military Air Base – Culiacán, Sinaloa 4th Maintenance Center Bell 206, Cessna 206
12th Military Air BaseTijuana, Baja California N/A N/A N/A
18th Military Air BaseHermosillo, Sonora 3rd
5th
3rd Aerial Surveillance Squadron
107th
C-26 Metroliner, Pilatus PC-6 R/P-99
Cessna 182

Northeast Air Region

Military Air Base Air Group Unit Aircraft
11th Military Air Base – Santa Gertrudis, Chihuahua Air Force Airtactics Military School (EMAATFA) N/A Pilatus PC-7
13th Military Air BaseChihuahua, Chihuahua 5th 110th Cessna 182
14th Military Air BaseMonterrey, Nuevo León 4th
5th
102nd
108th
Bell 206 Bell 212
Cessna 182 Cessna 206

Air bases[edit]

1 Santa Lucía, Estado de Mexico 10 Culiacán, Sinaloa
2 Ixtepec, Oaxaca 11 Santa Gertrudis, Chihuahua
3 El Ciprés, Baja California 12 Tijuana, Baja California
4 Cozumel, Quintana Roo 13 Chihuahua, Chihuahua
5 Zapopan, Jalisco 14 Escobedo, Nuevo León
6 Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas 15 San Juan Bautista la Raya, Oaxaca
7 Pie de la Cuesta, Guerrero 16 Ciudad Pemex, Tabasco
8 Mérida, Yucatán 17 Copalar, Chiapas
9 La Paz, Baja California Sur 18 Hermosillo, Sonora

1st Military Air Station – Mexico City International Airport

1st Military Air Base – Santa Lucia, State of Mexico

2nd Military Air Base – Ixtepec, Oaxaca

3rd Military Air BaseEl Cipres, Baja California

4th Military Air Base – Cozumel, Quintana Roo

5th Military Air Base – Zapopan, Jalisco

6th Military Air Base – Teran, Chiapas

7th Military Air Base – Pie de la Cuesta, Guerrero

8th Military Air Base – Mérida, Yucatán

9th Military Air Base – La Paz, Baja California Sur

10th Military Air Base – Culiacán, Sinaloa

11th Military Air Base – Santa Gertrudis, Chihuahua

  • Military School of Applied Airtactics of the Air Force (EMAATFA) – operating Pilatus PC-7

13th Military Air Base – Chihuahua, Chihuahua

  • 5th Air Group

14th Military Air Base – Monterrey, Nuevo Leon

  • 5th Air Group

15th Military Air Base – Oaxaca, Oaxaca

  • 5th Air Group
    • 103 Air Squadron – operating Bell 212

18th Military Air BaseHermosillo, Sonora

Ranks[edit]

Air Force ranks are the same as in Mexico's Army, with the exception of generals.[16]

Pilot selection and training[edit]

The FAM offers higher education, middle education, technical training, tactical training and specialized technical training in its various campuses:

Air Force Academy[edit]

Main facade of the Air Force Academy

Since the National School of Aviation was opened in 1915, it took different names over the years until finally, in 1959 it joined the military school of meteorology, mechanics and aviation specialists, forming the leading campus in military aviation education: 'El Colegio del Aire' (Air Force Academy), which since September 9, 1959, has guided the formation of Air Force officers.[17] The Air Force Academy is an all academic institution of the Mexican Air Force and comprises four schools: 'Military Aviation School', 'Maintenance and Supply Military School', 'Air Force Military Specialist School', and the 'Military Troops' Air Force Speciaslist School'.[18]

Military Aviation School (EMA)

Admission to the Air Force is through the mechanism of military recruitment that takes place every year at The Ministry of Defense. The FAM currently offers tertiary level studies – highlighting that of Military Pilot, which spans 4 years at the facilities of the Air Force Academy located on the Military Air Base No. 5 in Zapopan, Jalisco.[19]

