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|Headdress of the Long-horn Miao—one of the small branches of Miao living in the 12 villages near Zhijin County (织金县), Guizhou Province.|
|10–12 million|
|Regions with significant populations|
|China: 9 million
Vietnam: 787,604 (1999)
Laos: 460,000 (2005)
France: 13,000 (including 3,000 in French Guiana)
United States: 209,866 (2006)
Thailand: 151,080 (2002)
Miao, language(s) of residential country(s)
The Miao (Chinese: 苗; pinyin: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mèo or H'Mông; Thai: แม้ว (Maew) or ม้ง (Mong); Burmese: mun lu-myo) is an ethnic group recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) as one of the 56 official minority groups. Miao is a Chinese term and does not reflect the self-designations of the component nations of people, which include (with some variant spellings) Hmong, Hmu, A Hmao, and Kho (Qho) Xiong. The Chinese government has grouped these people and other non-Miao peoples together as one group, whose members may not necessarily be either linguistically or culturally related. For this reason, many Miao peoples cannot communicate with each other, and have different histories and cultures. Some groups designated as Miao by the PRC do not even agree that they belong to the ethnic group.
The Miao live primarily in southern China, in the provinces of Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hainan, Guangdong, and Hubei. Some members of the Miao sub-groups, most notably Hmong people, have migrated out of China into Southeast Asia (northern Vietnam, Laos, Burma (Myanmar) and Thailand). Following the communist takeover of Laos in 1975, a large group of Hmong refugees resettled in several Western nations, such as the United States, France, Australia, and elsewhere. There has been a recent tendency by (H)mong Americans to group all Miao peoples together under the term Hmong because of their disdain for the Chinese term Miao. This however fails to recognize that, while the Hmong are a small nation within the broader linguistic/cultural family of Miao people, the vast majority of Miao people do not classify themselves as Hmong and have their own names for themselves.
Nomenclature: Miao and Hmong
The term "Miao" gained official status in 1949 as a minzu (nationality) encompassing a group of linguistically related ethnic minorities in southwest China. This was part of a larger effort to identify and classify minority groups to clarify their role in national government, including: establishing areas of autonomous government and allocating the seats for representatives in provincial and national government.
Historically, the term "Miao" had been applied inconsistently to a variety of non-Han peoples. Early Western writers used Chinese-based names in various transcriptions: Miao, Miao-tse, Miao-tsze, Meau, Meo, mo, miao-tseu etc. In South-East Asian contexts words derived from the Chinese "Miao" took on a sense which was perceived as derogatory by the Hmong sub-group living in that region. In China however the term has no such sense and is used by Miao themselves, of every group. The later prominence of Hmong people in the West has led to a situation where the entire Miao linguistic/cultural family is sometimes referred to as Hmong in English language sources. Following the recent increased interaction of Hmong in the West with Miao in China it is reported that some non-Hmong Miao have even begun to identify themselves as Hmong. However, most non-Hmong Miao in China are unfamiliar with the term as referring to their entire group and continue to use "Miao", or their own separate ethnic self-designations.
Though the Miao themselves use various self-designations, the Chinese traditionally classified them according to the most characteristic colour of the women's clothes. The list below contains some of the self-designations, the colour designations and the main regions inhabited by the four major groups of Miao in China:
- Ghao Xong; Red Miao; west Hunan
- Hmu, Gha Ne (Ka Nao); Black Miao; southeast Guizhou
- A-Hmao; Big Flowery Miao; northwest Guizhou and northeast Yunnan
- Gha-Mu, Hmong, White Miao, Mong, Green (Blue) Miao, Small Flowery Miao; south Sichuan, west Guizhou and south Yunnan
According to the 2000 census, the number of Miao in China was estimated to be about 9.6 million. Outside of China, members of the Miao linguistic/cultural family sub-group or nations of the Hmong live in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Burma due to migrations starting in the 18th century. As a result of recent migrations in the aftermath of the Indochina and Vietnam wars between 1949 and 1975, many Hmong people now live in the United States, French Guiana, France and Australia. Altogether there are approximately 8 million speakers in the Miao language family. This language family, which consists of 6 languages and around 35 dialects (some of which are mutually intelligible) belongs to the Hmong/Miao branch of the Hmong–Mien (Miao–Yao) language family.
