Michigan State University Spartan Marching Band
|Spartan Marching Band|
|School||Michigan State University|
|Director||John T. Madden (1989-present)|
|Assistant Director||Cormac V.P. Cannon (2009-present)|
|Fight song||"MSU Fight Song"|
|Uniform||White jacket with green trim - or- green jacket with white sleeves and trim, green pants with white stripes, white officer's hat with green & white plume|
The Spartan Marching Band (or SMB) is Michigan State University's Marching Band. Founded in 1870 as a 10-member student group, the 300-member SMB has since grown into one of the premier bands in the United States. The SMB made their first appearance in the Rose Bowl in 1954. The band has played for five U.S. Presidents, performed at five Rose Bowls, two World's Fairs, and one World Series. The Spartan Marching Band is the oldest band in the Big Ten Conference.
The SMB has toured the United States extensively, appearing in concert and on football fields in San Francisco, New York City, Dallas, Chicago, Indianapolis, Detroit, Las Vegas, Albuquerque, Orlando, St. Louis, Denver, New Orleans, Pasadena, Salt Lake City, El Paso, San Antonio, Tokyo, Tucson, San Diego, Tampa and Washington, D.C.
- 1 History
- 2 Instrumentation
- 3 Auditions
- 4 Member responsibilities
- 5 Organization
- 6 Gameday traditions
- 7 Other traditions
- 8 Travel
- 9 Trivia
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Shortly after the founding of Michigan Agricultural College in 1855 as the nation’s first land grant institution intended to promote scientific agriculture through education in the same, 10 veterans of the civil war organized the first band on campus. This band became the first such group organized among the future members of the Big Ten Conference. A little known fact of MSU is that a bronze marker commemorating the students of MAC's class of 1861 who left to fight in the war is hidden on the wall behind tall bushes alongside the lobby of the present music building. The field North of the building, where the band practiced from its early days through most of the 20th century was originally the military drill field and the music building sits on the site of the old armory building in front of which that memorial was placed. These veterans, under the leadership of Ransom McDonough Brooks performed on campus in the 1870s and were the predecessors of today’s Spartan Marching Band.
MAC military band
In 1885 when the campus established a formal relationship with the military, the band was reorganized as a cadet military band. During this time the band was led by students and military officers including cornetist I.E. Hill, and professor B.G. Edgerton who was the first to lead the band in performance before a US President (Theodore Roosevelt). Other directors in this period included A.J. Clark, Frederick Abel, J.S. Taylor, and Carl Kuhlman. Taylor would lead the first band to perform the new college fight song written by cheerleader Francis Lankey. That performance would come shortly after young Lankey’s death in 1919.
The Falcone years
The longest serving director of the band was Leonard Falcone. He was an Italian immigrant and brother of University of Michigan band director Nicholas Falcone. During his 40 year tenure, many of the band's traditions were established and the band grew from a 65 member ROTC auxiliary into an adjunct of the new department that would become today’s college of music. The first green and white uniforms and many other significant changes would happen during this time. When the career of Nicholas came to a premature end due to illness in 1935, Leonard Falcone would earn the distinction of being the only person to direct the bands at the rival schools concurrently.
Falcone was a baritone horn virtuoso, professor of baritione and euphonium, and a prolific transcriber and arranger of music for concert band. He arranged and rearranged the fight song continuously throughout his career and his name is still tied to one of those arrangements used at every game dubbed “Falcone Fight” by the band.
Falcone drastically increased the visibility of the band through an aggressive schedule of performances and trips. He added 3 US Presidential performances to the band’s resume as well as 3 televised Rose Bowl Parade and game performances in the 50s and 60s. There was a band shell on the campus where Bessey Hall stands today that was the site of regular band concerts for many years.
Falcone retired and took on a roll as professor emeritus in 1967, though he remained a fixture around the campus until weeks before his death in 1985.
Ushering in a new era
Assistant Director Bill Moffit, who was known for directing Purdue's marching band in later years and invading the quiet neighborhoods of East Lansing to march them to Falcone’s doorstep before a game in 1984, added a new dynamism to the marching patterns on the field in the 1960s. This continued under future directors including Harry Begian, Kenneth Bloomquist, Thad Hegerberg, Carl Chevallard, David Catron and longtime assistant William Wiedrich. Many of these served only one year as director of the band including William Wiedrich who had previously been the assistant for 6 years under the only long-term director of this period, David Catron. In 1989, John T. Madden became director of the band, now the second-longest-serving director in band history. During his tenure, the band has added two more presidential performances and foreign venues to its long list of accomplishments.
