A traditional duduk
|Other names||Ծիրանափող (Tsiranapogh)|
|Classification||Wind instrument with double reed|
|Gevorg Dabaghyan, Djivan Gasparyan, Pedro Eustache, Vache Sharafyan, Didier Malherbe|
The duduk (Armenian: դուդուկ), traditionally known since antiquity as ծիրանափող (tsiranapogh), is a traditional woodwind instrument indigenous to Armenia. Variations of it are popular in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia.
It is a distant relative of East Asian instruments, such as the Chinese guanzi, the Korean piri and the Japanese hichiriki. Unlike other double reed instruments, such as the oboe or shawm, the duduk has a very large (in proportion to the instrument) and unflattened reed, and is cylindrical in shape (not conical) giving it a quality closer to a clarinet or saxophone than a double-reed.
In 2005, UNESCO proclaimed the Armenian duduk music as a Masterpiece of the Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
The English word is often used generically for a family of ethnic instruments including the doudouk or duduk (դուդուկ), pronounced [duˈduk], also tsiranapogh ծիրանափող, pronounced [tsiɾɑnɑˈpʰoʁ], literally "apricot horn" in Armenian).
The word itself is a loanword ultimately derived from Turkish "düdük", likely of onomatopoeic origin. Another theory includes Proto-Turkic *dǖtük ("pipe"), itself possibly from Proto-Altaic *tū́ti ("tube, round vessel", cf. Old Japanese tutu). During the Ottoman rule of Armenia, usage of the word "duduk" displaced the original name of the instrument, which was known since antiquity as a Tsiranapogh (Armenian: Ծիրանափող). The word dudka in Slavic languages is a diminutive of duda and is of native Slavic origin. This instrument is not to be confused with the northwestern Bulgarian folk instrument of the same name (see below, Balkan duduk).
The duduk is a double reed instrument with ancient origins, having existed since the fifth century, while there are Armenian scholars who believe it existed more than 1500 years before that. The earliest instruments similar to the duduk's present form are made of bone or entirely of cane. Today, the duduk is exclusively made of wood with a large double reed. Duduks are mainly made from aged apricot wood.
In Armenia the instrument is called "tsiranapogh" or "apricot pipe".
The particular tuning depends heavily on the region which it is played. In the twentieth century, the Armenian duduk began to be standardized diatonic in scale and single-octave in range. Accidentals, or chromatics are achieved using fingering techniques. The instrument's body also has different lengths depending upon the range of the instrument and region. The reed (Armenian: եղեգն, eġegn), is made from one or two pieces of cane in a duck-bill type assembly. Unlike other double-reed instruments, the reed is quite wide, helping to give the duduk both its unique, mournful sound, as well as its remarkable breath requirements. The duduk player is called dudukahar (դուդուկահար) in Armenian.
The performer uses air stored in his cheeks to keep playing the instrument while he inhales air into his lungs. This “circular” breathing technique is commonly used with all the double-reed instruments in the Middle East. Duduk "is invariably played with the accompaniment of a second dum duduk, which gives the music an energy and tonic atmosphere, changing the scale harmoniously with the principal duduk."
Armenian musicologists cite evidence of the duduk's use as early as 1200 BC, though Western scholars suggest it is 1,500 years old. Variants of the duduk can be found in Armenia and the Caucasus. The history of the Armenian duduk music is dated to the reign of the Armenian king Tigran the Great, who reigned from 95–55 B.C. According to ethnomusicologist Dr. Jonathan McCollum, the instrument is depicted in numerous Armenian manuscripts of the Middle Age, and is "actually the only truly Armenian instrument that’s survived through history, and as such is a symbol of Armenian national identity ... The most important quality of the duduk is its ability to express the language dialectic and mood of the Armenian language, which is often the most challenging quality to a duduk player."
While the term duduk most commonly refers to the double reed instrument described on this page, there is a different instrument of the same name played in northwestern Bulgaria. This is a blocked-end flute resembling the Serbian frula, known also as kaval or kavalče in a part of Macedonia, and as duduk (дудук) in northwest Bulgaria. Made of maple or other wood, it comes in two sizes: 700–780 mm and 240–400 mm (duduce). The blocked end is flat. Playing this type of duduk is fairly straightforward and easy, and its sound is clean and pleasant.