The Hmong primarily live in the northern mountainous reaches of Southeast Asia including Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, and in far Southwest China mostly in the provinces of Yunnan, Guangxi, and to a very limited extend in Guizhou. There are about 1.5-2 million Hmong in China.
- Note: The Miao areas of Sichuan province became part of the newly created Chongqing Municipality in 1997.
Most Miao currently live in China. Miao population growth in China:
- 1953: 2,510,000
- 1964: 2,780,000
- 1982: 5,030,000
- 1990: 7,390,000
3,600,000 Miao, about half of the entire Chinese Miao population, were in Guizhou in 1990. The Guizhou Miao and those in the following six provinces make up over 98% of all Chinese Miao:
- Hunan: 1,550,000
- Yunnan: 890,000
- Sichuan: 530,000
- Guangxi: 420,000
- Hubei: 200,000
- Hainan: 50,000 (known as Miao but ethnically Yao and Li)
In the above provinces, there are 6 Miao autonomous prefectures (shared officially with one other ethnic minority):
- Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture (黔东南 : Qiándōngnán), Guizhou
- Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (黔南 : Qiánnán), Guizhou
- Qianxinan Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (黔西南 : Qiánxīnán), Guizhou
- Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (湘西 : Xiāngxī), Hunan
- Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (Hmong) (文山 : Wénshān), Yunnan
- Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (恩施 : Ēnshī), Hubei
There are in addition 23 Miao autonomous counties:
- Hunan: Mayang (麻阳 : Máyáng), Jingzhou (靖州 : Jīngzhōu), and Chengbu (城步 : Chéngbù)
- Guizhou: Songtao (松桃 : Sōngtáo), Yingjiang (印江 : Yìnjiāng), Wuchuan (务川 : Wùchuān), Daozhen (道真 : Dǎozhēn), Zhenning (镇宁 : Zhènníng), Ziyun (紫云 : Zǐyún), Guanling (关岭 : Guānlíng), and Weining (威宁 : Wēiníng)
- Yunnan: Pingbian (屏边 : Píngbiān), Jinping (金平 : Jīnpíng), and Luquan (禄劝 : Lùquàn)
- Chongqing: Xiushan (秀山 : Xiùshān), Youyang (酉阳 : Yǒuyáng), Qianjiang (黔江 : Qiánjiāng), and Pengshui (彭水 : Péngshuǐ)
- Guangxi: Rongshui (融水 : Róngshuǐ), Longsheng (龙胜 : Lóngshēng), and Longlin (隆林 : Lōnglín) (including Hmong)
- Hainan Province: Qiong (琼中 : Qióngzhōng) and Baoting (保亭 : Bǎotíng)
Most Miao reside in hills or on mountains, such as
- Wuling Mountain by the Qianxiang River (湘黔川边的武陵山 : Xiāngqián Chuān Biān Dí Wǔlíng Shān)
- Miao Mountain (苗岭 : Miáo Líng), Qiandongnan
- Yueliang Mountain (月亮山 : Yuèliàng Shān), Qiandongnan
- Greater and Lesser Ma Mountain (大小麻山 : Dà Xiǎo Má Shān), Qiannan
- Greater Miao Mountain (大苗山 : Dà Miáo Shān), Guangxi
- Wumeng Mountain by the Tianqian River (滇黔川边的乌蒙山 : Tiánqián Chuān Biān Dí Wūmēng Shān)
Several thousands of Miao left their homeland to move to larger cities like Guangzhou and Beijing. There are also 2,000,000 Hmong spread throughout northern Vietnam, Laos, Burma, and on other continents. 174,000 live in Thailand, where they are one of the six main hill tribes.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2007)|
||This section's representation of one or more viewpoints about a controversial issue may be unbalanced or inaccurate. (April 2010)|
History according to Chinese legend and other considerations
According to Chinese legend, the Miao who descended from the Jiuli tribe led by Chiyou (Chinese: 蚩尤 pinyin: Chīyóu) were defeated at the Battle of Zhuolu (Chinese: 涿鹿 pinyin: Zhuōlù, a defunct prefecture on the border of present provinces of Hebei and Liaoning) by the military coalition of Huang Di (Chinese: 黃帝 pinyin: Huángdì) and Yan Di, leaders of the Huaxia (Chinese: 華夏 pinyin: Huáxià) tribe as the two tribes struggled for supremacy of the Yellow River valley. According to legend, the battle, said to have taken place in the 26th century BC, was fought under heavy fog. The Huaxia, who possessed a form of mechanical compass, was able to defeat the tribe of Chiyou. (In an alternative account, Chiyou was never defeated and has been worshiped as god. It is generally accepted that Chiyou has been worshiped by succeeding dynasties regardless of their ethnic origins. This further corroborates the possibility that the defeat was not a fact but a likely story rewritten to legitimize the Huaxia history for later Han Chinese dynasties such as Qin or Han.)