The Spartan Marching Band instrumentation of "all brass and sax" is notable among college bands in the United States. The Ohio State University and San Jose State University, both of which are all brass, are the only Division I marching bands with similar instrumentation. There are no flutes or clarinets in the SMB. Instead, E-flat cornets play the high "woodwind-like" parts. The extra brass and elimination of flutes and clarinets allows the full ensemble sound to fill large Big Ten stadiums. As of the 2008 season, all horn-playing members perform with silver instruments on game days. In addition to the percussion and color guard, each year the pregame block contains 238–241 additional personnel:
- 1 or 2 Drum Majors
- 1 to 3 Feature Twirlers
- 36 member color guard
- 36 Alto Saxophones
- 16 Tenor Saxophones
- 8 E flat Cornets
- 48 B Flat Trumpets
- 28 Mellophones
- 36 Trombones
- 16 Baritones
- 16 Sousaphones
- 14 Big Ten Flags
Pop Tune Performances
Gaining membership in the SMB is highly competitive. Typically, many more incoming students audition than are eventually accepted. However, once accepted, students do not have to reaudition every year (with the exception of the percussion section). Auditions are arranged through the MSU College of Music and occur in June, with results made known at the beginning of July. Music majors may join the band on their primary college of music instrument (brass or saxophone) without this initial audition. For non-music majors or music majors wishing to play a different instrument in marching band, the audition consists of:
- A prepared piece of music typically 1–2 minutes with contrasting styles
- Scales prepared up to four sharps and flats
Once accepted into the Spartan Marching Band, members must complete an additional audition on the first day of pre-season rehearsal with the full band in attendance to determine chair and block placement. For example, if there are 60 trumpet players in the section and only 56 members charted in the pregame block, the 56 best trumpets from the audition become members of the pregame block. The 4 extra members will not be included in the block and are known as "alternates." Alternates still have full band privileges and responsibilities and must still memorize the music and drill in case they are needed. Every week, all alternates audition in front of a graduate assistant for both pregame and halftime placement. The winning alternate takes the place of the last place member in the block (known as the "rotating chair"); the person who previously held this rotating chair position then joins the alternate pool for that week.
Membership in the Spartan Marching Band requires a tremendous time commitment. Some weeks entail more than 20 hours of rehearsal and performance. Homecoming week is especially demanding, as band members may have multiple parades, performances, and small "gigs" around campus. There are four types of rehearsal:
- General rehearsal: During fall semester the band has general rehearsal every Monday through Friday from 4:30 to 6:00 pm on the Forest Akers Trust Practice Complex, located south of Munn Ice Arena on the campus of Michigan State University in East Lansing, MI. Practice is open to the public and grandstand seating is available. Typically, the drumline will practice an additional hour on Monday, Wednesday and Friday before full band rehearsal.
- Indoor rehearsal: In addition to general rehearsal, members of the brass and saxophone sections are required to attend an indoor, sitting music rehearsal every Monday night from 7–9 pm in Demonstration Hall. This rehearsal is not open to the public. Other sections (drumline, Color Guard and Big Ten Flags) use this time for their own rehearsals in separate locations.
- Gameday rehearsal: The band has Saturday morning, "gameday" rehearsal before every home game on Adams Field, located directly west of the music building. Although times vary, practice usually begins 4–5 hours before kickoff and lasts for around an hour. This rehearsal is open to the public and seating is readily available.
- Sectionals: Finally, members are expected to attend sectional rehearsal ("sectionals") at least once per week, usually twice. Times and days vary by section and typically occur on Wednesday/Friday before general rehearsal. This practice usually occurs outside, in view of the public, but seating areas for observation are very limited or nonexistent.
Given the urgency of music and marching preparation, all band members are expected to be present and on-time at every rehearsal.
- Marching Band is a 1-credit "pass/fail" course. Students must enroll in MUS 114 to be considered members of the band.
- Members of the Spartan Marching Band are not typically reimbursed by the university for ordinary band membership, although some members may qualify for scholarships if they meet certain criteria.
- Musicians who have been accepted into the College of Music are not required to audition to join the SMB.
||This section possibly contains original research. (July 2014)|
Members of the Spartan Marching Band are expected to represent the university with class and dignity; membership is a solemn privilege, one meant to be held in the highest esteem. For these reasons, band members must respect each other in the utmost as fellow musicians, marchers, and Spartans. Any negative publicity or defamatory images caused to be associated with the university or the band as a consequence of a student member's actions are dealt with severely.
