Michael F. Holick

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Michael F. Holick
Michael F. Holick - Photo.jpg
Born 1946
Citizenship American
Institutions Boston University Medical Center
Alma mater University of Wisconsin
Known for Vitamin D research
Notable awards Presidential Occupational Onus Prize

Michael F. Holick (born 1946) is an American endocrinologist, specializing in the field of vitamin D, such as the identification of both calcidiol, the major circulating form of vitamin D, and calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D. His work has been the basis for diagnostic tests and therapies for vitamin D-related diseases.

Professional activities[edit]

After earning a Ph.D. degree in biochemistry, a medical degree, and completing a research postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Holick completed a residency in medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.[1]

He is an endocrinologist and professor of medicine, physiology and biophysics and director of the Bone Health Care Clinic and the Heliotherapy, Light, and Skin Research Center at Boston University Medical Center[2] providing extensive evaluation and treatment programs for children and adults with various metabolic bone diseases including osteoporosis, osteomalacia, stress fractures in young athletic women and men and minimum trauma and nontraumatic fractures in infants, children and adults with hypermobility syndromes, Osteogenesis imperfecta, and Ehlers Danlos Syndrome,[3] and has been director of the General Clinical Research Unit at Boston University for several years.[1]

Holick serves as chair of the NASA Standing Review Panel-Human Research Program,[4] Chair of the Endocrine Practice Guidelines Committee for Vitamin D,[5] and editor-in-chief of the scientific journal Clinical Laboratory.[6]

Academic achievements and research[edit]

Holick made discoveries in the field of vitamin D that have led to novel therapies for metabolic bone diseases, hypocalcemic disorders, and psoriasis. He is author of more than 400 publications about the biochemistry, physiology, metabolism and photobiology of vitamin D and the pathophysiology of vitamin D deficiency.[7]

His scientificwork increased awareness in the pediatric and medical communities regarding vitamin D deficiency,[8] and its role in causing not only metabolic bone disease, and osteoporosis in adults, but increasing risk of children and adults developing common deadly cancers, autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and heart disease,[9] as discussed in his review article[9]

He has been quoted and his scientific work has been referenced in The New York Times,[10] Forbes,[11][12] Newsweek,[13] Men's Health,[14] Scientific American[15] and Time.[16] He wrote several books about this topic, in which he stressed and promoted the importance of vitamin D and its plethora of beneficial health effects to the broad public and discussed the benefits of sensible and the risks of excessive sun exposure,[17][18]

As a graduate student he identified the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3,[19] which is the vitamin D metabolite that is measured by physicians worldwide to determine a patient's vitamin d status,[20] and identified the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3,[21] as well as other metabolites including 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3,[22] 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3[23] and 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3.[24]

As a fellow he participated in the first chemical synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3[25] and 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3[26] that was used for the first time to treat renal osteodystrophy,[27] hypoparathyroidism,[28][29] vitamin D dependent rickets type I[30] and osteoporosis.[31] Furthermore he elucidated the pathophysiology of Hereditary Vitamin D-dependent Rickets which involves defective vitamin d metabolism[32] and the pathophysiological mechanisms of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets.[33]

Holick helped develop the first clinical assays for 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D,[34] determined how vitamin D3 is made in the skin from sun exposure[35] and established how season,[36] time of day,[37] skin pigmentation,[38] sunscreen use,[39] and latitude[36] influenced this vital cutaneous process. He established that the skin was not only the organ responsible for making vitamin D3[35] but was also a target tissue for its active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.[40] He determined the extremely inhibitory effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on keratinocyte proliferation and the promoting effects on differentiation[40] and translated these seminal observations by demonstrating that the topical application of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and several of its analogs were safe and effective for the treatment of psoriasis.[41]

He demonstrated that macrophages[42] and prostate cells[43] have the enzymatic machinery to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and established that the extrarenal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 may play a crucial role not only in cancer prevention but also in regulating the immune system.[44]

He developed a vitamin D absorption test[45] and demonstrated that vitamin D was bioavailable in orange juice leading to fortification of juice products in the United States.[46] He also used the test to demonstrate the major cause of vitamin D deficiency in obesity is due to sequestration of vitamin D in the fat.[47]

He helped perform dose escalation studies with vitamin D establishing how much vitamin D is required to maintain blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the sufficient range for adults; it also demonstrated that up to 10,000 IU of vitamin D a day for 5 months did not cause toxicity.[48]