After general population movement toward south, southwest, and southeast (due in part to influx of northern and western groups such as Huaxia and Donghu), the tribe of Chiyou split into two smaller splinter tribes, the Miao and the Li (Chinese: 黎; pinyin: lí). The Miao continuously moving southwest and Li southeast as the Huaxia people, later known as Han Chinese, expanded southward. Some members of the Miao and Li tribes were assimilated into the Han Chinese during the Zhou Dynasty. (Recent DNA studies suggest that the movement of ethnic groups such as Miao in ancient East Asia is far more complex than this unsubstantiated "historical" accounts.
Another version of the story says that the tribe split three ways. It is said Chiyou had 3 sons, and after the fall of Jiuli, his eldest son led some people south, his middle son led some people north, and his youngest son remained in Zhuolu and assimilated into the Huaxia culture. Those who were led to the south established the San-Miao nation.
According to André-Georges Haudricourt and David Strecker, the Miao were among the first people to settle in present day China. They found that the Chinese borrowed a lot of words from the Miao in regard to rice farming. This indicated that the Miao were among the first rice farmers in China. In addition, geneticists have connected the Miao to the Daxi Culture (5,300 - 6,000 years before present [YBP]) in the middle Yangtze River region. The Daxi Culture has been credited with being amongst the first cultivators of rice in the Far East.
The study goes on to mention that the Miao (especially the Miao-Hunan) have some DNA from the Northeast people of China, but has origins in southern china.
In 2006 rice cultivation was found in the Shangdong province even earlier than the Daxi Culture.
Miao scholars also proposed that an intact female corpse found in 1972 in Changsa, Hunan could be a Miao woman, based on the drawings on the casket which are characteristic of Miao design, and except for a few minor illustrations on the top left, Miao scholars assert the rest of the intricate illustrations resembles Miao legends and folk stories.[not in citation given]
Qin and Han dynasties
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2010)|
The term Miao was first used by the Han Chinese in pre-Qin times (in other words, before 221 BC) for designating non-Han Chinese groups in the south. It was often used in combination: "nanmiao", "miaomin", "youmiao" and "sanmiao" (三苗; pinyin: Sānmiáo)
Ming and Qing dynasties
During the Ming and Qing dynasties (1368–1911) 'miao' and 'man' were both used, the second possibly to designate the Yao (傜 Yáo) people. The Yuan, Ming, and Qing Dynasties could neither fully assimilate nor control the aboriginal people.
During the Maio Rebellions, when Miao tribes rebelled, Ming troops, including Han chinese, Hui people, and Uyghurs crushed the rebels, killing thousands of them. Mass castrations of Miao boys also took place.
During the Qing Dynasty the Miao fought three wars against the empire. In 1735 in the southeastern province of Guizhou, the Miao rose up against the government's forced assimilation. Eight counties involving 1,224 villages fought until 1738 when the revolt ended. According to Xiangtan University Professor Wu half the Miao population were affected by the war.
The greatest of the three wars occurred from 1854 to 1873. Xiu-mei Zhang led this revolt in Guizhou until his capture and death in Changsha, Hunan. This revolt affected over one million people and all the neighbouring provinces. By the time the war ended Professor Wu said only 30 percent of the Miao were left. This defeat led to the Hmong people migrating out of China.
During Qing times, more military garrisons were established in southwest China. Han Chinese soldiers moved into the Taijiang region of Guizhou, married Miao women, and the children were brough up as Miao. In spite of rebellion against the Han, Hmong leaders made allies with Chinese merchants.