The sound of the duduk, if not the instrument itself, has become known to a large audience through its use in popular film soundtracks. Starting with Peter Gabriel's score for Martin Scorsese's The Last Temptation of Christ, the duduk's archaic and mournful sound has been employed in a variety of genres to depict such moods. Djivan Gasparyan played the duduk in Gladiator, Syriana, and Blood Diamond, among others. The duduk was also used extensively in Battlestar Galactica. The duduk was also used in the series Avatar: The Last Airbender. It's computer-altered sound was given to the fictitious Tsungi horn, played by a number of the characters. The sound of the duduk was used in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. A Lullaby that Mr. Tumnus plays on a fictitious double flute. In America, famed oboe player Chris Bleth has played the duduk on select recordings for film and television.
In popular culture
The 2010 Eurovision Song Contest entry from Armenia "Apricot Stone", which finished 7th in the final, featured prominent duduk played by Djivan Gasparyan. In the indie-rock genre, the French-American band Deleyaman is the first alternative music band to have featured the duduk on all of their albums with Gerard Madilian as a permanent member in their line-up.
- Avatar by James Horner, in the track Shutting Down Grace's Lab
- Bedtime Stories by Rupert Gregson-Williams
- Brotherhood of the Wolf by Joseph LoDuca
- Constantine by Brian Tyler, Klaus Badelt, in the track Circle of Hell
- The Crow by Graeme Revell featuring the duduk player Djivan Gasparyan
- Dead Man Walking (film) by David Robbins
- Elektra by Christophe Beck
- Gladiator by Djivan Gasparyan in the track Duduk of the North
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 (2011) by Alexandre Desplat, in the track "Lily's Theme (Opening)"
- Hotel Rwanda main theme music 
- Hulk (2003) by Danny Elfman
- The Island by Steve Jablonsky
- The Kite Runner by Alberto Iglesias
- The Last Temptation of Christ by Peter Gabriel
- The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by Harry Gregson-Williams, in the track A Narnia Lullaby 
- Munich by John Williams
- Mayrig by Omar Al Shariff
- Next by Mark Isham
- The Passion of The Christ by Mel Gibson, composer John Debney
- Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End by Hans Zimmer
- Ronin by Elia Cmiral
- The Russia House by Jerry Goldsmith
- Vantage Point by Atli Orvarsson
- Wanted by Danny Elfman
- Warriors of Heaven and Earth by A. R. Rahman
- You Don't Mess with the Zohan by Rupert Gregson-Williams
- Angel by Rob Kral
- Avatar: The Last Airbender One of the character plays a fictional instrument called a "Tsungi Horn" and its sound is actually a duduk electronically modulated to resemble a brass instrument
- Battlestar Galactica (2004 TV series) by Bear McCreary. Its tracks "Two Funerals", "Starbuck on the Red Moon", "Escape from the Farm", "Colonial Anthem, "Black Market", "Something Dark is Coming", "Martial Law", "Prelude to War" feature the duduk. Roslin's theme was set to lyrics a second time for the third season premiere "Occupation", this time in Armenian.
- Buffy the Vampire Slayer by Christophe Beck, Tomas Wanker, Rob Dunkin, Douglas Stevens
- Castle by Robert Duncan
- Children of Dune by Brian Tyler in the tracks "Dune Messiah", "The Throne of Alia", "The Preacher At Arrakeen", "Farewell"
- CSI: New York by Bill Brown
- Firefly by Greg Edmonson
- Game of Thrones by Ramin Djawadi features the instrument in Daenerys Targaryen's theme
- JAG by Steve Bramson
- The Mummy Who Would Be King by Gil Talmi, Andrew Gross
- Over There by Ed Rogers
- The Pacific by Blake Neely and Geoff Zanelli
- Path to 9/11 by John Cameron
- The Shield features the Armenian song Hayots Aghoonak by Seda Garibyan
- Spartacus by Randy Miller. Track Second Thought
- Star Trek: Enterprise by Paul Baillargeon
- Xena: Warrior Princess by Joseph Loduca
Video game scores
- 'Shards of the Exodar' in World of Warcraft: The Burning Crusade by Derek Duke, Glenn Stafford and Russell Brower
- 'Dalaran' in World of Warcraft: Wrath of the Lich King by Derek Duke, Glenn Stafford and Russell Brower
- Civilization V by Michael Curran
- Dark Void by Bear McCreary
- F.E.A.R. by Nathan Grigg
- God of War III by Gerard Marino
- Mass Effect by Jack Wall
- Myst III: Exile by Jack Wall
- Myst IV: Revelation by Jack Wall
- Outcast by Lennie Moore in the track Oriental Spirit
- Prince of Persia: The Two Thrones by Inon Zur
- Uncharted 2 by Greg Edmonson
- 'Croft Manor Theme' in Tomb Raider Legend by Troels Brun Folmann
The duduk also appears on "Zachem Ya" by t.A.T.u. (from the album 200 Po Vstrechnoy, 2001), on "Jenny Wren" by Paul McCartney (2005), "All That I Am" by Rob Thomas (from the album ...Something to Be, 2006), and "Come Talk to Me" by Peter Gabriel.