While in uniform, members must act as paragons of grace and civility. The uniform must always be perfectly pristine and neatly laundered, and numerous uniform protocols must be adhered to. Members are not permitted to swear, consume alcohol, or engage in any other sort of crass behavior while in uniform or while wearing the band varsity jacket.
Since 1989, the director of the Spartan Marching Band has been John T. Madden, a graduate of Michigan State University and an SMB alumnus. Madden is also the director of the Spartan Brass, the athletic band for men's and women's basketball and hockey. As Associate Director of Bands, he also directs the MSU Symphony Band (the middle of MSU's three auditioned concert bands), and teaches private conducting lessons for several Wind Conducting graduate students. Furthermore, he teaches a "Marching Band Methods" class each Spring for music education undergrads who might teach high school marching bands in the future. Dr. Cormac Cannon serves as the Assistant Director of the Spartan Marching Band
Instructors and graduate assistants
Working directly under Mr. Madden are graduate assistants and instructors. Instructors are typically paid positions and their duties include looking after the colorguard and percussion sections. In addition, the Spartan Marching Band has a visual and field coordinator - Glen Brough, alumnus and former drum major of the SMB. Graduate assistants are graduate students from the MSU School of Music who help arrange music for halftime shows, conduct challenges, and assist with auditions.
Typically, the Spartan Marching Band has only one drum major for the entire ensemble. However, in years when the drum major is a graduating senior there are two, allowing the new drum major to have one season of apprenticeship. Auditioning for drum major requires attending instructional sessions by the current drum major, culminating in a one-day event with the director making the final selection. The drum major is the highest ranking student official in the organization. Gameday responsibilities include leading the pregame show and performing a backbend, a hallmark of the Spartan Marching band.
Band president and vice president
Each year, the band elects a new president and vice president. The band president and vice president represent the band and are the connection between the directors and the band members. It is the job of the band president to organize and distribute all gigs that the Spartan Marching Band must fulfill during the school year, and make sure that everything at the gigs runs smoothly. The band vice president assists the band president in his duties, and also sends out much of the business correspondence that goes out to band members. The president and vice president are elected at the end of the normal marching band season by popular vote, with all candidates running for both president and vice president.
The section leader is the head of an individual section within the band. Larger sections, such as the trumpets, may have two or even three leaders. Section leaders for the upcoming year are elected at the end of each football season. Soon after becoming director, John Madden in 1991 instituted a leadership training program for the band's student leaders. Section leaders, squad leaders, and drum majors meet in April to learn leadership strategies and the expectations of their respective roles.
Each squad leader is responsible for three other marchers on the field. This four-person block allows for great flexibility and complexity during the pregame show. Squad leaders for the upcoming year are also elected by the members of their section at the end of each season. Each alternate is also assigned to a specific squad; however, all alternates substitute for the rotating chair position, unless an injury prevents another member of the section from performing in the show.
The "Voice of the Band"
The Announcer for the Spartan Marching Band is also known as the "Voice of the Band." Throughout the years, the SMB has only had a few people in this position. "The Voice" introduces the band during Pre-Game, Halftime and Postgame, as well as many special events, pep rallies, and Spartan Spectacular, in addition to traveling with the band on away trips and bowl games. The longest running, and most well known, to hold this position is legendary broadcaster Tim Skubick: longtime host of the Michigan Political show "Off The Record". Tim served as the band's voice starting in 1968 (after being a member of the band from 1963-1967). In 1993, following the regular season, Skubick stepped down from the role. Starting with the Band's performance at the 1993 Liberty Bowl, and continuing through the 1997 season, the position was held by longtime Lansing broadcaster Jerry Marshal. In 1998, a first for the band, Peter Clay took over the role while still a senior at MSU. Peter left after just one year to pursue a job in broadcasting out-of-state. From 1999 through 2007, Radio broadcaster Tim Kiesling was the Voice of the band. In 2008 Peter Clay, TV and radio broadcaster and former Tuba in the band, returned to the role and is the current voice of the band.
