Michael Friendly

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Michael Lewis Friendly (born 1945) is a Professor of Psychology at York University in Ontario, Canada, and an Associate Coordinator with the Statistical Consulting Service.


Michael Friendly received his PhD in 1972 in psychometrics and cognitive psychology from Princeton University's Department of Psychology.[1] There he held a Psychometric Fellowship awarded by the Educational Testing Service.

He is Professor of Psychology at York University, Canada, and has been associate coordinator and director of the Statistical Consulting Service since 1985.

He is Associate Editor of the Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics and an Editor of Statistical Science.


His research interests developed from generally applying quantitative and computer methods to problems in cognitive psychology, including the cognitive aspects of extracting information from graphical displays[2] in 1991 to the history of statistics and data visualization; graphical methods for data and information visualization in 2008.[3]

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Friendly is the author of four books and numerous research papers. Books:

  • 1988. Advanced Logo: A Language for Learning. Hillsdale, N.J. : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • 1991. SAS System for Statistical Graphics. Medium: Paperback.
  • 2000. Visualizing Categorical Data. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.
  • 2006. Visual statistics : seeing data with dynamic interactive graphics. With Forrest W. Young and Pedro M. Valero-Mora. Hoboken, N.J. : Wiley-Interscience.

Articles, reports, papers. A selection:

  • 1991. "Interpreting higher order interactions in loglinear analysis: A picture is worth 1000 words". With John Fox. Tech. rep., Institute for Social Research, York University, Toronto, CA.
  • 1992. "Graphical methods for categorical data". In: Proceedings of the SAS User's Group International Conference, 17:1367-1373.
  • 1994. "A fourfold display for 2 by 2 by K tables". Tech. Rep. 217, York University, Psychology Dept.
  • 1994. "Mosaic displays for multi-way contingency tables". In: Journal of the American Statistical Association, 89:190-200.
  • 2000. "A brief history of the mosaic display." Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics. 11(1):89-107. URL
  • 2000. "The roots and branches of statistical graphics". With Dan Denis. In: Journal de la Société Française de Statistique, 141(4):51-60. (published in 2001).
  • 2007. "A brief history of data visualization". In: C. Chen, Wolfgang Härdle and Antony Unwin, eds., Handbook of Computational Statistics: Data Visualization, vol. III, chap. 1, pp. 1–34. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
  • 2007. "Visualizing nature and society". With Gilles Palsky. In: James R. Akerman and Robert W. Karrow, eds., Maps: Finding Our Place in the World, pp. 205–251. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • 2007. "HE plots for Multivariate General Linear Models." Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, 16, 421-444.
  • 2008. "Milestones in the history of thematic cartography, statistical graphics, and data visualization".


  1. ^ Michael Lewis Friendly, The Mathematics Genealogy Project. Retrieved 07 July 2008.
  2. ^ SAS System for Statistical Graphics,First Edition, 1st edition ABSTRACT From the Publisher. Retrieved 07 July 2008.
  3. ^ Profiles of Faculty Members in the History and Theory of Psychology Area. Department of Psychology. York University. Retrieved 07 July 2008.

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