- Tales from Earthsea by Tamiya Terashima, in the tracks "The Trip", "The Spider" and "Violent Robbery/The Seduction of the Undead".
- Broughton, Simon et al (1999). "World music: the rough guide.". books.google.co.uk 1. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
- Stokes, Jamie, ed. (2008). Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Volume 1. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8160-7158-6. "One of the oldest indigenous Armenian instruments is the duduk, a woodwind instrument usually made from apricot wood, with a double reed mouthpiece."
-  Dialog among civilizations Caucasus, Page 32
- [dead link]
-  UNESCO/Culture/Armenia
- The Armenian duduk as a "Masterpiece of the Intangible Heritage of Humanity"
- UNESCO: The Armenian Duduk and its music
- Farmer, H.G. "Mizmār." Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Ed., v. 7. P. Bearman et al. (eds.) Leiden: Brill, 1993, p. 209.
- (Russian) "Дудук." Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
- Russian language dictionary in 4 volumes. Volume 1. 1999
- *tū́ti Sergei Starostin, Vladimir Dybo, Oleg Mudrak (2003), Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers
- “дуда” in М. Фасмер (1986), Этимологический Словарь Русского Языка (Москва: Прогресс), 2-е изд. — Перевод с немецкого и дополнения О.Н. Трубачёва
- Broughton, Simon; Ellingham, Mark; and Trillo, Richard (1999). World Music: Africa, Europe and the Middle East, p.334. ISBN 9781858286358.
- Armenian apricot at welcomearmenia.com
- Albright, Ch. "BĀLĀBĀN." Encyclopaedia Iranica.
-  Duduk Info at Ethnicinstruments.co.uk
- Encyclopedia.com:DJIVAN GASPARYAN
- "The roots of Armenian duduk music go back to the times of the Armenian king Tigran the Great (95-55 BC)": "The Duduk and its Music. UNESCO. Accessed February 8, 2010.
- Turpin, Andy. "Nothing Sounds Armenian Like a Duduk: ALMA Lecture". The Armenian Weekly. 2010-02-12. Retrieved 2010-02-22.
- "Дудук : Horo.bg - българският сайт за народни хора, песни, танци, обичаи, фолклор". Horo.bg. Retrieved 2013-09-22. (Bulgarian)
- For a detailed description of the instrument (in Bulgarian), see http://www.bgjourney.com/Bit%20t%20Kultura/Old%20gloss/Old%20gloss%20Du.html
- Gasparian article at imdb.com
- Duduk article from composer Bear McCreary's Battlestar Galactica site
- Harry Gregson-Williams Talks Narnia & Narnian Lullaby Clip
- "Chris Bleth Movie Credits". Chrisbleth.com. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
- Gladiator by Hans Zimmer and Lisa Gerrard
- "Hotel Rwanda Film Music"http://www.musicweb-international.com/film/2006/apr06/hotelrwanda.html
- "Hulk (Danny Elfman)". Filmtracks.com. 2003-06-17. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
- Other reviews by Mike Brennan (2005-12-02). "soundtrack.net". soundtrack.net. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
- Savita Gautham. "inese rhapsody". The Hindu. Retrieved 2003-10-23.
- "Instruments of Battlestar Galactica: Duduk". Bearmccreary.com. 2006-09-28. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
- Runner, Blade (2004-02-26). "Duduk: The Instrument That Makes Hollywood Cry". Galactica-station.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
- "Battlestar Galactica: Season Two". Musicweb-international.com. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
- "Children of Dune". Cinemusic.net. Retrieved 2010-02-15.[dead link]
- "'Game of Thrones' Composer Ramin Djawadi: 'I'm Just Trying to Create Something Magical' (Q&A)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
- "Civ5in". Michaelcurran.net. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- "Rome - Augustus Caesar War - "Ancient Roman Melody Fragments" by Geoff Knorr". ISSUU. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- Bloodworth, Daniel (2012-04-09). "BackTrack: Composing Mass Effect – Jack Wall Interview, Part 1 | Side Mission". GameTrailers. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- Benoit Basirico (2005-11-14). "Gedo Senki (Les Contes de Terremer)". Cinezik.org. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Duduk.|
- Jenewein Duduks
- Armenian Duduk
- Duduk Music
- Professional duduk, shvi and blul by Master Karen
- Duduk.com, including Duduk Forum
- Duduk YahooGroup
- ArmenianInstruments.com, including duduk scores