Concert on Adams Field
"The Series" is the name of the percussion cadence ("street beat") used by the SMB for parade marching. It is composed of seven different cadences strung together (in series) in march tempo. Each cadence has a unique set of maneuvers specific to each section—the tubas, for example, will have horn flashes during one cadence, while the trumpets will perform different horn flashes during another. The Series is extremely intricate and requires hours of practice (in addition to regular pre-season rehearsals) by new members to memorize their section's moves. It uses a full high step throughout (with the exception of the drumline and the color guard), and combined with the intricacy of the upper body movements and vocals, is one of the most physically demanding and uniquely recognizable trademarks of the SMB. This is the cadence used as the band marches to Spartan Stadium each game day. Thousands of fans line the Kalamazoo Street bridge to cheer on the band as they march to the stadium.
The Kickstep is a very fast field entrance which has become a trademark of the SMB. It was established in 1954, the first year MSU attended the Rose Bowl. Performed at 220 beats per minute, the kickstep is a run-on routine choreographed in eight-count segments with horn, knee, and hand accents on counts two and four. The kickstep is a highly strenuous physical routine which requires intensive practice and conditioning.
Spinning the "S"
This is a drill move performed by the Spartan Marching Band during the pregame show while playing the Michigan State University fight song. While playing the breakstrain of the fight song, marching band shifts to a hollow Block "S" formation, with the final shape popping up and charging down the field at the exact moment that the chorus of the song begins. The four-man "squad" drill that is unique to the Spartan Marching Band causes the "S" to appear as though it is being "spun" as the marching band shifts to position.
As the Spartan Marching Band plays the fight song during parade marching and the pregame routine, all of the instrumentalists and auxiliary performers execute an eight-count horn swing with an accented upward movement on the 8th count. New members learn this maneuver as a "7-up", counted as such: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - UP!
Visitor's fight song
A Big Ten tradition, during every pregame show the SMB performs the opposing team's fight song upfield towards the visitor's section. In Spartan Stadium and wherever the band travels, from Hawaii to arch-rival Michigan, the SMB considers it a point of pride and respect to play the opposition's fight song with the utmost musicality.
Third quarter cheer
Between the third and fourth quarters of home football games, the percussion section performs their "third quarter cheer" in the southeast endzone. The show varies by year and is a favorite among the student section.
After every home game, the Spartan Marching Band takes the field one last time to perform selections from the day's halftime show. In addition, the band often performs a favorite postgame tune, such as Carlos Santana's "Everybody's Everything". Postgame shows traditionally end with MSU's alma mater and fight song to round out another Spartan football experience.
After a home football game, percussion members of the visiting band are invited to a drum off on Adams Field. This is not really meant as a competition, but rather a showcase of both drumlines' talents.
Big Ten Flags
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (January 2009)|
The Big Ten Flag Corps is a pre-game and parade tradition in the Spartan Marching Band. Members carry large banner type flags on lance poles, which salute the fourteen universities in the Big Ten Conference. The section consists of dedicated, hard-working and athletic individuals who carry out unique traditions that exhibit the style and form of the Spartan Marching Band.
The Big Ten Flag Corps comprises two squads. The section leader, who carries the Michigan State flag leads the squad consisting of the Minnesota, Indiana, Northwestern, Iowa and Ohio State flags. The squad leader carries the Michigan flag and leads the squad consisting of the Illinois, Nebraska, Penn State, Purdue and Wisconsin flags. Members audition once during pre-season and a second time during the middle of the season for flag placement. The section leader and squad leader evaluate members for flag placement. Members are evaluated on performance of the Series, fundamentals and Prancing.
Flags are not ranked; however each flag has a specific role dependent upon their position in the block. For example, typically the Ohio State flag and Wisconsin flag are held by good prancers because that position requires the individual to travel the furthest during pre-game, while Penn State is in the center of the squad and therefore requires an individual with good 8 to 5 marching.
The Big Ten Flag Corps leads the front of The Series parade block, with the section leader in front. During Big Ten conference play, the member carrying the flag of the opposing Big Ten school marches alongside the section leader.
Pre-season drill begins 10 days before the beginning of classes. During this week, new members can spend over 120 hours practicing. Percussionists arrive ten days before the start of classes, followed by section leaders, squad leaders, and the drum major(s) on Saturday. New members arrive next, and "non-leader" veteran members ("vets") arrive last. Typically, music and field rehearsal begins at 8:30 A.M. and lasts, with breaks, until 8:50 P.M. After this whole-band rehearsal, freshmen are required to attend "freshmen orientation" inside Demonstration Hall from 9 P.M. to 11 P.M. Pre-season rehearsal ends with a light schedule on the day before classes start: uniform inspection and full-band and section pictures. A practice "march to the stadium" usually occurs on the Monday before the evening before (public viewing is encouraged), followed by an in the stands rehearsal to end the preseason drills. The public is not permitted in the stadium for this rehearsal. In-uniform pictures are scheduled no earlier, because incoming freshmen earn the right to wear the uniform the evening prior, by demonstrating everything they learned during the week in a rite of passage known as "Freshman Dress Rehearsal" (formerly known by many names including the "Hayride", "Midnight March", and "Student-Run Review Rehearsal").
