Mid back rounded vowel

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Mid back rounded vowel
o
ɔ̝
IPA number 307 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal) o​̞
Unicode (hex) U+006F U+031E
Sound

The mid back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. While there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid back rounded vowel between close-mid [o] and open-mid [ɔ], it is normally written o. If precision is desired, diacritics may be used, such as or ɔ̝, the former being more common. A non-IPA letter is also found.

Note that just because a language has only one non-close non-open back vowel, it still may not be a cardinal mid vowel. The Sulawesian language Tukang Besi, for example, has a close-mid [o], whereas the Moluccan language Taba has an open-mid [ɔ]; in neither language does this contrast with another open close-mid vowel. The Kensiu language spoken in Malaysia and Thailand is highly unusual in that it contrasts true-mid vowels with close-mid and open-mid vowels without differences in other parameters such as backness or roundedness.

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view
  • Its vowel height is mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel and an open vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that they're in fact near-back.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan Algherese soc [ˈso̞k] 'clog' /ɔ/ and /o/ merge into [o̞] in these dialects. See Catalan phonology
Northern
Danish[1] monolog [mo̞no̞ˈlo̞ːˀ] 'monologue' Typically transcribed /ɔ(ː)/. See Danish phonology
Dutch Amsterdam[2] och [ʔɔ̝̈ˤx] 'alas' 'Very tense, with strong lip-rounding',[2] strongly pharyngealized[3] and centralized.[2] It corresponds to [ɔˁ] in standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology
English Cardiff[4] thought [θɔ̝ːt] 'thought' Some speakers, for others it's [ʌ̈ː]. See English phonology
Cultivated Australian Close-mid [] for other speakers.
Cultivated
South African[5]
Geordie[6] Typically transcribed /ɔː/.
Scouse[7]
Received Pronunciation[8] May be as open as [ɔː] for older speakers, and is most often transcribed as such. See English phonology
Yorkshire[9] coat [kʰo̟t] 'coat' Corresponds to /əʊ/ in other British dialects. See English phonology
Finnish[10] kello [ˈke̞llo̞] 'clock' See Finnish phonology
German Standard[11] Pavillon [ˈpʰävɪljõ̞] 'pavilion' Nasalized.[11] Present only in loanwords. See German phonology
Greek ωκεανός okeanós [o̞ˌce̞ɐˈno̞s] 'ocean' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew[12] שלום [ʃäˈlo̞m] 'peace' Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script. See Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Japanese[13] ko [ko̞] 'child' See Japanese phonology
Korean[14] 보리 bori [po̞ˈɾi] 'barley' See Korean phonology
Norwegian Standard Eastern[15] lov [lo̞ːʋ] 'law' May be diphthongized to [o̞ə̯]. See Norwegian phonology
Portuguese Brazilian pororoca [po̞ɾo̞ˈɾɔ̞kɐ] 'pororoca' Unstressed vowel.[16] See Portuguese phonology
Romanian copil [ko̞ˈpil] 'child' See Romanian phonology
Russian[17] сухой About this sound [s̪ʊˈxo̞j]  'dry' See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[18] čvȏr / чво̑р [t͡ʃʋô̞ːr] 'knot' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Spanish[19] todo [ˈt̪o̞ð̞o̞] 'all' See Spanish phonology
Turkish[20] kol [kʰo̞ɫ] 'arm' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian поїзд [ˈpo̞jiz̪d̪] 'train' See Ukrainian phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[21] do [d̪o̞] 'corn tassel'

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Grønnum (1996:6)
  2. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003:132)
  3. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:132, 222 and 224)
  4. ^ Coupland (1990:95)
  5. ^ Lass (2002:116)
  6. ^ Watt & Allen (2003:268)
  7. ^ Watson (2007:357)
  8. ^ Roach (2004:242)
  9. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999:180)
  10. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:60, 66)
  11. ^ a b Mangold (2005:37)
  12. ^ Laufer (1999:98)
  13. ^ Okada (1991:94)
  14. ^ Lee (1999:121)
  15. ^ Vanvik (1979:13)
  16. ^ Corresponds to /ɔ/, or /u/ (where Brazilian dialects have [u ~ ʊ ~ o̞]), in other national variants. May be lowered to [ɔ̝ ~ ɔ] in amazofonia, nordestino, mineiro (MG) and fluminense (RJ) if not nasalized ([õ̞] does not corresponds to phoneme /õ/), or be raised and merged to /o/ in sulista, paulistano, caipira and sertanejo.
  17. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:56)
  18. ^ Landau et al. (1999:67)
  19. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:256)
  20. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999:155)
  21. ^ Merrill (2008:109)

References[edit]

  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition, ISBN 9004103406 
  • Coupland, Nikolas (1990), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Grønnum, Nina (1996), "Danish vowels: Scratching the recent surface in a phonological experiment", Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 28: 5–63 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarića, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • Laufer, Asher (1999), "Hebrew", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, pp. 96–99 
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–122, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, ISBN 978-3411040667 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–96, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X 
  • Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 239–245, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001768 
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Watson, Kevin (2007), "Liverpool English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (3): 351–360 
  • Watt, Dominic; Allen, William (2003), "Tyneside English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 267–271, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001397 
  • Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan (1999), "Turkish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 154–158, ISBN 0-521-65236-7