Awards[edit]

Holick was awarded for his outstanding contributions to the field of vitamin D research with many prizes,[49] including the Merit Award from the National Institute of Health, the first ASBMR Fuller Albright Award, the Mead Johnson Award, the Osborne and Mendel Award, the McCollum Award, the Robert H. Herman Award from the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, ACN Award from the American College of Nutrition, the NIH’s General Clinical Research Center's Program Award for Excellence in Clinical Research, the Psoriasis Research Achievement Award from the American Skin Association,[50] the DSM Innovation in Nutrition Award,[51] the Van Slyke Award from American Association for Clinical Chemistry,[52] the Linus Pauling Prize In Human Nutrition[53] the Delbert A Fisher Research Scholar Award from the Endocrine Society[54] and the American College of Nutrition's Communication Media Award.[55]

Publications (selection)[edit]

Michael F. Holick is author of several books, such as

  • Holick, MF (2011). The Vitamin D Solution: A 3-Step Strategy to Cure Our Most Common Health Problems. Plume 1st edition. ISBN 978-0452296886. 
  • Holick, MF; Dawson-Hughes, B (Softcover reprint of hardcover 1st ed. 2004 edition (November 9, 2010)). Nutrition and Bone Health (Nutrition and Health). Humana Press. ISBN 978-1617374517. 
  • Michael F. Holick (editor), ed. (April 23, 2010). Vitamin D: Physiology, Molecular Biology, and Clinical Applications (Nutrition and Health) (2nd ed.). Humana Press. ISBN 978-1603273008. 
  • Holick, MF; Jenkins, Mark (October 15, 2005). UV Advantage (2nd ed.). IBOOKS, INC. ISBN 978-1596879003. 