Politically and militarily, the Miao continued to be a stone in the shoe of the Chinese empire. The imperial government had to rely on political means to ensnare Hmong people, they created multiple competing positions of substantial prestige for Miao people to participate and assimilate into the Qing government system. During the Ming and Qing times, the official position of Kaitong was created in Indochina. The Miao would employ the use of the Kiatong government structure until the 1900s when they entered into French colonial politics in Indochina.
|This section requires expansion with: text. (February 2011)|
During the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC), the Miao played an important role in its birth when they helped Mao Zedong to escape the Kuomintang in the Long March with supplies and guides through their territory.
In Vietnam, a powerful Hmong named Vuong Chinh Duc dubbed the king of the Hmong aided Ho Chi Minh's nationalist move against the French, and thus secured the Hmong's position in Vietnam. During the Vietnam War, Miao fought on both sides, the Hmong in Laos primarily for the US, across the border in Vietnam for the North-Vietnam coalition, the Chinese-Miao for the Communists. However after the war the Vietnamese took great aggression against the Hmong who suffered years of reprisals and genocide. Interestingly, most Hmong in Thailand also supported a brief Communist uprising during the war.
The 2000 Chinese census recorded 8.940.116 Miao in China.
- Provincial Distribution of the Miao
|Province||Miao Population||% of Total|
|Guizhou||48,1 %||49,84 %|
|Hunan||21,49 %||21,05 %|
|Yunnan||11,67 %||12,12 %|
|Stadt Chongqing||5,62 %||—|
|Autonomes Gebiet Guangxi||5,18 %||5,75|
|Hubei||2,4 %||2,71 %|
|Sichuan||1,65 %||7,24 % (inkl. Chongqing)|
- County-level distribution of the Miao
(Only includes counties or county-equivalents containing >0.25% of China's Miao population.)
|Province||Prefecture||County||Miao Population||% of China's Miao Population|
|Guizhou||AB Qiandongnan der Miao und Dong||Stadt Kaili (凯里市)||274.238||3,07 %|
|Stadt Chongqing||keine||AK Pengshui der Miao und Tujia (彭水苗族土家族自治县)||273.488||3,06 %|
|Hunan||Stadt Huaihua||AK Mayang der Miao (麻阳苗族自治县)||263.437||2,95 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Tongren||AK Songtao der Miao (松桃苗族自治县)||228.718||2,56 %|
|Hunan||Stadt Huaihua||Kreis Yuanling (沅陵县)||217.613||2,43 %|
|Hunan||AB Xiangxi der Tujia und Miao||Kreis Huayuan (花垣县)||192.138||2,15 %|
|Hunan||AB Xiangxi der Tujia und Miao||Kreis Fenghuang (凤凰县)||185.111||2,07 %|
|Hunan||Stadt Shaoyang||Kreis Suining (绥宁县)||184.784||2,07 %|
|AG Guangxi der Zhuang||Stadt Liuzhou||AK Rongshui der Miao (融水苗族自治县)||168.591||1,89 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiandongnan der Miao und Dong||Kreis Huangping (黄平县)||161.211||1,8 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Zunyi||AK Wuchuan der Gelao und Miao (务川仡佬族苗族自治县)||157.350||1,76 %|
|Hunan||Stadt Shaoyang||AK Chengbu der Miao (城步苗族自治县)||136.943||1,53 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiandongnan der Miao und Dong||Kreis Taijiang (台江县)||135.827||1,52 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiandongnan der Miao und Dong||Kreis Congjiang (从江县)||129.626||1,45 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Liupanshui||Kreis Shuicheng (水城县)||126.319||1,41 %|
|Hunan||Stadt Huaihua||AK Jingzhou der Miao und Dong (靖州苗族侗族自治县)||114.641||1,28 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Anshun||AK Ziyun der Miao und Bouyei (紫云苗族布依族自治县)||114.444||1,28 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiandongnan der Miao und Dong||Kreis Jianhe (剑河县)||112.950||1,26 %|
|Hunan||AB Xiangxi der Tujia und Miao||Stadt Jishou (吉首市)||112.856||1,26 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Tongren||Kreis Sinan (思南县)||112.464||1,26 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiandongnan der Miao und Dong||Kreis Leishan (雷山县)||110.413||1,24 %|
