Michaelmas

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For other uses, see Michaelmas (disambiguation).
Feast of Saints Michael, Gabriel, Uriel and Raphael
Linz StMartin01.JPG
Saint Michael the Archangel
Observed by Anglican Church, Catholic Church, Lutheran Church[1]
Date September 29
Next time 29 September 2015 (2015-09-29)
Frequency annual

Michaelmas /ˈmɪkəlməs/, the feast of Saint Michael the Archangel (also the Feast of Saints Michael, Gabriel, Uriel and Raphael, the Feast of the Archangels, or the Feast of Saint Michael and All Angels), is a day in the Western Christian liturgical year that occurs on 29 September. Because it falls near the equinox, it is associated in the northern hemisphere with the beginning of autumn and the shortening of days. In medieval England, Michaelmas marked the ending and beginning of the husbandman's year, George C. Homans observes: "at that time harvest was over, and the bailiff or reeve of the manor would be making out the accounts for the year."[2]

In Christianity, the Archangel Michael is the greatest of all the Archangels and is honored for defeating Lucifer in the war in heaven.[3] He is one of the principal angelic warriors, seen as a protector against the dark of night, and the administrator of cosmic intelligence. Michaelmas has also delineated time and seasons for secular purposes as well, particularly in Britain and Ireland as one of the quarter days.

The Eastern Orthodox Churches do not observe Michaelmas, except the Serbian Orthodox Church.[4] The Greek Orthodox honor the archangels on 8 November instead.

History[edit]

During the Middle Ages, Michaelmas was celebrated as a Holy Day of Obligation, but this tradition was abolished in the 18th century. Lutheran Christians consider it a principal feast of Christ, and the Lutheran Confessor, Philip Melanchthon, wrote a hymn for the day that is still sung in Lutheran Churches: "Lord God to Thee We Give". It was also one of the English, Welsh and Irish quarter days when accounts had to be settled. On manors, it was the day when a reeve was elected from the peasants. On the Isle of Skye, Scotland, a procession was held.

Food[edit]

Traditional meal for the day includes goose (a "stubble-goose", i.e. one prepared around harvest time) and a special cake called a Struan Michael,[5] St Michael's bannock, or Michaelmas Bannock.[6] Nuts were traditionally cracked on Michaelmas Eve.[7]

Differences in number of archangels[edit]

In Anglican and Episcopal tradition, there are three or four archangels in its calendar for 29 September feast for St. Michael and All Angels: namely Michael, Gabriel and Raphael,[8] and often, Uriel.[9][10][11][12][13] The Bible itself identifies only Michael as "the archangel" (book of Jude, verse 9) and does not identify any other creatures as being archangels.

Autumn term in universities[edit]

Main article: Michaelmas term

It is used in the extended sense of autumn, used as the name of the first term of the academic year, which begins at this time, at various educational institutions in the United Kingdom and Ireland. These are typically those with lengthy history and traditions, notably the Universities of, Cambridge, Oxford, Durham, Saint Andrews, King's College London, University of King's College, Aberystwyth, Dublin, Glasgow, Kent and the London School of Economics.

Use by legal profession[edit]

The Inns of Court of the English Bar and the Honorable Society of King's Inns in Ireland also have a Michaelmas term as one of their dining terms. It begins in September and ends towards the end of December.

The term is also the name of the first of four terms into which the legal year is divided by the courts of Wales and England.[14]

The U.S. Supreme Court follows this tradition (though not by name) by convening each new term the first Monday in October, which is shortly after Michaelmas.[15]

Modern observances[edit]

Blue Mass

Michaelmas is still celebrated in the Waldorf schools, which celebrate it as the "festival of strong will" during the autumnal equinox. Rudolf Steiner considered it the second most important festival after Easter, Easter being about Christ ("He is laid in the grave and He has risen"). Michaelmas is about man once he finds Christ ("He is risen, therefore he can be laid in the grave"), meaning man finds the Christ (risen), therefore he will be safe in death (laid in the grave with confidence)[16]

Because Michael is the patron of the police officers, Michaelmas may also be a Blue Mass.[17]

Old Michaelmas Day[edit]

Old Michaelmas Day falls on October 11 (October 10 according to some sources). According to an old legend, blackberries should not be picked after this date. This is because, so folklore goes, Satan was banished from Heaven on this day, fell into a blackberry bush and cursed the brambles as he fell into them. In Yorkshire, it is said that the devil had spat on them. According to Morrell (1977), this old legend is well known in all parts of the United Kingdom, even as far north as the Orkney Islands. In Cornwall, a similar legend prevails, however, the saying goes that the devil urinated on them.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Donald Spence Jones (1898). The Anglican Church. Cassell. p. 290. 
  2. ^ George C. Homans, English Villagers of the Thirteenth Century, 2nd ed. 1991:354.
  3. ^ Richard Freeman Johnson (2005), Saint Michael the Archangel in medieval English legend, Boydell Press, p. 105, retrieved 2010-07-11 
  4. ^ http://www.crkvenikalendar.com/slave/1210.php
  5. ^ http://www.betterbaking.com/struan.php
  6. ^ http://www.cooksinfo.com/michaelmas-bannock
  7. ^ Koenig, Chris (21 September 2011). "Merry times at the Michaelmas Feast". The Oxford Times. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  8. ^ Oremus.org website. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
  9. ^ Saint Uriel Church website patron Saint web page. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
  10. ^ Episcopal Church, Standing Liturgical Commission. The proper for the lesser feasts and fasts: together with the fixed holy days, Church Hymnal Corp., 1988, ISBN 978-0-89869-214-3. p. 380
  11. ^ Anglican.org website Michaelmas page. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
  12. ^ St. George's Lennoxville website, What Are Anglicans, Anyway? page. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
  13. ^ Christ Church Eureka website, September Feasts page. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
  14. ^ The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom; Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, Judicial Sitting for the Michaelmas Term, Monday 4th October –Tuesday 21st December 2010, retrieved 2010-11-08 
  15. ^ Supreme Court of the United States, The Court and Its Procedures, retrieved 2010-11-08, A Term of the Supreme Court begins, by statute, on the first Monday in October. 
  16. ^ Cycle of the Year, Lectures from RS Archive-GA223.
  17. ^ http://www.catholicculture.org/culture/liturgicalyear/calendar/day.cfm?date=2014-09-29

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]