The subjects taught in pilot training include: tactics of the branches of aviation, general aviation tactics, meteorology, air navigation, air traffic control, radio communications and culture in general, along with approximately 250 hours of flight. During the first year, the training is theoretical. During the second year, Beechcraft Bonanza aircraft are used for flight instruction. During the third the cadets are trained Aermacchi SF260EU for aerobatics, and later on Pilatus PC-7 for advanced flight tactics, including combat. Within each of these stages, the cadets are trained in aerial acrobatics, stage tactical instrument flight, visual flying rules (VFR), radio operations, among others, which increase in complexity as the cadets' training progresses.[20] The first female aviator to graduate as a pilot in the history of FAM, Andrea Cruz, became a cadet at the Military Aviation School in 2007.

Military Air Force Specialist School (EMEFA);

Military School of Air Force Specialist offers a comprehensive scholarship lasting three years for officer training meteorologists and flight control, obtaining at the graduate level of lieutenant. His duties are to provide meteorological information and control of military or civil aircraft.[21]

School of the Air Force Special Forces (EMTEFA)

Military School of special troops of the Air Force is a establishment of military education that has as its mission to train sergeants in seconds aviation maintenance, supply lines, electronic aviation and military aviation. The school is located in the St. Lucía military base.[22]

Military School of Maintenance and Supply (EMMA)

In this school, officers are trained as aviation maintenance specialists, aviation electronics specialists, weapons and air supply lines.[23]

Recruitment[edit]

To enter any of the campuses of the Air Force, SEDENA convenes a competitive entrance examination which is held each year. The requirements are:

  • Mexican citizenship and have no other nationality
  • Be the son of Mexican born parents
  • Minimum age of 15 years old at December 31 of the year in course
  • Maximum age of 20 years old at December 31 of the year in course
  • Have completed high school or equivalent
  • Minimum height of 1.65 m

In order to be admitted to any school of the Mexican Air Force Academy mentioned above, the applicant should also perform the following tests: physical, medical, cultural, and aviation psychology. In some cases, the psychological aeromedical 2nd level examination may also be required.[24]

Fleet[edit]

Mexico has the second largest defense budget in Latin America, spending about 0.5% GDP on its military.[25] The Air Force fleet is estimated to be at 241 fixed-wing aircraft and 117 helicopters:[1]

Aircraft inventory[edit]

Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service Image
Combat aircraft
F-5 Freedom Fighter  United States Multirole combat aircraft F-5E, F-5F
Tiger II
10 (8 F-5E + 2 F-5F)[10]
F5 FAM popocatepetl.jpg
Pilatus PC-9   Switzerland Light attack aircraft PC-9M 2
Pilatus.pc-9.fairford2006.arp.jpg
Pilatus PC-7   Switzerland Light attack aircraft PC-7 65
Pilatus PC-47 FAM.jpg
Beechcraft T-6C+  United States Light attack aircraft / Bomber T-6C+ Texan II 12
T-6A Texan II.jpg
Trainers
Pilatus PC-7   Switzerland Trainer PC-7 65
PC-7 FAM.jpg
Beechcraft T-6C+  United States Trainer T-6C+ Texan II 12
T-6A Texan II.jpg
Aermacchi SF-260  Italy Trainer SF-260 27
SIAI-Marchetti SF-260AM Italian Air Force.jpg
F-33 Bonanza  United States Trainer F-33C 29
Beech.bonanza.takeoff.arp.jpg
PT-17 Kaydet  United States Exhibition Only PT-17K 6
Boeing PT-17 Stearman (N746BJ).jpg
Transport
Lockheed C-130 Hercules  United States Tactical transport C-130E/K/L100 7
Mexican Air Force Lockheed C-130 Hercules.jpg
EADS CASA C-295  Spain Tactical transport C295M 10
C-295.JPG
C-27J Spartan  Italy Tactical transport C27J 4
Boeing 727  United States Tactical transport 727-200 4
B-727 FAM.jpg
Arava  Israel Tactical transport IAI-201 11
ARAVA FAM.jpg
C-90A King Air  United States Utility transport C90A King Air 4
C-GSYN Adlair Aviation Ltd Beechcraft King Air 100 (BE10) 03.JPG
Boeing 757  United States VIP transport 757-225 TP to be replaced in 2015 1
Boeing 737  United States VIP transport 737-300 2
B737-G-CELS-2289.jpg
Cessna Citation  United States VIP transport C500 1
Cessna citation 503CC.jpg
Lockheed JetStar  United States VIP transport jetstar 8 1
NASA JetStar Side.jpg
Learjet 35  United States VIP transport 35A 1
Swissaf.learjet35a.t-781.arp.jpg
Aero Commander  United States VIP transport 69-5A Turbo 1
Aero Commander.jpg
Cessna 206  United States VIP transport 206H 6
Cessna.206h.stationair2.arp.jpg
Reconnaissance and Intelligence
Embraer E-99  Brazil AEW&C E-99 1
EMB-145 FAM.jpg
Embraer P-99  Brazil Maritime Patrol P-99 2
EMB-145 FAM.jpg
C-26  United States Intelligence Metroliner III 4
C-26A FAM.jpg
Schweizer SGM 2-37  United States Reconnaissance SA2-37A 1
Schweizer SA2-37B.jpg
Cessna 182 Skylane  United States Reconnaissance 182S 70
Cessna182t skylane n2231f cotswoldairshow 2010 arp.jpg
PC-6   Switzerland STOL Operations PC-6B 3
Pilatus PC-6 SkydiveLillo JD18032008.jpg
Helicopters
UH-60 Black Hawk  United States Combat UH-60L 6
Blackhawk.jpg
McDonnell Douglas MD 500 Defender  United States Combat / Light attack aircraft 530F 20
Aeronautica Militare Breda Nardi NH-500E2.jpg
Mil Mi-8  Russia Transport Mi-8TV 8
Mi-8 Hip Roving Sands 99.jpg
Mil Mi-17  Russia Transport Mi-17IV 19
SkarduAirport1071.jpg
CH-53D  United States Transport Yassur 4
Marine CH-53D Sea Stallion.jpg
Bell 412  United States Transport 412 11
Norwegian military Bell 412SP helicopters.jpg
Bell 212  United States Transport 212 20
Kachina-b212-N212KA-030909-02cr.jpg
Bell 206  United States Utility transport 206 66
Puma  European Union VIP transport SA 330 Puma 2
PUMA FAM.jpg
Super Puma  European Union VIP transport AS 332 Super Puma 5
UAV
Elbit Systems  Israel Reconnaissance/Intelligence Hermes 450[26] 3
US Customs and Border Protection unmanned aerial vehicle.jpg
Hydra Technologies of Mexico  Mexico Reconnaissance/Intelligence S4 Ehécatl 1 1
S4ehecatl1.jpg
Hydra Technologies of Mexico  Mexico Reconnaissance/Intelligence E1 Gavilán 1
Gavilan1.jpg

Recent and planned purchases[edit]

Class Maker Model On order Origin Image
Presidential aircraft
delivery expected in 2015
Boeing Boeing 787-9 1[27]  United States
B787-2154.jpg
Advanced trainer and light attack aircraft Beechcraft T-6 Texan II 12 [28][29]  United States
T-6A Texan II.jpg
Transport airplane Lockheed-Martin C-130J-30 Super Hercules 2[30]  United States
USAF C-130J Super Hercules at RIAT 2010 arp.jpg
Basic trainer Grob Aircraft G 120TP 25 (+15 option)[31][32]  Germany
Grob120-D-ETPG.jpg
UAV Hydra Technologies of Mexico S4 Ehécatl 1 1  Mexico
S4ehecatl1.jpg
UAV Hydra Technologies of Mexico E1 Gavilán 1  Mexico
Gavilan1.jpg
UAV Aeronautics Defense Systems Dominator XP 2[33]  Israel