|Hunan||AB Xiangxi der Tujia und Miao||Kreis Luxi (泸溪县)||107.301||1,2 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiandongnan der Miao und Dong||Kreis Tianzhu (天柱县)||106.387||1,19 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiandongnan der Miao und Dong||Kreis Danzhai (丹寨县)||104.934||1,17 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiandongnan der Miao und Dong||Kreis Rongjiang (榕江县)||96.503||1,08 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiannan der BouyeiBouyei und Miao||Kreis Huishui (惠水县)||91.215||1,02 %|
|Yunnan||AB Wenshan der Zhuang und Miao||Kreis Guangnan (广南县)||88.444||0,99 %|
|Stadt Chongqing||keine||AK Youyang der Tujia und Miao (酉阳土家族苗族自治县)||85.182||0,95 %|
|AG Guangxi der Zhuang||Stadt Bose||AK Longlin mehrerer Nationalitäten (隆林各族自治县)||84.617||0,95 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Bijie||Kreis Zhijin (织金县)||81.029||0,91 %|
|Yunnan||AB Honghe der Hani und Yi||AK Jinping der Miao, Yao und Dai (金平苗族瑶族傣族自治县)||80.820||0,9 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Anshun||Stadtbezirk Xixiu (西秀区)||79.906||0,89 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiandongnan der Miao und Dong||Kreis Jinping (锦屏县)||78.441||0,88 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Zunyi||AK Daozhen der Gelao und Miao (道真仡佬族苗族自治县)||76.658||0,86 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiandongnan der Miao und Dong||Kreis Liping (黎平县)||75.718||0,85 %|
|Yunnan||AB Wenshan der Zhuang und Miao||Kreis Maguan (马关县)||73.833||0,83 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Bijie||Kreis Nayong (纳雍县)||72.845||0,81 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiannan der Bouyei und Miao||Stadt Duyun (都匀市)||71.011||0,79 %|
|Hubei||AB Enshi der Tujia und Miao||Kreis Laifeng (来凤县)||70.679||0,79 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiandongnan der Miao und Dong||Kreis Majiang (麻江县)||68.847||0,77 %|
|Stadt Chongqing||keine||AK Xiushan der Tujia und Miao (秀山土家族苗族自治县)||66.895||0,75 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiandongnan der Miao und Dong||Kreis Shibing (施秉县)||66.890||0,75 %|
|Yunnan||AB Wenshan der Zhuang und Miao||Kreis Qiubei (丘北县)||66.826||0,75 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Guiyang||Stadtbezirk Huaxi (花溪区)||62.827||0,7 %|
|Hunan||AB Xiangxi der Tujia und Miao||Kreis Longshan (龙山县)||61.709||0,69 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Bijie||Kreis Qianxi (黔西县)||60.409||0,68 %|
|Yunnan||AB Honghe der Hani und Yi||AK Pingbian der Miao (屏边苗族自治县)||60.312||0,67 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Bijie||AK Weining der Yi, Hui und Miao (威宁彝族回族苗族自治县)||60.157||0,67 %|
|Stadt Chongqing||keine||Stadtbezirk Qianjiang (黔江区)||59.705||0,67 %|
|Hunan||AB Xiangxi der Tujia und Miao||Kreis Baojing (保靖县)||57.468||0,64 %|
|Yunnan||AB Wenshan der Zhuang und Miao||Kreis Wenshan (文山县)||57.303||0,64 %|
|Hunan||AB Xiangxi der Tujia und Miao||Kreis Guzhang (古丈县)||54.554||0,61 %|
|Hubei||AB Enshi der Tujia und Miao||Stadt Lichuan (利川市)||53.590||0,6 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qianxi'nan der Bouyei und Miao||Kreis Qinglong (晴隆县)||53.205||0,6 %|
|AG Guangxi der Zhuang||Stadt Liuzhou||AK Sanjiang der Dong (三江侗族自治县)||53.076||0,59 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Bijie||Kreis Dafang (大方县)||52.547||0,59 %|
|Yunnan||AB Wenshan der Zhuang und Miao||Kreis Yanshan (砚山县)||51.624||0,58 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Liupanshui||Sondergebiet Liuzhi (六枝特区)||50.833||0,57 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiannan der Bouyei und Miao||Kreis Changshun (长顺县)||48.902||0,55 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiannan der Bouyei und Miao||Stadt Fuquan (福泉市)||48.731||0,55 %|
|Yunnan||AB Honghe der Hani und Yi||Kreis Mengzi (蒙自县)||48.132||0,54 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Tongren||Stadtbezirk Bijiang (碧江区)||47.080||0,53 %|
|Yunnan||AB Wenshan der Zhuang und Miao||Kreis Malipo (麻栗坡县)||45.655||0,51 %|