The Spartan Marching Band learns a new halftime show for every home game of the season. All members are expected to have their music memorized by Thursday of the week of the game. Any member, despite rank in the block, may be pulled out of a show for that week for not having music or the marching drill memorized. Full-sized flip-folders are never used. All freshmen and veterans assigned to a new part must play all the MSU bleacher cheers and pregame music for their section leaders from memory by the end of Freshmen Dress Rehearsal, or forfeit their place in the block, becoming an alternate.
Every band member must learn the MSU alma mater, MSU Shadows, which was arranged by MSC Music Professor H. Owen Reed, with words by coach Barney Traynor. Sung in four-part harmony, MSU Shadows was introduced in 1948 and is played and/or sung by the band. After marching to Spartan Stadium, the band gathers near the tunnel leading onto the football field and sings before lining up for the pregame Kickstep entrance. It is always played during the Pregame performance. MSU Shadows is also sung at the end of game days, after marching back and usually performing for the sizable crowd of band fans. After the final home game of the year after the seniors sing the infrequently-sung second verse, the content of which is about one's love for MSU remaining after graduating. MSU Shadows is also featured prominently during the annual Alumni Band Reunion Day, during which band alumni gather from around the world to perform at halftime during a home game.
Sparty Watch is a band-sponsored event beginning Monday night before the University of Michigan game and ending the evening after the game. Sparty Watch is a 24-hours/day guard of the Spartan statue to prevent vandalism. The football coach has been known to show up with food for the hungry band members camped out in the cold.
Huddle is a formal dance occurring in the month of February, once the activities of football season have come to an end. This is a celebration replete with video presentations, slideshows, hors d'oeuvres, and an opportunity to regale with friends for what may be (in the case of graduating seniors) the last time.
High School Band Day
High School Band Day was a long-running tradition in Spartan Stadium where high school bands from across the state were invited to perform during a home game halftime. The first Band Day was held on November 6, 1954. In its heyday, the event gathered more than 3,000 musicians. After nearly forty years, the tradition ended in 2001.
Though there is no formal requirement to do so, it is tradition that every freshman band member purchase a band jacket during their inaugural preseason. The privilege of wearing the jacket must be earned, and thus only members, alumni of the band, or honorary recipients are permitted to wear their own jacket. Freshmen are not permitted to wear the band jacket until after they have marched in their first football game. Common practice also dictates that jackets may only be dry-cleaned following a victory over the University of Michigan.
Patches are given to the band to mark notable events of the season and to designate one's section of instruments. "Notable events" include lesser bowl games, iconic games and demonstrations (as for the "Cold War" hockey game played at Spartan Stadium, the "Basket Bowl" basketball game played at Ford Field, and Michigan State University's Sesquicentennial Parade), and the trophied Rose Bowl. All bowl game patches must be placed one inch apart on the left sleeve. Only two patches are permitted on the sleeve at any given time. All sections are represented by a unique section patch. Although only one section patch is permitted, a member who switches sections may sew the former section patch inside their jacket. Rose Bowl patches are the ultimate prize patch; they replace the Spartan Marching Band logo on the front of the band jacket, so the MSU Shield patch is removed and stitched inside the front-left portion of the jacket, over the wearer's heart. All non-bowl patches can be sewn one inch apart into the inner lining of the jacket, along with any bowl patches that exceed the sleeve limit.
Twin ZE Pins
The only non-patch accessories that are allowed to be worn directly on the band jacket are Kappa Kappa Psi and Tau Beta Sigma membership pins. The two groups, a fraternity and sorority, are the official Greek organizations associated with the band; however, they are far from typical frats and sororities. ΚΚΨ and TBΣ exist largely to support and gain media exposure for the band. As "Twin ZE" (each was inaugurated as the Zeta Epsilon chapter of their respective national organization), the two groups often work alongside one another to fundraise and promote band activities.