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Mexico Air Force". Scramble.nl. 
  2. ^ a b "EPN designa a nuevo Comandante de la Fuerza Aérea Mexicana". Estado Mayor (Estado Mayor). 2 November 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  3. ^ "Los Orígenes". Sedena.gob.mx. Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  4. ^ "Post-WWII Highlights in Latin American Aviation History". Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies. 
  5. ^ Davila Cornejo, Hector (May 10, 2003). "The Azcarate Corsair". The Latin American Aviation Historical Society. Retrieved March 22, 2009. [dead link]
  6. ^ Davila Cornejo, Hector. "Los Corsarios Mexicanos" (in Spanish). Sistema Informativo Aeronáutico Latinoamericano. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  7. ^ External links to the battle at Jiménez, Chihuahua, on 1929:[1], [2], [3]
  8. ^ Time magazine. June 6, 1938.
  9. ^ Klemen, L. "201st Mexican Fighter Squadron". The Netherlands East Indies 1941–1942. 201st Mexican Fighter Squadron
  10. ^ a b c Vega, Aurora (2012-09-29). "Resguardan Aviones F-5 El Cielo Mexicano | Excelsior En Línea" (in Spanish). Excelsior En Línea. Retrieved 2014-08-04. 
  11. ^ "Summary of US Military Involvement in Chiapas, Mexico". Ainfos.ca. Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  12. ^ Guevara, Inigo (April 13, 2005). "Central and Latin America Database". Aztec Rotors. Retrieved May 20, 2009. 
  13. ^ Adrián, Jazmín (July 4, 2012). "Squadron 401 of F5 Northrop by Mexican Air Force celebrates 30 years". Retrieved July 20, 2014. 
  14. ^ Jordi Díez; Ian Nicholls (January 2006). The Mexican Armed Forces in Transition. Strategic Studies Institute. 
  15. ^ "Refuerzan la flota aérea de Sedena". Noroeste.com.mx. Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  16. ^ Ranks[dead link]
  17. ^ Douglas, Lawrence; Hansen, Taylor (2006). "Los orígenes de la Fuerza Aérea Mexicana 1913 -1915" (in Spanish). Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Adiestramiento y Capacitación" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  19. ^ FAM Virtual
  20. ^ "Escuela Militar de Aviación" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. March 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  21. ^ "Escuela Militar de Especialistas de la Fuerza Aerea" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  22. ^ "Escuela Militar de Tropas Especialistas de la Fuerza Aerea" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Escuela Militar de Mantenimiento y Abastecimiento." (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  24. ^ "Admisión 2009 a Planteles Militares" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  25. ^ "The World Factbook – Mexico". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  26. ^ Garibian, Pablo (2010-08-24). "Mexico buys drones, may use for marijuana search". Reuters. 
  27. ^ "México quiere un Boeing 787 Dreamliner como avión presidencial | Fly News". Fly-news.es. Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  28. ^ "Beechcraft Signs Follow-on Contract with Mexican Air Force for Six T-6C+ Trainers". October 29, 2013. 
  29. ^ "Mexico’s T-6C+ Turboprop Planes: SIVA’s 1st Counterpart". Defenseindustrydaily.com. 2013-10-24. Retrieved 2014-07-22. 
  30. ^ "Mexico requests C-130J-30 aircraft from us; Airforce Technology". Airforce Technology.com. September 27, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  31. ^ Mexico selects Grob trainer. Inigo Guevara, Washington, DC - IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. 24 July 2014.
  32. ^ EXCLUSIVA: La Fuerza Aérea Mexicana compra 25 aeronaves turbohélice Grob G120TP.
  33. ^ Egozi, Arie (February 26, 2014). "Mexico Signs For Unmanned Dominators". Flight Global. Retrieved August 12, 2014. 

External links[edit]