Michael R. Licona
|Michael R. Licona|
|Born||Michael R. Licona
July 17, 1961
|Education||BA (1983), MA (2000), PhD (2009)|
|Alma mater||University of Pretoria
|Employer||Houston Baptist University.|
Michael R. 'Mike' Licona (born July 17, 1961) is an American New Testament scholar, Christian apologist and historian. He is Associate Professor in Theology at Houston Baptist University, and the director of Risen Jesus, Inc. Licona specializes in the Resurrection of Jesus, and in the literary analysis of the Gospels as Greco-Roman biographies.
Licona was raised in a Christian family, and became a Christian at age 10. When he entered Liberty University, he wanted to go into the ministry as a musician, and obtained an undergraduate degree is in music performance (saxophone). He is are also an accomplished martial artist, having studied under Sang Ki Eun, and Robert Fujimura, the latter having been Executive Director of the United States Taekwondo Union.
Licona completed his Ph.D. in New Testament Studies (University of Pretoria) which he completed "with distinction" and the highest mark as well as an M.A. in Religious Studies from Liberty University. He was the Apologetics Coordinator at the North American Mission Board (Southern Baptist Convention) through 2011. His book The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach is considered one of the top authoritative treatments on the subject, having been endorsed by many prominent scholars. He has also lectured on more than 70 university campuses throughout North America and appeared on numerous television and radio programs, including Faith Under Fire. He appeared in the DVD version of The Case for Christ and was one of the scholars interviewed in Strobel’s book The Case for the Real Jesus.
Licona’s present research concerns why there are differences in the Gospels. With a majority of contemporary scholars, Licona views the Gospels as belonging to the genre of ancient biography and contends they are best interpreted with this in mind, since ancient biographies were written with slightly different rules than those used with modern biographies. Licona’s research focuses on identifying biographical devices employed by Plutarch and asking whether these can account for the differences one observes when comparing stories about Jesus that appear in two or more of the canonical Gospels.
Historical Case for Jesus' Resurrection
Licona’s doctoral research concerned investigating Jesus’s resurrection using the methodology of a historian. He states that almost all scholars writing on the subject of Jesus’s resurrection are biblical scholars and philosophers. And virtually none of them have any training in matters pertaining to the philosophy of history and the historical method of comparing hypotheses. So, Licona contributes a primer on these subjects and applies his findings to the question of whether Jesus had actually risen from the dead in his book The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach. This volume is 718 pages in length and is documented with more than 2,000 footnotes.
Matthew 27 controversy
In a passage in his 2010 book, The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach, Michael Licona questioned the interpretation of the story of the resurrection of the saints in Matthew 27, and suggested the possibility that it might be apocalyptic imagery. This led to controversy with fellow Evangelical scholars Norman Geisler and Albert Mohler, who both accused Licona of denying the full inerrancy of the Bible in general and the gospel narratives in particular. Licona maintained that adjusting an interpretation on a text is not a denial of inerrancy. In the course of events, Licona resigned in 2011 from his position as research professor at Southern Evangelical Seminary and as apologetics coordinator for the North American Mission Board (NAMB). Other Evangelical scholars such as William Lane Craig, J.P. Moreland, and Gary Habermas voiced their support for Licona by signing an open letter to Geisler. In a round table discussion on the issue, Craig Blomberg urged that another educational institute of similar prestige offer him a teaching role. Licona was hired shortly afterward by Houston Baptist University.
In the course of the controversy over the raised saints in the Gospel of Matthew, Evangelicals such as Norman Geisler and Albert Mohler have questioned whether Licona is moving away from his evangelical views and is headed in a similar path traveled by the agnostic New Testament scholar Bart Ehrman. Licona’s approach seems to provide fodder for his critics. While asserting his belief in the divine authority of the Bible and even its inerrancy, he claims he cannot presuppose these beliefs while engaged in historical research. He also claims the doctrine of biblical inerrancy is not a doctrine fundamental to the Christian faith. In a radio exchange with Bart Ehrman, Licona said that if Jesus actually rose from the dead, Christianity is true even if it were also true that some things in the Bible were not. Licona has noted what he saw as several problems with the argument for inerrancy provided by Norman Geisler.
Licona is married to Debbie and has two children; a daughter Allie and a son Zach. Licona's son-in-law Nick Peters is a Christian apologist who blogs on a regular basis and has a weekly podcast called Deeper Waters.