Michael F. Holick published hundreds of scientific publications in scientific journals,[7] such as:[according to whom?]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "med.harvard.edu - Biographical Sketch M.F. Holick". 
  2. ^ "Boston University School of Medicine, Michael F. Holick Ph.D., M.D.". 
  3. ^ "Vitamin D and Bone Metabolism Unit at Boston University". 
  4. ^ "Human Research Program 2010 Chair Standing Review Panel Meeting". 
  5. ^ Holick, MF; Binkley, NC; Bischoff-Ferrari, HA; Gordon, CM; Hanley, DA; Heaney, RP; Murad, MH; Weaver, CM et al. (2011). "Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 96 (7): 1911–30. doi:10.1210/jc.2011-0385. PMID 21646368. 
  6. ^ "Journal of Clinical Laboratory - Editorial Board - Editor-In-Chief - MF Holick". 
  7. ^ a b "Harvard Catalyst Profiles". 
  8. ^ Holick, MF; Chen, TC (2008). "Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences". Am J Clin Nutr. 87 (4): 1080S–6S. PMID 18400738. 
  9. ^ a b Holick, MF (2007). "Vitamin D deficiency". N Engl J Med. 357 (3): 266–81. doi:10.1056/NEJMra070553. PMID 17634462. 
  10. ^ "Dr. Sunshine". 
  11. ^ "Update on Fibromyalgia and Vitamin D". 
  12. ^ "Why You Should Be Getting More Sun". 
  13. ^ "The nature of nutrients". 
  14. ^ "Get some sun". 
  15. ^ "Scientific American - The Vitamin D and sun debate". 
  16. ^ "Bibliography M.F. Holick". 
  17. ^ "Books - Michael F. Holick". 
  18. ^ Holick, MF (2011). The Vitamin D Solution: A 3-Step Strategy to Cure Our Most Common Health Problems. Plume 1st edition. ISBN 978-0452296886. 
  19. ^ Holick, MF; Deluca, HF; Avioli, LV (1972). "Isolation and identification of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol from human plasma". Archives of Internal Medicine 129 (1): 56–61. doi:10.1001/archinte.1972.00320010060005. PMID 4332591. 
  20. ^ Hollis, BW (1996). "Assessment of vitamin D nutritional and hormonal status: what to measure and how to do it". Cacif Tissue Int. 58 (1): 4–5. doi:10.1007/BF02509538. PMID 8825231. 
  21. ^ Holick, MF; Schnoes, HK; Deluca, HF; Suda, T; Cousins, RJ (1971). "Isolation and identification of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. A metabolite of vitamin D active in intestine". Biochemistry 10 (14): 2799–804. doi:10.1021/bi00790a023. PMID 4326883. 
  22. ^ Holick, MF; Schnoes, HK; Deluca, HF; Gray, RW; Boyle, IT; Suda, T (1972). "Isolation and identification of 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, a metabolite of vitamin D made in the kidney". Biochemistry 11 (23): 4251–5. doi:10.1021/bi00773a009. PMID 4342902. 
  23. ^ Holick, MF; Kleiner-Bossaller, A; Schnoes, HK; Kasten, PM; Boyle, IT; Deluca, HF (1973). "1,24,25-Trihydroxyvitamin D3. A metabolite of vitamin D3 effective on intestine". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 248 (19): 6691–6. PMID 4355503. 
  24. ^ Deluca, HF; Suda, T; Schnoes, HK; Tanaka, Y; Holick, MF (1970). "25,26-dihydroxycholecalciferol, a metabolite of vitamin D3 with intestinal calcium transport activity". Biochemistry 9 (24): 4776–80. doi:10.1021/bi00826a022. PMID 4319987. 
  25. ^ "Nutrition classics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Volume 68, 1971, pages 803-804. "Identification of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, a form of vitamin D3 metabolically active in the intestine" by M.F.Holick, H.K. Schnoes and H.F.Deluca". Nutrition Reviews 38 (5): 190–2. 1980. PMID 7010230. 
  26. ^ Holick, M.; Holick, S.; Tavela, T; Gallagher, B; Schnoes, H.; Deluca, H. (1975). "Synthesis of (6-3H)-1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 and its metabolism in vivo to (3H)-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3". Science 190 (4214): 576–8. doi:10.1126/science.1188356. PMID 1188356. 
  27. ^ Silverberg, DS; Bettcher, KB; Dossetor, JB; Overton, TR; Holick, MF; Deluca, HF (1975). "Effect of I,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in renal osteodystrophy". Canadian Medical Association journal 112 (2): 190, 193–5. PMC 1956416. PMID 1111876. 
  28. ^ Kooh, Sang Whay; Fraser, Donald; Deluca, Hector F.; Holick, Michael F.; Belsey, Richard E.; Clark, Mary B.; Murray, Timothy M. (1975). "Treatment of Hypoparathyroidism and Pseudohypoparathyroidism with Metabolites of Vitamin D: Evidence for Impaired Conversion of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D to 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D". New England Journal of Medicine 293 (17): 840–4. doi:10.1056/NEJM197510232931702. PMID 170516. 
  29. ^ Neer, R.M.; Holick, M.F.; Deluca, H.F.; Potts, J.T. (1975). "Effects of 1α-hydroxy-vitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 on calcium and phosphorus metabolism in hypoparathyroidism". Metabolism 24 (12): 1403–13. doi:10.1016/0026-0495(75)90055-4. PMID 1196134. 
  30. ^ Balsan, S; Garabedian, M; Sorgniard, R; Holick, MF; Deluca, HF (1975). "1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1, alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 in children: Biologic and therapeutic effects in nutritional rickets and different types of vitamin D resistance". Pediatric research 9 (7): 586–93. doi:10.1203/00006450-197507000-00007. PMID 169507. 
