|Michael D. Langone, Ph.D.|
|Fields||psychology, cults, new religious movements|
|Institutions||International Cultic Studies Association|
|Known for||Recovery from Cults, Cultic Studies Review, editor|
|Notable awards||Leo J. Ryan Award, 1995|
Michael D. Langone, is an American counseling psychologist who specialises in research about "cultic" groups and psychological manipulation. He is executive director of the International Cultic Studies Association, editor of the journal Cultic Studies Review.
In 1995 he was named visiting scholar at Boston University's Albert Danielsen Center for the Study of Religion and Psychology and did research comparing former members of a cultic group and of two mainstream religious groups regarding psychological distress and members' perceptions of abusiveness. He also received the Cult Awareness Network's Leo J. Ryan Award in the same year.
- Leo J. Ryan Award, 1995
Models for conversion
Langone presents three different models for conversion and then describes his own integrative model.
- The deliberative model states that people are said to join cults primarily because of how they view a particular group. Langone notes that this view is most favored among sociologists and religious scholars.
- Under the "psychodynamic model", popular with some mental health professionals, individuals choose to join for fulfillment of subconscious psychological needs.
- The "thought reform model" states that people do not join because of their own psychological needs, but because of the group's influence through forms of psychological manipulation.
Langone claims that those mental health experts who have more direct experience with large numbers of cultists tend to favor this latter view. He presents an integrated model by explaining that deliberation is a function of manipulativeness and psychological neediness. By breaking down manipulativeness and psychological neediness into low and high conditions Langone can determine which of the three models would be favored. A deliberative model would be utilized when a person falls into low manipulativeness and low psychological neediness categories. When manipulativeness is high but psychological neediness low would result in the use of the thought reform model. In the case of the opposite with low manipulativeness but high psychological neediness a psychodynamic model is used. In cases where both manipulativeness and psychological neediness are high, both psychodynamic and thought reform models awould be expected; Langone notes that more research is necessary for this cross-section as the literature was lacking.
Books and papers
- Recovery from Cults: Help for Victims of Psychological and Spiritual Abuse, 1995, Michael D. Langone (Editor), 1993, ISBN 0-393-70164-6, W W Norton page
- Satanism and Occult Related Violence, Michael D. Langone, 1990, ISBN 99918-1-024-2
- Cults: What Parents Should Know: A Practical Guide to Help Parents With Children in Destructive Groups, Ross and Langone, 1989, ISBN 0-8184-0511-2
- Cults: Questions and answers, Michael D. Langone, 1988
- Deprogramming: An analysis of parental questionnaires. Michael D. Langone, 1986.
- Captive Hearts, Captive Minds: Freedom and Recovery from Cults and Other Abusive Relationships, by Madeleine Landau Tobias, Janja Lalich, Michael Langone, 1994, ISBN 0-89793-144-0, ISBN 978-0-89793-144-1
- Cultic Studies Journal: a Journal on Cults and Manipulative Techniques of Social Influence, Michael Langone (Editor), ASIN B000JFOZTS
- Cultic Studies Review: An Internet Journal of Research, News & Opinion, Michael Langone (Editor), ASIN B000GF1F9O
- Research on Destructive Cults, International Congress on Totalitarian Groups and Sects, Barcelona, Spain, 1993
- "Clinical Update on Cults", Psychiatric Times, July 1996, Vol. XIII, Issue 7
- APA Presentation: The Group Psychological Abuse Scale, Presented to Division 36 (Psychology of Religion), American Psychological Association Annual Meeting, Toronto, Canada, August 12, 1996, William V. Chambers, Ph.D., Michael D. Langone, Ph.D., Peter Malinoski, M.A.
- "Introduction to Special Issue on Cults, Evangelicals, and the Ethics of Social Influence", Cultic Studies Journal, 1985, Volume 2, Number 2, pages 231-234
- The New Age Movement: Fad or Menace?, Arthur A. Dole, Ph.D., A.B.P.P., University of Pennsylvania, Michael D. Langone, Ph.D., American Family Foundation, Steve K. D. Eichel, Ph.D., RETIRN, Cultic Studies Journal, 1990, Volume 7, Number 1, pages 69–91.
- Is the New Age Movement Harmless? Critics Versus Experts, Arthur A. Dole, Ph.D., A.B.P.P., University of Pennsylvania, Michael D. Langone, Ph.D., American Family Foundation, Steve K. D. Eichel, Ph.D., RETIRN, Cultic Studies Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1992
- Cults: Questions and Answers, 2005, Cultic Studies Review
- Reflections on the Legion of Christ: 2003-2006, Michael Langone, ICSA E-Newsletter, Vol. 5, No. 2, July 2006
- "The Definitional Ambiguity of “Cult” and ICSA’s Mission"
- Deception, Dependency & Dread, 1998, Recovering Former Cultists' Support Network
- The Group Psychological Abuse Scale: A Measure of the Varieties of Cultic Abuse, Cultic Studies Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1993, William V. Chambers, Ph.D., Michael D. Langone, Ph.D., Arthur A. Dole, Ph.D., James W. Grice, M.A.
- "Cults: A Clinical and Research Update", Undue Influence Conference, National Institute of Health, January 17, 1997, Bethesda, MD
- "Theory and Cults", Conference Cults: Theory and Treatment Issues May 30, 1997, Philadelphia, PA
- Official sites
- Michael Langone, Ph.D., Profile, Cultic Studies Review
- Michael Langone, Ph.D., Profile, Cultic Studies Journal
- Introduction to the Cultic Studies Review, Cultic Studies Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2002
- History of the American Family Foundation, Cultic Studies Review
- Media/Press mention
- Lakewood conference to explore cults, hate groups, A 25-year-old research and education foundation that studies cultic phenomena is meeting this weekend., By Monte Whaley, Denver Post, 22 June 2006
- Critics and followers of Falun Gong, Adherents find fulfillment, but detractors call movement a cult, December 18, 2005, San Francisco Chronicle, Vanessa Hua
- Small 'cottage cults' drawing more converts in United States, Often-vulnerable disciples in spiritual groups can be subject to abuse by charismatic leaders, July 16, 2001, Richard Read, The Oregonian
- Combatants in Cult War Attempt Reconciliation, Peacemaking conference is held near Seattle, Don Lattin, San Francisco Chronicle, May 1, 2000
- "Cultic Studies Journal: Psychological Manipulation and Society", God on the Couch - Part One "Fear", The Spirit of Things, January 31, 1999
- Article search
- Shuppe, Anson; Darrel, Susan, The Attempted Transformation of a Deviant Occupation into a Therapy: Deprogramming Seeks a New Identity, annual meeting SSSR/RRA, Norfolk, VA, October 2003. Available online