|Yunnan||Stadt Zhaotong||Kreis Yiliang (彝良县)||44.736||0,5 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Anshun||Kreis Pingba (平坝县)||44.107||0,49 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiannan der Bouyei und Miao||AK Sandu der Sui (三都水族自治县)||43.464||0,49 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiannan der Bouyei und Miao||Kreis Guiding (贵定县)||42.450||0,47 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Tongren||AK Yinjiang der Tujia und Miao (印江土家族苗族自治县)||42.431||0,47 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiannan der Bouyei und Miao||Kreis Longli (龙里县)||40.096||0,45 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Guiyang||Stadt Qingzhen (清镇市)||39.845||0,45 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qianxi'nan der Bouyei und Miao||Kreis Wangmo (望谟县)||39.491||0,44 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Bijie||Stadtbezirk Qixingguan (七星关区)||38.508||0,43 %|
|Hunan||AB Xiangxi der Tujia und Miao||Kreis Yongshun (永顺县)||37.676||0,42 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Bijie||Kreis Hezhang (赫章县)||37.128||0,42 %|
|Yunnan||Stadt Zhaotong||Kreis Weixin (威信县)||36.293||0,41 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiandongnan der Miao und Dong||Kreis Sansui (三穗县)||35.745||0,4 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiannan der Bouyei und Miao||Kreis Luodian (罗甸县)||35.463||0,4 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Anshun||AK Zhenning der Bouyei und Miao (镇宁布依族苗族自治县)||34.379||0,38 %|
|Hubei||AB Enshi der Tujia und Miao||Kreis Xuan'en (宣恩县)||34.354||0,38 %|
|Hunan||Stadt Huaihua||Kreis Huitong (会同县)||33.977||0,38 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qianxi'nan der Bouyei und Miao||Kreis Anlong (安龙县)||32.926||0,37 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Bijie||Kreis Jinsha (金沙县)||31.884||0,36 %|
|Sichuan||Stadt Luzhou||Kreis Xuyong (叙永县)||30.362||0,34 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Anshun||Kreis Puding (普定县)||30.254||0,34 %|
|Sichuan||Stadt Yibin||Kreis Xingwen (兴文县)||30.020||0,34 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Anshun||AK Guanling der Bouyei und Miao (关岭布依族苗族自治县)||29.746||0,33 %|
|AG Guangxi der Zhuang||Stadt Bose||Kreis Xilin (西林县)||28.967||0,32 %|
|AG Guangxi der Zhuang||Stadt Guilin||Kreis Ziyuan (资源县)||27.827||0,31 %|
|Hubei||AB Enshi der Tujia und Miao||Kreis Xianfeng (咸丰县)||27.668||0,31 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Guiyang||Stadtbezirk Nanming (南明区)||27.460||0,31 %|
|Yunnan||Stadt Zhaotong||Kreis Zhenxiong (镇雄县)||26.963||0,3 %|
|Yunnan||AB Wenshan der Zhuang und Miao||Kreis Funing (富宁县)||26.396||0,3 %|
|Guangdong||Stadt Dongguan||Stadtbezirk (市辖区)||26.241||0,29 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Tongren||Kreis Jiangkou (江口县)||25.588||0,29 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Liupanshui||Kreis Pan (盘县)||25.428||0,28 %|
|AG Guangxi der Zhuang||Stadt Guilin||AK Longsheng mehrerer Nationalitäten (龙胜各族自治县)||24.841||0,28 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qianxi'nan der Bouyei und Miao||Kreis Xingren (兴仁县)||24.130||0,27 %|
|Hunan||Stadt Huaihua||AK Zhijiang der Dong (芷江侗族自治县)||23.698||0,27 %|
|Yunnan||AB Honghe der Hani und Yi||Stadt Kaiyuan (开远市)||23.504||0,26 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qianxi'nan der Bouyei und Miao||Kreis Zhenfeng (贞丰县)||23.054||0,26 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiannan der Bouyei und Miao||Kreis Pingtang (平塘县)||22.980||0,26 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qiandongnan der Miao und Dong||Kreis Zhenyuan (镇远县)||22.883||0,26 %|
|Guizhou||AB Qianxi'nan der Bouyei und Miao||Kreis Pu'an (普安县)||22.683||0,25 %|
|Guizhou||Stadt Guiyang||Stadtbezirk Wudang (乌当区)||22.468||0,25 %|
- Ethnic groups in Chinese history
- Ethnic minorities in China
- History of China
- Hmong people
- Hmong customs and culture
- Hmong–Mien languages
- Languages of China
- List of Hmong/Miao People
- Vang Pao
Notes and references
- 2006 Southeast Asian American Data from the American Community Survey
- Schein, Louisa. "The Miao in contemporary China." In The Hmong in transition. Edited by Hendricks, G. L., Downing, B. T., & Deinard, A. S. Staten Island: Center for migration studies (1986): 73-85.