Debates and dialogues
- "Evan Fales (atheist) at University of St. Thomas (St. Paul, MN), “Can historians investigate miracle claims?” and “Did Jesus rise from the dead?” (June 24, 2014)".
- "Dale Martin at Acadia Divinity College, "Did Jesus Think He was Divine?" (October 19, 2012)".
- "Dale Martin at Saint Mary's University, "Did Jesus Rise Physically from the Dead?" (October 18, 2012)".
- "Greg Cavin at Antioch Church, "Did Jesus Rise from the Dead?" (July, 2012)".
- "Shane Puckett (Agnostic) at West Monroe Baptist Church, "Did Jesus Rise from the Dead?" (January, 2012)".
- "Yusuf Ismail (Muslim) at the University of Potchefstroom,(South Africa), "What was the 1st century fate of Jesus" (September 2011)".
- "Stephen Patterson (Jesus Seminar) at Florida State University, “Did Jesus Rise from the Dead?” (March, 2010)".
- "Richard Carrier (Atheist) at Washburn University, “Did Jesus Rise from the Dead?” (February, 2010)".
- "Bart Ehrman (Agnostic) at Southern Evangelical Seminary, “Can Historians Prove that Jesus Rose from the Dead?” (April, 2009)".
- "Bart Ehrman (Agnostic) at Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, “Can Historians Prove that Jesus Rose from the Dead?” (February, 2008)".
- "Ali Ataie (Muslim) at the University of California (Davis), “What was the First Century Fate of Jesus?” (November, 2006)".
- "Steve Yothment (Atheist) at the University of Georgia, “Resolution: God Created Man” (March, 2006)".
- "Elaine Pagels on Ron Insana Show, “Did Jesus Rise from the Dead?” (April, 2005)".
- "Elaine Pagels on Faith Under Fire, “The Gospel of Thomas” (February, 2005)".
- "Shabir Ally (Muslim) on Faith Under Fire, “Who was Jesus: Divine or Prophet?” (November, 2004)".
- "Richard Carrier (Atheist) at UCLA, “Did Jesus Rise from the Dead?” (April, 2004)".
- "Shabir Ally (Muslim) at Regent University, “Did Jesus Rise from the Dead?” (March, 2004)".
- "Dan Barker (Atheist) at the University of Wisconsin (Madison), “Did Jesus Rise from the Dead?” (April, 2003)".
- The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach. IVP Academic. 2010. ISBN 978-0-8308-2719-0.
- Dembski, William, ed. (2010). Evidence for God: 50 Arguments for Faith from the Bible, History, Philosophy & Science. Baker Academic. ISBN 978-0-8010-7260-4.
- Paul Meets Muhammad: A Christian-Muslim Debate on the Resurrection. Baker Academic. 2006. ISBN 978-0-8010-6602-3.
- Licona, Michael; Habermas, Gary (2004). The Case for the Resurrection of Jesus. Kregel. ISBN 978-0-8254-2788-6.
- Behold, I Stand At the Door and Knock: What to Say to Mormons and Jehovah's Witnesses When They Knock on Your Door. Truth Quest Publishers. 1998. AISN: B00126UFDS
- U.S. Public Records Index Vol 1 (Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc.), 2010.
- "Michael Licona Interview". The Best Schools. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "About Taekwondo".
- "The Resurrection of Jesus". InterVarsity Press. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Faith Under Fire: Michael Licona and Elaine Pagels". Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- "Faculty Page". Houston Baptist University. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- "Why Are There Differences in the Gospels". Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- Licona, Michael R. (2010). The resurrection of Jesus : a new historiographical approach (2nd print. ed.). Downers Grove, Ill.: IVP Academic. pp. 611–612. ISBN 0830827196.
- Anderson, Garwood. "Review Essay". Academia. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- "A Roundtable discussion with Michael Licona". Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- Erin, Roach (Feb 13, 2013). "HBU's Licona addresses Bible's 'contradictions'".
- Mohler, Albert. "Biblical Inerrancy and the Licona Controversy". Christian Post. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- "Bart Ehrman & Mike Licona Discuss Decisions". Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- "On Chicago's Muddy Waters". Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- Peters, Nick. "Deeper Waters". Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Peters, Nick. "Deeper Waters Podcast". Deeper Waters. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Mike Licona's website
- Interview with Nick Peters Licona discusses Plutarch's Lives and how they relate to scholarship regarding the Gospels.