The full Spartan Marching Band will travel to one or two away games per year. Travel to Notre Dame (odd numbered years) and the University of Michigan (even numbered years) occurs yearly. If the full band is not able to attend more than 2 games then a pep band may be sent. Pep bands do not parade march, perform pregame, halftime, or postgame shows. Overnight travel may be included in which case members are put up with "host families" or in hotels at no cost to members.
The Spartan Marching Band enjoys a long-standing tradition of traveling to bowl games. There is no further audition required for band members; all members are required to participate in the travel (which is not the case in other Big Ten bands). There is no cost to students. Bowl appearances for the Spartan Band include: 1954, 1956, 1966, 1988, and 2014 Rose Bowls; 2009 and 2011 (Rose Bowl) Pasadena California;Capital One Bowl (Orlando, FL); 2012 Outback Bowl (Tampa, FL); 2013 Buffalo Wild Wings Bowl (Tempe, AZ); 2007 Champs Sports Bowl (Orlando, FL); 2003 and 2010 Alamo Bowl (San Antonio, TX); 2001 Silicon Valley Football Classic (San José, CA); 2000 Citrus Bowl (Orlando, FL); 1996 and 1990 Sun Bowl (El Paso, TX); 1995 Independence Bowl (Shreveport, LA); 1993 St. Jude Liberty Bowl (Memphis, TN); 1990 John Hancock Bowl (El Paso, TX); 1989 Mazda Gator Bowl (Jacksonville, FL); 1985 All-American Bowl (Birmingham, AL); and 1984 Cherry Bowl (Pontiac, MI). A portion of the SMB also traveled to the 1993 Coca-Cola Bowl in Tokyo, Japan and the 1997 Aloha Bowl in Honolulu, HI.
- The 300 member Spartan Band is one of the oldest and most recognized university marching bands in the country.
- The Spartan Band was founded in 1870 as a 10-member student group. All of the original members were veterans of the American Civil War.
- The Spartan Band was a military unit connected with the college ROTC for most of its existence. Until 1952, the band members wore military khaki uniforms. When MSU began playing Big 10 Conference football in 1952, the band, under long-time director Leonard Falcone, received its first green and white uniforms. Most of the strict military uniform codes are still adhered to today with squad leaders holding routine inspections before every performance.
- Five U.S. Presidents have been entertained by the Spartan Band: Theodore Roosevelt (1907), Herbert Hoover (1930), Franklin D. Roosevelt (1936), Lyndon Johnson (1965), and Bill Clinton (1996 & 2000).
- The Spartan Band has performed at the 1964 New York World's Fair, the 1984 New Orleans World's Fair, and in Tokyo, Japan for the 1993 Coca-Cola Bowl.
- The Spartan Marching Band Fan Club was founded in the early 80's by members including Steven Carp and Adam Mandel.
- The Spartan Band was the 1988 recipient of the Louis Sudler Trophy for collegiate marching bands, administered by the John Philip Sousa Foundation.
- The Spartan Band has toured the United States. The band has appeared in concert and on football fields in such far-flung cities as San Francisco, New York, Dallas, Chicago, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Albuquerque, St. Louis, Denver, New Orleans, Salt Lake City, Tokyo, Tucson, San Diego and Washington, D.C.
- The Spartan Marching Band was selected by ABC Sports to record the 1995 "ABC College Football Theme Music" in June 1995.
- Many Spartan Marching Band Color Guard members are also members of MSU's State of Art Winterguard, 2009 WGI Independent A Champions.
- Official website of the Spartan Marching Band Accessed 7/12/06.
- William J. Beal. History of the Michigan Agricultural College; and biographical sketches of trustees and professors. 1915, Page 246
- Spartan Marching Band Website, History page http://www.spartanband.net/history.html
- Wikipedia Page: Leonard Falcone
- Michigan State University Archives – Leonard Falcone collection
- Michigan State College of Music
-  "MSU band members march to beat of game-day success." Tara Thoel, The State News, September 27, 2006. retrieved June 21, 2007
- Off the Record (WKAR TV series)
- "Rival bands in harmony mutual respect can be heard in today's U-M. MSU game."Detroit Free Press, September 26, 1998
- Recordings, Falcone collection, Archives of Michigan State University
- "Play band! Rose Bowl's marching musicians maintain a strenuous Spartan pace," Detroit Free Press, December 31, 1987
- Tourangeau, Kelley. "Spartan Marching Band Preps for Capital One Bowl". Focal Point. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- "Band on the run: the Spartan Band family heads for the Sun Bowl." Detroit Free Press, December 31, 1990