- Tapp, Nicholas. "Cultural Accommodations in Southwest China: the 'Han Miao' and Problems in the Ethnography of the Hmong." Asian Folklore Studies, Vol. 61, 2002: 77-104.
- Haudricourt, Andre and Strecker. "Hmong–Mien (Miao–Yao) Loans in Chinese". T'uong Pao, Vol. 77, Numbers 4-5, (1991): 335-341
- Wen, Bo; Li, Hui; Gao, Song; Mao, Xianyun; Gao, Yang; Li, Feng; Zhang, Feng; He, Yungang; Dong, Yongli; Zhang, Youjun; Huang, Wenju; Jin, Jianzhong; Xiao, Chunjie; Lu, Daru; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Su, Bing; Deka, Ranjan; Jin, Li. "Genetic Structure of (H)mong-Mien Speaking Populations in East Asia as Revealed by mtDNA Lineages", Oxford Journal of Molecular Biology and Evolution (2005) 22 (3): 725-734. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi055
- Crawford, G. W., X. Chen, and J. Wang Houli Culture Rice from the Yuezhuang Site, Jinan. Kaogu [Archaeology] 3:247-251, 2006. (In Chinese)
- Xiong, Yuepheng L. "Chinese Odyssey: Summer Program offers Students rare opportunity to learn Hmong history in China", HmongNet.org
- Chu Language Rhymes at University of Massachusetts Amherst
- Chih-yu Shih, Zhiyu Shi (2002). Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state. Psychology Press. p. 133. ISBN 0415283728. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Frederick W. Mote, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank (1988). The Cambridge history of China: The Ming dynasty, 1368-1644, Part 1. Cambridge University Presslocation=. p. 380. ISBN 0521243327. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty. SUNY Press. p. 16. ISBN 0791426874. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Elleman, Bruce A. (2001). "The Miao Revolt (1795–1806)". Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989. London: Routledge. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0415214742.
- Contributions to Southeast Asian ethnography, Issue 7. Board of Editors, Contributions to Southeast Asian Ethnography. 1988. p. 99. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Dan Jin, Xueliang Ma, Mark Bender (2006). Butterfly mother: Miao (Hmong) creation epics from Guizhou, China. Hackett Publishing. p. xvii. ISBN 0872208494. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Lee, Mai Na M. (2005). The dream of the Hmong kingdom: resistance, collaboration, and legitimacy under French colonialism (1893-1955). University of Wisconsin--Madison. p. 149. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Nevison, Leslie. "In Search of a Hmong King"
- Enwall, Jaokim. Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter, No. 17, Department of Anthropology, Australian National University, June 1992.
- Louisa Schein (2000). Minority rules: the Miao and the feminine in China's cultural politics. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2444-X.
- Gina Corrigan (2001). Miao textiles from China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98137-7.
- Nicholas Tapp, (2002). The Hmong of China: Context, Agency, and the Imaginary. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 0-391-04187-8.
- Nicholas Tapp (Editor), Jean Michaud (Editor), Christian Culas (Editor), Gary Yia Lee (Editor) (2004). Hmong/Miao in Asia. Silkworm Books. ISBN 974-9575-01-6.
- David Deal and Laura Hostetler (2006). The Art of Ethnography: a Chinese "Miao Album". Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0295985435.
- Jin Dan (Contributor), Xueliang Ma (Contributor), Mark Bender (Translator) (2006). Miao (Hmong) Creation Epics from Guizhou, China. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0872208490.
- Thomas Vang (2008). A History of The Hmong: From Ancient Times to the Modern Diaspora. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1435709324.
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