Microsoft Research (MSR) is the research division of Microsoft created in 1991 for developing various computer science ideas and integrating them into Microsoft products. It currently employs Turing Award winners C.A.R. Hoare, Butler Lampson, and Charles P. Thacker, Fields Medal winner Michael Freedman, MacArthur Fellow Jim Blinn, Dijkstra Prize winner Leslie Lamport and many other highly recognized experts in computer science, physics, and mathematics, including Turing Award winner Jim Gray up until his highly publicized disappearance while sailing, and Loève Prize, Henri Poincaré Prize and Ostrowski Prize winner Oded Schramm until he fell to his death while climbing in the mountains.
Microsoft research is categorized into the following broad areas:
- Algorithms and theory
- Hardware development
- Human–computer interaction
- Machine learning, adaptation, and intelligence
- Multimedia and graphics
- Search, retrieval, and knowledge management
- Security and cryptography
- Social computing
- Software development
- Systems, architectures, mobility, and networking
- Computational and Systems Biology 
One of the stated goals of Microsoft Research is to "support long-term computer science research that is not bound by product cycles." MSR sponsors the Microsoft Research Fellowship for graduate students and the New Faculty Fellowship for new faculty members.
- Microsoft Research Redmond was founded on the Microsoft Redmond campus in 1991 working in buildings 112 and 113 and has now moved to their own facility in building 99. It currently has about 350 researchers and is headed by Peter Lee.
- Microsoft Research Cambridge was founded in 1997 by Roger Needham and now numbers over 100 employees. It maintains close ties to the University of Cambridge.
- Microsoft Research Asia (MSRA) was founded in Beijing in November 1998. Advanced Technology Center was initially a group of MSRA until it became an independent R&D group of Microsoft.
- Microsoft Research Silicon Valley, located in Mountain View, California, was founded in August 2001. In January 2006, the Silicon Valley lab merged with Microsoft's Bay Area Research Center (BARC) in San Francisco.
- Microsoft Israel Innovation Labs (ILabs), building on its original R&D operation in Israel which was founded in 1991 and tapping into Israel's thriving high-tech community, Microsoft inaugurated in April 2006 the Israel Research & Development Center. The Israel R&D Center is situated in two main locations - in Herzliya, heartland of Israel's high tech industry, and in Matam, Haifa, home to many graduates of the Technion, Israel's leading technology university.
- Microsoft Research India was established in January 2005 in Bangalore and headed by Dr. P. Anandan.
- Cairo Microsoft Innovation Center (CMIC) was founded in 2006 by Tarek Elabbady and currently headed by Hussein Salama.
- Microsoft Research New England was established in 2008 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, adjacent to the MIT campus.
- Microsoft Research New York was established in New York, New York on May 3, 2012 with Jennifer Chayes as Managing Director of this location (as well as the New England location). Says David Pennock, Assistant Managing Director, "We'll all be working together in consensus style here in the lab."
Microsoft Research also collaborates with and jointly operate research centers at the Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Brown University, Carnegie Mellon University, INRIA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Trento. There are also nine jointly-operated labs in China and Hong Kong.
Microsoft Research also supports research centers at many other universities.
- Research Areas
- "COSBI". Centre for Computation and Systems Biology.
- Microsoft Research Overview
- Microsoft - Israel R&D Center
- Knies, Rob. "Microsoft Research Microsoft Research Debuts N.Y.C. Lab", Microsoft Research, 2 May 2012. Retrieved on 8 May 2012.
- BSC-Microsoft Research Centre
- Microsoft Research INRIA Joint Centre
- Paff, Susan (2007-03-26). "Microsoft to create research center at CMU".
- Microsoft, CMU team up - Pittsburgh Tribune-Review
- Weisman, Robert (2004-03-22). "Microsoft's East Coast alliance". The Boston Globe.
- "The first new feature of Internet Explorer 8?". Retrieved 2007-06-08.