  31. ^ Holick, MF (2007). "Optimal vitamin D status for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis". Drugs & aging 24 (12): 1017–29. doi:10.2165/00002512-200724120-00005. PMID 18020534. 
  32. ^ Fraser, Donald; Kooh, Sang Whay; Kind, H. Peter; Holick, Michael F.; Tanaka, Yoko; Deluca, Hector F. (1973). "Pathogenesis of Hereditary Vitamin-D-Dependent Rickets". New England Journal of Medicine 289 (16): 817–22. doi:10.1056/NEJM197310182891601. PMID 4357855. 
  33. ^ Glorieux, FH; Holick, MF; Scriver, CR; Deluca, HF (1973). "X-linked hypophosphataemic rickets: Inadequate therapeutic response to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol". Lancet 2 (7824): 287–9. PMID 4124774. 
  34. ^ Clemens, TL; Adams, JS; Nolan, JM; Holick, MF (1982). "Measurement of circulating vitamin D in man". Clinica Chimica Acta 121 (3): 301–8. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(82)90239-X. PMID 6286167. 
  35. ^ a b Holick, MF; MacLaughlin, JA; Clark, MB; Holick, SA; Potts, JT junior; Anderson, RR; Blank, IH; Parrish, JA et al. (1980). "Photosynthesis of previtamin D3 in human skin and the physiologic consequences". Science 210 (4466): 203–205. doi:10.1126/science.6251551. PMID 6251551. 
  36. ^ a b Webb, AR; Kline, L; Holick, MF; Nielsen, CT; Price, PA; Christiansen, C; Skakkebaek, NE (1988). "Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: Exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 67 (2): 273–8. doi:10.1210/jcem-67-2-373. PMID 2839537. 
  37. ^ Lu, Z; Chen, TC; Holick, MF (1992). "Influence of season and time of day on the synthesis of vitamin D3. In: Holick MF, Kligman A, eds. Proceedings of the Biologic Effects of Light Symposium". Berlin: Walter De Gruyter & Co. pp. 53–6. 
  38. ^ Clemens, TL; Adams, JS; Henderson, SL; Holick, MF (1982). "Increased skin pigment reduces the capacity of the skin to synthesize vitamin D". Lancet 1 (8263): 74–6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(82)90214-8. PMID 6119494. 
  39. ^ Matsuoka, LY; Ide, L; Wortsman, J; MacLaughlin, JA; Holick, MF (1987). "Sunscreens suppress cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 64 (6): 1165–8. doi:10.1210/jcem-64-6-1165. PMID 3033008. 
  40. ^ a b Smith, EL; Walworth, NC; Holick, MF (1986). "Effect of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the morphologic and biochemical differentiation of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes grown in serum-free conditions". J Ivest Dermatol. 86 (6): 709–14. doi:10.1111/1523-1747.ep12276343. PMID 2423618. 
  41. ^ Pèrez, A; Chen, TC; Turner, A; Raab, R; Bhawan, J; Poche, P; Holick, MF (1996). "Efficacy and safety of topical calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d3) for the treatment of psoriasis". Br J Dermatol. 134 (2): 238–46. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1996.tb07608.x. PMID 8746336. 
  42. ^ Adams, JS; Singer, FR; Dacad, MA; Sharma, OP; Hayes, MJ; Vouros, P; Holick, MF (1985). "Isolation and structural identification of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 produced by cultured alveolar macrophages in sarcoidosis". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 60 (5): 960–6. doi:10.1210/jcem-60-5-960. PMID 2984238. 
  43. ^ Schwartz, GG; Whitlatch, LW; Chen, TC; Lokeshwar, BL; Holick, MF (1998). "Human prostate cells synthesize 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3". Cancer Epiodemiol Biomarkers Prev. 7 (5): 391–5. PMID 9610788. 
  44. ^ Holick, MF (2004). "Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease". Am J Clin Nutr. 80 (6): 1678S–88S. PMID 15585788. 
  45. ^ Farraye, FA; Nimitphong, H; Stucchi, A; Dendrinos, K; Boulanger, A; Vijjeswarapu, A; Tanennbaum, A; Biancuzzo, R et al. (2011). "Use of a novel vitamin D bioavailability test demonstrates that vitamin D absorption is decreased in patients with quiescent Crohn's disease". Inflamm Bowel Dis. 17 (10): 2116–21. doi:10.1002/ibd.21595. PMID 21910173. 
  46. ^ Tangpricha, V; Koutkia, P; Rieke, SM; Chen, TC; Perez, AA; Holick, MF (2003). "Fortification of orange juice with vitamin D: a novel approach for enhancing vitamin D nutritional health". Am J Clin Nutr. 77 (6): 1478–83. PMID 12791627. 
  47. ^ Wortsman, J; Matsuoka, LY; Chen, TC; Lu, Z; Holick, MF (2000). "Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity". Am J Clin Nutr. 72 (3): 690–3. PMID 10966885. 
  48. ^ Heaney, RP; Davies, KM; Chen, TC; Holick, MF; Barger-Lux, MJ (2003). "Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol". Am J Clin Nutr. 78 (5): 496–7. PMID 12499343. 
  49. ^ "The UV advantage - biography - awards". 
  50. ^ "Biographical Sketch med.harvard.edu". 
  51. ^ "DSM Nutrition Award 2009 presented to Michael Holick and Heike Bischoff-Ferrari". 
  52. ^ "American Association for Clinical Chemistry - 2010 Van Slyke Award". 
  53. ^ "2009 Linus Pauling Institute Prize Recipient". 
  54. ^ "Dr. Holick honored by Endocrine Society". 
  55. ^ "BUSM professor receives 2011 ACN Communication Media Award".